In personality psychology, personality refers to enduring patterns of cognition, emotion, and behavior that are activated in particular circumstances and often affect social adaptation. In
psychiatryand clinical psychology, personality pathology is characterized by adaptive inflexibility, vicious cycles of maladaptive behavior, and emotional instability under stress. In the United States and elsewhere, personality disordersare diagnosed categorically on Axis II of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorderspublished by the American Psychiatric Association.
*American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (text revision, 4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
*Millon, T. (1981). Disorders of personality. DSM-III: Axis II. New York, NY: John Wiley.
*Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102(2), 246-268.
*Westen, D. (1995). A clinical-empirical model of personality: Life after the mischelian ice age and the NEO-lithic era. Journal of Personality, 63, 495-524.
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