Henry M. Jackson
Henry Martin Jackson United States Senator
January 3, 1953 – September 1, 1983
Preceded by Harry P. Cain Succeeded by Daniel J. Evans Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Washington's 2nd district
January 3, 1941 – January 3, 1953
Preceded by Monrad C. Wallgren Succeeded by Alfred Westland 28th Chairman of the Democratic National Committee In office
Preceded by Paul M. Butler Succeeded by John Moran Bailey Personal details Born May 31, 1912
Died September 1, 1983(aged 71)
Nationality American Political party Democratic Spouse(s) Helen Jackson Occupation Lawyer Religion Christian
Henry Martin "Scoop" Jackson (May 31, 1912 – September 1, 1983) was a U.S. Congressman and Senator from the state of Washington from 1941 until his death. Jackson was an unsuccessful candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1972 and 1976.
The political philosophies and positions of Jackson, a Cold War anti-Communist Democrat, have been cited as an influence on a number of key figures associated with neoconservatism, including Paul Wolfowitz and Richard Perle. The Henry Jackson Society is named in his honor.
- 1 Background
- 2 Personal life and early career
- 3 Legislative career
- 4 National prominence and presidential campaigns
- 5 Legacy
- 6 Electoral history
- 7 Quotes
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Henry Martin Jackson was born in the home of his parents Peter and Marine Jackson in Everett, Washington. Both parents were immigrants from Norway. Peter Jackson was born Peter Gresseth, and changed his name when he immigrated. He met Marine Anderson at the Lutheran church in Everett, where they were married in 1897. Henry was the fifth and last of the Jackson children. Jackson was nicknamed "Scoop" by his sister in his childhood, after a comic strip character that he is said to have resembled.
Personal life and early career
Henry Jackson went on to graduate with a bachelor's degree from Stanford University and a law degree from the University of Washington, where he joined the Delta Chi fraternity. In 1935 (the year of his law school graduation) he was admitted to the bar and began to practice law in Everett. He found immediate success, and won election to become the prosecuting attorney for Snohomish County from 1938 to 1940, where he made a name for himself prosecuting bootleggers and gamblers.
In 1961, Jackson, called by Time the Senate's "most eligible bachelor," married Helen Hardin, a 28-year old Senate receptionist, but Jackson didn't move out of his childhood home where he lived with his unmarried sisters for several years. The Jacksons had two children, Anna Marie Laurence and Peter Jackson; Peter was most recently a speechwriter for Governor Christine Gregoire.
Jackson successfully ran for Congress as a Democrat in 1940 and took his seat in the House of Representatives with the 77th Congress on January 3, 1941. From that date forward, Jackson did not lose a congressional election.
Jackson joined the Army when the United States entered World War II, but left when Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered all Congressmen to return home or resign their seats. As a representative, he visited the Buchenwald concentration camp a few days after its liberation in 1945. He attended the International Maritime Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1945 with the American delegation, and was elected president of the same conference in 1946, when it was held in Seattle, Washington. From 1945 to 1947 Jackson was also the chairman of the Committee on Indian Affairs. In the 1952 election, Jackson relinquished his seat in the House for a run for one of Washington's Senate seats. Jackson won that election, soundly defeating Republican Senator Harry P. Cain, and remained a Senator for over thirty years. Jackson died in office in 1983 after winning re-election for the fifth time in 1982.
Though Jackson opposed the excesses of Joe McCarthy (who had traveled to Washington State to campaign against him in 1952), he also criticized Dwight Eisenhower for not spending enough on national defense, and called for more inter-continental ballistic missiles in the national arsenal. Jackson's support for nuclear weapons resulted in a primary challenge from the left in 1958, when he handily defeated Seattle peace activist Alice Franklin Bryant before winning re-election with 67 percent of the vote—a total he topped the next four times he ran for re-election.
Jackson boasted one of the strongest records on civil rights during the civil rights movement. He supported the 1957 Civil Rights Act, and the 1964 Civil Rights Act. In April 1968, responding to the tragic assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Senator Jackson gave a speech in which he talked about the legacy and injustice of inequality.
In 1963, Jackson was made chairman of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, which became the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources in 1977, a position he held until 1981. In the 1970s, Jackson joined with fellow senators Ernest Hollings and Edward Kennedy in a press conference to oppose President Gerald Ford's request that Congress end Richard Nixon's price controls on domestic oil, which had helped to cause the gasoline lines during the 1973 Oil Crisis.
Jackson authored the National Environmental Policy Act and was a leader of the fight for statehood for Alaska and Hawaii. In 1974, Jackson sponsored the Jackson-Vanik amendment in the Senate (with Charles Vanik sponsoring it in the House) which denied normal trade relations to certain countries with non-market economies that restricted the freedom of emigration. The amendment was intended to help refugees, particularly minorities, specifically Jews, to emigrate from the Soviet Bloc. Jackson and his assistant, Richard Perle, also lobbied personally for some people who were affected by this law—among them Anatoly (now Natan) Sharansky. Jackson also led the opposition within the Democratic Party against the SALT II treaty, and was one of the leading proponents of increased foreign aid to Israel.
