- Maria II of Portugal
Maria II Queen of Portugal and the Algarves (first time) Reign 28 May 1826 – 23 June 1828 Predecessor Pedro IV Successor Miguel Queen of Portugal and the Algarves (second time) Reign 26 May 1834 – 1853 Predecessor Miguel Successor Pedro V Duchess of Braganza Reign 24 September 1834— 28 May 1826 Predecessor Miguel I Successor Pedro II Spouse Auguste, 2nd Duke of Leuchtenberg
Ferdinand II of Portugal
Pedro V of Portugal
Luís of Portugal
Infante João, Duke of Beja
Infanta Maria Ana
Infanta Antónia, Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Infante Augusto, Duke of Coimbra
Full name Maria da Glória Joana Carlota Leopoldina da Cruz Francisca Xavier de Paula Isidora Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga House House of Braganza Father Peter IV of Portugal Mother Maria Leopoldina of Austria Born 4 April 1819
São Cristóvão Palace, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Died 15 November 1853(aged 34)
Necessidades Palace, Lisbon, Portugal
Burial Braganza Pantheon, Monastery of São Vicente de Fora, Lisbon, Portugal Religion Roman Catholic
Maria II (Rio de Janeiro, 4 April 1819 – Lisbon, 15 November 1853) was Queen regnant of Portugal from 1826 to 1828 and later from 1834 to 1853. She was Queen regnant of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. She was a member of the House of Braganza.
Born Maria da Glória Joana Carlota Leopoldina da Cruz Francisca Xavier de Paula Isidora Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga, Maria da Glória was the daughter of the future King of Portugal and first Emperor of Brazil, Pedro IV and I and his first wife Maria Leopoldina, Archduchess of Austria, herself a daughter of Emperor Francis II. Born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Maria is the only European monarch to have been born outside of Europe.
When Maria's grandfather King John VI died in March 1826, there was a succession crisis in Portugal. The king had a male heir, Peter, but Peter had proclaimed the independence of Brazil in 1822 and he was then Emperor Peter I of that country. The late king also had a younger son, Miguel, but he was exiled in Austria after leading a number of revolutions against his father and his liberal regime.
Before his death, the king had nominated his favourite daughter, Isabel Maria, to serve as regent until "the legitimate heir returned to the Kingdom" — but he had failed to specify which of his sons was the legitimate heir: Peter, the liberal Emperor of Brazil, or Miguel, the absolutist exiled prince?
Most people considered Peter to be the legitimate heir, but nobody wanted him to unite Portugal and Brazil's thrones again. The European country had been under Brazilian rule when both were part of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, established by King John VI during his stay in Rio de Janeiro from 1808 until 1820. Aware that his brother's supporters were ready to bring Miguel back and put him in the throne, Peter decided for a more consensual option; he abdicated the throne to his eldest daughter, Maria da Glória (who was only seven years old), and she should marry her uncle Miguel, who should accept the liberal constitution and act as a regent until his niece was an adult.
Miguel pretended to accept, but when he arrived in Portugal he deposed Maria and proclaimed himself King, abrogating the liberal constitution in the process. During his reign of terror, Maria traveled to many European courts, including her grandfather's in Vienna, as well as London and Paris.
Peter abdicated the Brazilian throne in 1831 in favor of his son (and Maria's younger brother, Pedro II), and from his base in the Azores he attacked Miguel, forcing him to abdicate in 1834. Maria was thereupon restored to the throne, and obtained an annulment of her betrothal.
On 26 January 1835 she married, at the age of fifteen, Auguste, Duke of Leuchtenberg, son of Eugène de Beauharnais, and grandson of Empress Josephine. However, he died only two months later on 28 March 1835.
On 1 January 1836 Maria married the cultured and able Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He received the title of King consort in 1837, in accordance with Portuguese custom, upon the birth of their first child Peter, an heir to the throne.
Maria's reign saw a revolutionary insurrection on 16 May 1846, but this was crushed by royalist troops on 22 February 1847, and Portugal otherwise avoided the European upheavals of 1848. Maria's reign was also notable for a public health act aimed at curbing the spread of cholera throughout the country. She also pursued policies aimed at raising the levels of education throughout the country.
After constant pregnancies and births, doctors warned Maria of the dangers of giving birth nearly every year. However, she ignored the risks that had killed her mother, who had died of complications following a miscarriage after many births; "If I die, I die at my post", Maria said. In 1853 she died while giving birth to her eleventh child, Prince Eugene, who also died.
