Luís I of Portugal

Luís I (pronounced|luˈiʃ; English: Louis), whose full name was "Luís Filipe Maria Fernando Pedro de Alcântara António Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis João Augusto Júlio Valfando de Saxe-Coburgo-Gotha e Bragança"), "the Popular" (Port. "o Popular") (Lisbon, October 31, 1838 – October 19 1889 in Cascais) was the 32nd (or 33rd according to some historians) King of Portugal and the Algarves between 1861 and 1889. He was the second son of Maria II and Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and was created Duke of Porto and Viseu.

Luís was a cultured man who wrote vernacular poetry, but otherwise had no distinguishing gifts in the political field into which he was thrust by the deaths of his brothers Pedro V and Fernando in 1861. Luís' domestic reign was a tedious and ineffective series of transitional governments called "Rotativism" formed at various times by the Progressistas (Liberals) and the Regeneradores (Conservatives – the party generally favoured by King Luís, who secured their long term in office after 1881). Despite a flirtation with the Spanish succession prior to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, Luís's reign was otherwise one of domestic stagnation as Portugal fell ever further behind the nations of western Europe in terms of public education, political stability, technological progress and economic prosperity. In colonial affairs, Delagoa Bay was confirmed as a Portuguese possession in 1875, whilst Belgian activities in the Congo (1880s) and a British ultimatum denied Portugal a land link between Angola and Mozambique at the peak of the Scramble for Africa.

Luís was mostly a man of the sciences, with a passion for oceanography. He invested great amounts of his fortune in funding research boats to collect specimens in the oceans of the world. He was responsible for the establishment of one of the World's first Aquariums, "Aquário Vasco da Gama" in Lisbon, which is still open to the public with its vast collection of maritime life forms, including a 10 meter long squid. His love for sciences and things new was passed to his two sons.


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1= 1. Luís I of Portugal
2= 2. Ferdinand II of Portugal
3= 3. Maria II of Portugal
4= 4. Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 4th Prince of Kohary
5= 5. Maria Antonia of Koháry
6= 6. Pedro I of Brazil (IV of Portugal)
7= 7. Maria Leopoldina of Austria
8= 8. Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
9= 9. Augusta Reuss-Ebersdorf
10= 10. Ferenc József, Prince of Koháry
11= 11. Maria Antonia, Countess von Waldstein
12= 12. John VI of Portugal
13= 13. Charlotte of Spain
14= 14. Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
15= 15. Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies
16= 16. Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
17= 17. Duchess Sophia Antonia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
18= 18. Heinrich XXIV, Count of Reuss-Ebersdorf
19= 19. Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg
20= 20. Ignaz II József Csabragi, Count of Koháry
21= 21. Maria Gabriela, Countess of Cavriani
22= 22. Georg Christian, Count von Waldstein
23= 23. Marie Elisabeth, Countess von Ulfeldt
24= 24. Peter III of Portugal
25= 25. Maria I of Portugal
26= 26. Charles IV of Spain
27= 27. Maria Luisa of Parma
28= 28. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
29= 29. Maria Louisa of Spain
30= 30. Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
31= 31. Marie Caroline of Austria

Marriages and descendants

Louis married Maria Pia of Savoy, daughter of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Maria Adelaide of Austria. Together they had two sons. The King also fathered one illegitimate child, born in 1874 in Lisbon, a son named Carlos August.

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