List of Roman Emperors

:"For a simplified list see: Concise list of Roman Emperors". For more information, see History of the Roman Empire.Infobox Former Emperorship
realm = the Roman Empire
insignia = Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg
insigniasize = 120px
insigniacaption = Coat of Arms of the Roman Empire

caption = Augustus of Prima Porta
first_emperor = Augustus Caesar
last_emperor = Romulus Augustus
style =
residence =
appointer =
began = 27 BC
ended = 476 AD
The Roman Empire is a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean. The Roman Empire is considered to have begun with the creation of the Principate in 27 BC when Augustus began skillfully centralizing power, bringing an end to the Republic of Rome in fact but not appearance. Roman citizens would go on considering themselves under a republic for another 300 years.

The Latin term "Imperium Romanum" (Roman Empire), the best-known Latin expression was the word "imperium" denotes a territory known as homoland, indicates the part of the world under Roman rule. Roman expansion began in the days of the Republic with their war with Carthage, but reached its zenith under Emperor Trajan. At this territorial peak, the Roman Empire controlled approximately 5,900,000 km² (2,300,000 sq mi) of the earth's surface.cite web
title=The Roman Empire and its citizens

The Five Good Emperors is a term that refers to five consecutive emperors of the Roman EmpireNerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. The term is first coined by the political philosopher, Niccolò Machiavelli, in 1503::"From the study this history we may also learn how a good government is to be established; for while all the emperors who succeeded to the throne by birth, except Titus, were bad, all were good who succeeded by adoption; as in the case of the five from Nerva to Marcus. But so soon as the empire fell once more to the heirs by birth, its ruin recommenced."Machiavelli, "Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livy", Book I, Chapter 10]

In the late 3rd century AD, after the Crisis of the Third Century, Diocletian established the practice of dividing authority between two emperors, one in the western part of the empire and one in the east, in order to better administer the vast territory. For the next century this practice continued, with occasional periods in which one emperor assumed complete control. However, after the death of Theodosius I in 395, the two halves were permanently divided between his two sons, Honorius ruled in the west while Arcadius ruled in the east. [Chester G. Starr, "A History of the Ancient World, Second Edition." Oxford University Press, 1974. pp. 670-678.] While the Eastern Empire flourished after the empire was divided the western had internal problems from the begin which lead to a civil war which would lead to the Western Roman Empires downfall in 476 AD when Odovacar took power. [Isaac Asimov. "Asimov's Chronology of the World." Harper Collins, 1989. p. 110.] The Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire lasted until 1453 with the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks. [Asimov, p. 198.] When the Eastern Empire collapsed it gave birth to the successor state Empire of Trebizond. The Empire of Trebizond was conquered by Ottoman Turks in 1461.


Julio-Claudian dynasty

Nervan-Antonian dynasty


Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty

Western Empire

Eastern Empire


*Chris Scarre, "Chronicle of the Roman Emperors", Thames & Hudson, 1995, Reprinted 2001, ISBN 0-500-05077-5
*Tacitus, "The Annals of Imperial Rome", Penguin Classics, Michael Grant Publications Ltd, 1971, Reprinted 1985, ISBN 0-14-044060-7
*Martha Ross, "Rulers and Governments of the World, Vol.1 Earliest Times to 1491", Bowker, 1978, ISBN 0-85935-021-5
*Clive Carpenter, "The Guinness Book of Kings Rulers & Statesmen", Guinness Superlatives Ltd, 1978, ISBN 0-900424-46-X
*R.F.Tapsell, "Monarchs Rulers Dynasties and Kingdoms of The World", Thames & Hudson, 1981, Reprinted 1987, ISBN 0-500-27337-5

ee also

*List of Roman dictators (501 - 44 BC)
*List of Roman usurpers
*Roman usurper
*Second Triumvirate (43 - 33 BC)

External links

* [ Biographies of Roman Emperors] .
* [ List of the Roman Emperors 27 BC - 395 AD]
* [ Portraits and fact files]
* [ The Roman Law Library] by Yves Lassard and Alexandr Koptev.

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