Maria II is remembered as a good mother and a kind person, who always acted according to her convictions in the attempt to help her country. She was later given the surname "The Good Mother."
Marriages and issue
Maria first married Auguste Charles, 2nd Duke of Leuchtenberg, son of Eugène de Beauharnais, grandson of Empress Josephine, who died soon after arriving in Portugal. She married again; her second husband was Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, son of Prince Ferdinand Georg August of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and his wife Princess Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág.
Royal styles of
Queen Maria II of Portugal
Reference style Her Most Faithful Majesty Spoken style Your Most Faithful Majesty Alternative style Ma'am Name Birth Death Notes Auguste de Beauharnais Married in 1835 Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Married on 9 April 1836 Pedro V 16 December 1837 11 November 1861 Succeeded his mother as Peter V, the 31st (or, according to some, 32nd) King of Portugal. Luís I 31 October 1838 19 October 1889 Succeeded his brother, Pedro, as the 32nd (or, according to some, 33rd) King of Portugal. Infanta Maria 4 October 1840 Stillborn daughter. Infante João 16 March 1842 27 December 1861 Duke of Beja Infanta Maria Ana 21 August 1843 5 February 1884 Married King George of Saxony and was the mother of King Frederick August III of Saxony. Infanta Antónia 17 February 1845 27 December 1913 Married Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern and was the mother of King Ferdinand I of Romania. Infante Fernando of Portugal 23 July 1846 6 November 1861 Died of cholera at age 15. Infante Augusto 4 November 1847 26 September 1889 Duke of Coimbra Infante Leopoldo 7 May 1849 Stillborn son. Infanta Maria da Glória 3 February 1851 Died some hours after her birth. Infante Eugénio 15 November 1853 Died some hours after the death of his mother.
Ancestors of Maria II of Portugal 16. John V of Portugal 8. Peter III of Portugal 17. Mary Anne of Austria 4. John VI of Portugal 18. Joseph I of Portugal 9. Maria I of Portugal 19. Mariana Victoria of Spain 2. Pedro I of Brazil 20. Charles III of Spain 10. Charles IV of Spain 21. Maria Amalia of Saxony 5. Charlotte of Spain 22. Philip, Duke of Parma 11. Maria Luisa of Parma 23. Princess Louise-Élisabeth of France 1. Maria II of Portugal 24. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor 12. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor 25. Maria Theresa of Austria 6. Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor 26. Charles III of Spain (= 20) 13. Maria Louisa of Spain 27. Maria Amalia of Saxony (= 21) 3. Maria Leopoldina of Austria 28. Charles III of Spain (= 20) 14. Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies 29. Maria Amalia of Saxony (= 21) 7. Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies 30. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (= 24) 15. Marie Caroline of Austria 31. Maria Theresa of Austria (= 25)
See alsoMaria II of PortugalCadet branch of the House of AvizBorn: 4 April 1819 Died: 15 November 1853
Regnal titles Preceded by
Queen of Portugal and the Algarves
1826 – 1828
Queen of Portugal and the Algarves
1834 – 1853
with Ferdinand II (1836 - 1853)
Brazilian royalty New title Princess Imperial of Brazil
12 October 1822 – 2 December 1825
Princess Imperial of Brazil
7 April 1831 – 30 October 1835
New title Princess of Grão-Pará
2 December 1825 – 2 May 1826
VacantTitle next held byPrince Pedro de Alcântara Portuguese royalty New title Duchess of Porto
4 April 1833 – 31 October 1838
Monarchs of Portugal Afonsine Dynasty House of Aviz House of Aviz-Beja Philippine Dynasty House of Braganza House of Braganza-Coburg 1st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd GenerationLeonor, Queen of Denmark • Infanta Maria 4th Generation 5th GenerationConstance, Queen of Castile and León • Maria, Lady of Menezes and Orduña • Isabel, Lady of Penela • Infanta Constança • Beatriz, Lady of Lemos 6th GenerationMaria, Queen of Castile and León • Infanta Isabel • Leonor, Queen of Aragon 7th GenerationMaria, Marchioness of Tortosa • Beatriz, Countess of Alburquerque 8th GenerationBeatriz I • Infanta Branca • Isabel, Duchess of Burgundy • Infanta Branca 9th Generation 10th