- Joseph I of Portugal
Joseph King of Portugal and the Algarves Reign 31 July 1750 – 24 February 1777 Predecessor John V of Portugal Successor Maria I of Portugal Duke of Braganza Reign 29 October 1714— 31 July 1750 Predecessor John III Successor Maria I Spouse Mariana Victoria of Spain Issue Maria I, Queen of Portugal
Infanta Mariana of Portugal
Infanta Doroteia of Portugal
Benedita, Princess of Brazil
House House of Braganza Father John V of Portugal Mother Maria Anna of Austria Born 6 June 1714
Ribeira Palace, Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Died 24 February 1777 (age 62)
Royal Palace of Sintra, Sintra, Kingdom of Portugal
Burial Monastery of São Vicente de Fora, Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Joseph I (Portuguese José, Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈzɛ]), the Reformer (Port. o Reformador), 25th (or 26th according to some historians) King of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, was born in Lisbon, on 6 June 1714.
He was the third child of King John V of Portugal and his wife Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria. Joseph had an older brother, Peter, but he died at the age of two, an older sister and three younger brothers. At the death of his elder brother, José became Prince of Brazil as the heir-apparent of the king, and 15th Duke of Braganza.
In 1729, Joseph married a Spanish Infanta, Mariana Victoria of Spain, daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, and his elder sister Barbara of Portugal married the future Ferdinand VI of Spain. Mariana Victoria loved music and hunting, but she was also a serious woman who disliked the King's affairs and did not hesitate to expose them to acquaintances. Joseph and Mariana Victoria had four daughters, two stillborn sons, one stillborn daughter and a miscarriage in 1750.
Joseph was devoted to the Church and the opera. Indeed, he had assembled one of the greatest collections of operatic scores in Europe.
King of Portugal
He succeeded to the Portuguese throne in 1750, when he was 35 years old, and almost immediately placed effective power in the hands of Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, better known today as the Marquis of Pombal. Indeed the history of Joseph's reign is really that of Pombal himself. King José also declared his eldest daughter Maria Francisca as the official heiress of the throne, and proclaimed her Princess of Brazil. By this time, the king did not believe he would have a son.
The powerful Marquis sought to overhaul all aspects of economic, social and colonial policy to make Portugal a more efficient contender with the other great powers of Europe, and thus secure his own power status as a result. A conspiracy of nobles aimed at murdering King Joseph and the Marquis gave Pombal the opportunity (some say, the pretext) to get rid of the Távora family, and to expel the Jesuits in September 1759, thus gaining control of public education and a wealth of church lands and ushering Portugal, which had been a backwater dominated by the High Aristocracy and a very conservative brand of Catholicism, into the Enlightenment age.
The reign of Joseph was also famous for the great Lisbon earthquake of November 1, 1755, in which around 100,000 people lost their lives. The earthquake caused Joseph to develop a severe case of claustrophobia and he was never again comfortable living within a walled building. Consequently, he moved the royal court to an extensive complex of tents in the hills of Ajuda. The capital was eventually rebuilt at great cost, and an equestrian statue of King Joseph still dominates Lisbon's main plaza.
With Joseph's death on 24 February 1777 the throne passed to his daughter Maria I of Portugal and Pombal's iron rule was sharply brought to an end, because she hated him very much for his arrogance and violent behaviour.
Marriage and issue
Joseph married Mariana Victoria of Spain daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, on 19 January 1729 . He had four surviving daughters, all named Maria, and a number of stillborn children.
- Maria I of Portugal (17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816) married Infante Pedro of Portugal and had issue. Later queen of Portugal.
- Mariana Francisca of Portugal (7 October 1736 – 6 May 1813) potential bride for Louis, Dauphin of France, but her mother refused to consent the marriage, died unmarried.
- Infanta Doroteia of Portugal (21 September 1739 – 14 January 1771) potential bride for Philippe Égalité but she refused to married him, died unmarried.
- Infanta Benedita of Portugal (25 July 1746 – 18 August 1829) married Infante Joseph, Prince of Beira, no issue.
Ancestors of Joseph I of Portugal
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 6 June 1714 – 29 October 1714 His Royal Highness the Infante José of Portugal
- 29 October 1714 – 31 July 1750 His Royal Highness the Prince of Brazil, Duke of Braganza
- 31 July 1750 – 24 February 1777 His Most Faithful Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves
Infantes of Portugal 1st GenerationInfante Henrique • Sancho I • Infante João 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation 5th GenerationInfante Afonso, Lord of Leiria • Afonso IV 6th GenerationInfante Afonso • Infante Dinis • Peter I • Infante João 7th Generation 8th Generation 9th Generation 10th Generation 11th GenerationAfonso, Prince of Portugal • Infante João • Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal and Asturias^ • John III • Infante Luís, 5th Duke of Beja • Infante Fernando, Duke of Guarda and Trancoso • Cardinal-Infante Afonso • Henry, The Cardinal-King • Infante Duarte, 4th Duke of Guimarães • Infante António • Infante Carlos 12th GenerationAfonso, Prince of Portugal • Manuel, Prince of Portugal • Filipe, Prince of Portugal • Infante Dinis • John Manuel, Prince of Portugal • Infante António 13th Generation 14th Generation 15th GenerationBalthasar Charles, Prince of Portugal and Asturias* • Infante Francisco Fernando* • Teodósio, 1st Prince of Brazil • Afonso VI • Peter II 16th GenerationJoão, 3rd Prince of Brazil • John V • Infante Francisco, 7th Duke of Beja • Infante António • Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém • 17th GenerationPedro, 5th Prince of Brazil • Joseph I • Infante Carlos • Peter III 18th Generationnone 19th Generation 20th Generation 21st Generation 22nd Generation 23rd Generation 24th Generation^also an infante of Castile and León, Aragon, Sicily and Naples, *also an infante of Spain, **claimant infante, ^^only prince or infante by marriage Princes of Brazil Monarchs of Portugal Afonsine Dynasty House of Aviz House of Aviz-Beja Philippine Dynasty House of Braganza House of Braganza-Coburg
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