Cardinal (bird)

Taxobox
name = Cardinalidae


image_width = 200px
image_caption = Male Northern Cardinal
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
ordo = Passeriformes
subordo = Passeri
familia = Cardinalidae
subdivision_ranks = Genera
subdivision = "Periporphyrus"
"Saltator"
"Caryothraustes"
"Parkerthraustes"
"Rhodothraupis"
"Cardinalis"
"Pheucticus"
"Cyanocompsa"
"Passerina"
"Spiza"

The Cardinals or Cardinalidae are a family of passerine birds found in North and South America. The South American cardinals in the genus "Paroaria" are placed in another family, the Thraupidae (previously placed in Emberizidae).

These are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. The family ranges in size from the 12-cm, 11.5-gram Orange-breasted Bunting to the 25-cm, 85-gram Black-headed Saltator. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinctive appearances; the family is named for the red plumage (colored cardinal like the color of a Catholic cardinal's vestments) of males of the type species, the Northern Cardinal.

The "buntings" in this family are sometimes generically known as "tropical buntings" (though not all live in the tropics) or "North American buntings" (though there are other buntings in North America) to distinguish them from the true buntings. Likewise the grosbeaks in this family are sometimes called "cardinal-grosbeaks" to distinguish them from other grosbeaks. The name "cardinal-grosbeak" can also apply to this family as a whole.

Species list

Family: Cardinalidae

1) "Masked" clade:
* Genus "Periporphyrus"
** Red-and-black Grosbeak, "Periporphyrus erythromelas"
* Genus "Caryothraustes"
** Black-faced Grosbeak, "Caryothraustes poliogaster"
** Yellow-green Grosbeak, "Caryothraustes canadensis"
* Genus "Rhodothraupis"
** Crimson-collared Grosbeak, "Rhodothraupis celaeno"
* Genus "Cardinalis"
** Northern Cardinal, "Cardinalis cardinalis"
** Pyrrhuloxia, "Cardinalis sinuatus"
** Vermilion Cardinal, "Cardinalis phoeniceus"
* Genus "Piranga" (from Thraupidae)
** Rose-throated Tanager, "Piranga roseogularis"
** Hepatic Tanager, "Piranga flava"
** Scarlet Tanager, "Piranga olivacea"
** Summer Tanager, "Piranga rubra"
** Western Tanager, "Piranga ludoviciana"
** Flame-colored Tanager, "Piranga bidentata"
** White-winged Tanager, "Piranga leucoptera"
** Red-headed Tanager, "Piranga erythrocephala"
** Red-hooded Tanager, "Piranga rubriceps"

2) "Blue" clade:
* Genus "Amaurospiza" (from Emberizidae)
** Blue Seedeater, "Amaurospiza concolor"
** Carrizal Seedeater, "Amaurospiza carrizalensis"
** Blackish-blue Seedeater, "Amaurospiza moesta"
* Genus " Cyanocompsa "
** Ultramarine Grosbeak, "Cyanocompsa brissonii"
** Blue Bunting, "Cyanocompsa parellina"
** Blue-black Grosbeak, "Cyanocompsa cyanoides"
* Genus " Cyanoloxia "
** Glaucous-blue Grosbeak, "Cyanoloxia glaucocaerulea"
* Genus " Passerina, " North American buntings
** Blue Grosbeak, "Passerina caerulea" - sometimes separated in "Guiraca"
** Lazuli Bunting, "Passerina amoena"
** Indigo Bunting, "Passerina cyanea"
** Varied Bunting, "Passerina versicolor"
** Painted Bunting, "Passerina ciris"
** Rose-bellied Bunting, "Passerina rositae"
** Orange-breasted Bunting, "Passerina leclancherii"
* Genus "Spiza"
** Dickcissel, "Spiza americana"