GenerationLeonor, Queen of Portugal and the Algarve • Isabel, Duchess of Braganza • Infanta Catarina • Saint Joana, Princess of Portugal 11th Generation 12th Generation 13th GenerationIsabella Clara Eugenia, Co-Sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands* • Catherine Michelle, Duchess of Savoy* • Infanta Maria* 14th GenerationAnna, Queen of France* • Infanta Maria* Maria Anna, Holy Roman Empress* • Infanta Margarita Francisca* 15th Generation 16th Generation 17th Generation 18th Generation 19th GenerationInfanta Maria Isabel • Mariana Vitória, Infanta of Spain • Infanta Maria Clementina 20th Generation 21st GenerationMaria II • Januária Maria, Princess Imperial of Brazil** • Infanta Paula Mariana** • Infanta Francisca** • Infanta Maria Amélia** • Maria das Neves, Duchess of San Jaime • Maria Teresa, Archduchess of Austria • Maria Josepha, Duchess in Bavaria • Adelgundes, Duchess of Guimarães • Maria Ana, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg • Maria Antónia, Duchess of Parma 22nd GenerationInfanta Maria*** • Maria Ana, Crown Princess of Saxony*** • Antónia, Princess of Hohenzollern*** • Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil** • Infanta Maria da Glória*** • Leopoldina, Princess Ludwig August of Saxe-Coburg-Kohary** • Maria Teresa, Princess Karl Ludwig of Thurn und Taxis • Isabel Maria, Princess of Thurn und Taxis • Infanta Maria Benedita • Infanta Mafalda • Maria Anna, Hereditary Princess of Thurn und Taxis • Infanta Filippa Maria • Maria Antónia, Mrs. Chanler • Maria Adelaide, Mrs. van Uden 23rd Generationnone 24th GenerationInfanta Maria Ana*** • Infanta Maria Francisca*also an infanta of Spain, **also an imperial princess of Brazil, ***also a princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess in Saxony Daughters of Pedro IMaria II of Portugal · Januária Maria, Princess Imperial and Countess of Aquila · Princess Paula · Francisca, Princess of Joinville · Princess Maria Amélia Daughters of Pedro II Princesses of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, duchesses in Saxony by marriage 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generation 4th generationPrincess Mary of Teck*** · Alexandra, Duchess of Fife*** · Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg*** · Archduchess Karoline Marie of Austria · Princess Mathilde of Bavaria 5th generationCountess Viktoria-Luise of Solms-Baruth · Denyse Henriette de Muralt^ · Johanna Károlyi de Károly-Patty^ · Edith de Kózolne^ 6th generationCarin Dabelstein^ · Freiin Gabrielle of Fürstenberg · Princess Mathilde of Saxony 7th generationKelly Rondesvedt^Founded by Ferdinand II of Portugal and Maria II of Portugal 1st generation 2nd generationCarlos I · Afonso 3rd generationGenerations are numbered from Claude de Beauharnais, seigneur de Beaumont. 1st generation 2nd generationFrançois • François VI, Marquis de La Ferté-Beauharnais m. Françoise de Beauharnais • Claude, 2nd Count of Roches-Baritaud • Anne, Countess de Barral • Alexandre, Viscount of Beauharnais m. Joséphine Tascher de La Pagerie (later Empress of the French) 3rd generation 4th generationJoséphine, Queen of Sweden and Norway** • Eugénie, Princess of Hohenzollern-Hechingen** • Auguste, Duke of Leuchtenberg** m. Queen Maria II of Portugal • Amélie, Empress of Brazil** • Théodolinde, Countess of Württemberg** • Carolina** • Maximilian, Duke of Leuchtenberg**^ m. Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia 5th generation 6th generationNicholas de Beauharnais** • Daria, Princess Leon Kotchoubey • George** • Alexander, Duke of Leuchtenberg**^ • Sergei, Duke of Leuchtenberg**^ • Elena, Countess Stefan Tyszkiewicz**^ 7th generationNicholas de Beauharnais** • Dimitri** • Nadezhda, Mrs. Mogilevsky** • Maximilian** • Natalie, Baroness Vladimir Meller-Zakomelsky** • Tamara, Mrs. Constantin Karanfilov** • Sergei** • Andrei** • Michael** • Constantine** • Marie, Countess Nikolai Mengden-Altenwoga** 8th generationElena** • Maria Magdalen, Mrs. Joseph de Pasquale** • George** • Anna, Mrs. Stout** • Eugénie Élisabeth, Mrs. von Bruch** • Xenia, Countess Dimitri Grabbe** • Olga, Mrs. Ronald Newburgh** • Olga, Mrs. Oleg Gaydeburov** • Nicholas** • Serge** • Elizabeth, Mrs. John Craft** 9th generationNicholas Maxiliam • Constantine
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