3) Ant-tanager clade:
* Genus "Habia" (from Thraupidae)
** Red-crowned Ant-tanager, "Habia rubica"
** Red-throated Ant-tanager, "Habia fuscicauda"
** Sooty Ant-tanager, "Habia gutturalis"
** Black-cheeked Ant-tanager, "Habia atrimaxillaris"
** Crested Ant-tanager, "Habia cristata"
* Genus "Chlorothraupis" (from Thraupidae)
** Olive Tanager, "Chlorothraupis carmioli"
*** Carmiol's Tanager, "Chlorothraupis (c.) carmioli"
*** Olive Tanager, "Chlorothraupis (c.) frenata"
** Lemon-spectacled Tanager, "Chlorothraupis olivacea"
** Ochre-breasted Tanager, "Chlorothraupis stolzmanni"

4) "Chat" clade:
* Genus "Granatellus" (from Parulidae)
** Red-breasted Chat, "Granatellus venustus"
** Gray-throated Chat, "Granatellus sallaei"
** Rose-breasted Chat, "Granatellus pelzelni"

5) "Pheucticus" clade:
* Genus " Pheucticus "
** Yellow Grosbeak, "Pheucticus chrysopeplus"
** Golden-bellied Grosbeak, "Pheucticus chrysogaster"
** Black-thighed Grosbeak, "Pheucticus tibialis"
** Black-backed Grosbeak, "Pheucticus aureoventris"
** Rose-breasted Grosbeak, "Pheucticus ludovicianus"
** Black-headed Grosbeak, "Pheucticus melanocephalus"

Incertae sedis - these birds traditionally placed in the cardinal family are biochemically related to various tanager (Thraupidae) groups:

* Genus "Saltator", the saltators (biochemical studies suggest the saltators may be a sister group to tanagers)
** Lesser Antillean Saltator, "Saltator albicollis"
** Streaked Saltator, "Saltator striatipectus"
** Grayish Saltator, "Saltator coerulescens"
** Buff-throated Saltator, "Saltator maximus"
** Black-headed Saltator, "Saltator atriceps"
** Slate-colored Grosbeak, "Saltator grossus"
** Black-throated Grosbeak, "Saltator fuliginosus"
** Black-winged Saltator, "Saltator atripennis"
** Green-winged Saltator, "Saltator similis"
** Orinocan Saltator, "Saltator orenocensis"
** Black-cowled Saltator, "Saltator nigriceps"
** Golden-billed Saltator, "Saltator aurantiirostris"
** Thick-billed Saltator, "Saltator maxillosus"
** Masked Saltator, "Saltator cinctus"
** Black-throated Saltator, "Saltator atricollis"
** Rufous-bellied Saltator, "Saltator? rufiventris" - apparently a mountain-tanager
* Genus "Porphyrospiza" (this species appears to be related to the tanager species Band-tailed Sierra-finch)
** Yellow-billed Blue Finch, "Porphyrospiza caerulescens"
* Genus "Parkerthraustes" (this species appears to be a tanager)
** Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak, "Parkerthraustes humeralis"

Gallery

References

* Stiles and Skutch, "A guide to the birds of Costa Rica" ISBN 0-0814-9600-4
* Hilty, " Birds of Venezuela", ISBN 0-7136-6418-5
* ffrench , "Birds of Trinidad and Tobago" ISBN 0-7136-6759-1
* "National Geographic" "Field Guide to the Birds of North America" ISBN 0792268776
* Klicka, Burns & Spellman. Defining a monophyletic Cardinalini: A molecular perspective. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WNH-4P77858-1&_user=10&_coverDate=07%2F19%2F2007&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=9fc123bacd9841a07c7415bf6a3e0046] . doi|10.1016/j.ympev.2007.07.006
* [http://species.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passerine Look it up on Wikispecies.] "

External links

* [http://ibc.hbw.com/ibc/phtml/familia.phtml?idFamilia=202 Cardinalidae videos] on the Internet Bird Collectioncommons|Category:Cardinalidae|Cardinal family
* [http://www.xeno-canto.org/browse.php?query=cardinalidae Cardinalidae sounds] on xeno-canto.org


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