For decades, Democrats who supported a strong international presence for the United States have been called "Scoop Jackson Democrats", the term even being used to describe contemporary Democrats such as Joe Lieberman and R. James Woolsey, Jr.
Jackson served almost his entire Senate tenure concurrently with his good friend and Democratic colleague Warren G. Magnuson. "Scoop" and "Maggie"—as they affectionately called each other—were one of the most effective delegations in the history of the United States Senate in terms of "bringing home the bacon" for their home state. Washington State received nearly one sixth of public works appropriations, even though it ranked 23rd in population.
Jackson was often criticized for his support for the Vietnam War and his close ties to the defense industries of his state. His proposal of Fort Lawton as a site for an anti-ballistic missile system was strongly opposed by local residents, and Jackson was forced to modify his position on the location of the site several times, though he continued to support ABM development. American Indian rights activists then protested Jackson's plan to give Fort Lawton to Seattle instead of returning it to local tribes, staging a sit-in. In the eventual compromise, most of Fort Lawton became Discovery Park, with 20 acres (81,000 m2) leased to United Indians of All Tribes, who opened the Daybreak Star Cultural Center there in 1977.
Opponents derided him as "the Senator from Boeing" and a "whore for Boeing" because of his consistent support for additional military spending on weapons systems and accusations of wrongful contributions from the company; in 1965, eighty percent of Boeing's contracts were military. Jackson and Magnuson's campaigning for an expensive government supersonic transport plane project eventually failed.
After his death, critics pointed to Jackson's support for Japanese American internment camps during World War II as a reason to protest the placement of his bust at the University of Washington. Jackson was both an enthusiastic defender of the evacuation and a staunch proponent of the campaign to keep the Japanese from returning to the Pacific Coast after the war.
National prominence and presidential campaigns
Jackson was not only successful as a politician in Washington State, but also found recognition on the national level, rising to the position of chairman of the Democratic National Committee in 1960 after being considered for the vice presidential ticket spot that eventually went to fellow Senator Lyndon Baines Johnson.
Jackson ran for president twice; his campaigns were noted for the hostile reception they received from the left wing of the Democratic Party. Jackson's one-on-one campaigning skills, so successful in Washington state, did not translate as well on the national stage, and even his supporters admitted he suffered from a certain lack of charisma.
1972 presidential campaign
Jackson was little known nationally when he first ran in 1972. George McGovern, who eventually won the nomination, accused Jackson of racism for his opposition to busing, despite Jackson's longstanding record on civil rights issues. Jackson's high point in the campaign was a distant third in the early Florida primary, but he failed to stand out of the pack of better known rivals, and only made real news later in the campaign as part of the "Anybody but McGovern" coalition, that raised what would be known as the "Acid, Amnesty and Abortion" questions about McGovern. Jackson suspended active campaigning in May after a weak showing in the Ohio primary and after finishing well behind McGovern, Ed Muskie, George Wallace,and Hubert Humphrey in early primaries. Jackson did reemerge at the August Democratic convention after runner up Humphrey dropped out of the race. Jackson's name was placed in nomination by Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter and he finished second in the delegate roll call, well behind nominee McGovern.
1976 presidential campaign
Jackson raised his national profile by speaking out on Soviet-U.S. relations and Middle East policy regularly, and was considered a front-runner for the nomination when he announced the start of his campaign in February 1975. Jackson received substantial financial support from Jewish-Americans who admired his pro-Israel views, but Jackson's support of the Vietnam War resulted in hostility from the left wing of the Democratic Party.
Jackson chose to run on social issues, emphasizing law and order and his opposition to busing. Jackson was also hoping for support from labor, but the possibility that Hubert Humphrey might enter the race caused unions to offer only lukewarm support.
Jackson made the fateful decision not to compete in the early Iowa caucus and New Hampshire primary, which Jimmy Carter won after liberals split their votes among four other candidates. Though Jackson won the Massachusetts and New York primaries, he dropped out on May 1 after losing the critical Pennsylvania primary to Carter by twelve points and running out of money.
Jackson died suddenly at the age of 71 in Everett of an aortic aneurysm, shortly after giving a news conference condemning the Soviet attack on Korean Air Lines Flight 007. News reports showed video of Jackson in which he was seen reflexively massaging the left side of his chest while talking, and speculated that this was his reaction to an early symptom of the fatal attack.
He was greatly mourned; Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan stated "Henry Jackson is proof of the old belief in the Judaic tradition that at any moment in history goodness in the world is preserved by the deeds of 36 just men who do not know that this is the role the Lord has given them. Henry Jackson was one of those men." Jackson is buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Everett.
- Jackson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously in 1984; Ronald Reagan called him "one of the greatest lawmakers of our century," and stated:
“ Scoop Jackson was convinced that there's no place for partisanship in foreign and defense policy. He used to say, 'In matters of national security, the best politics is no politics.' His sense of bipartisanship was not only natural and complete; it was courageous. He wanted to be President, but I think he must have known that his outspoken ideas on the security of the Nation would deprive him of the chance to be his party's nominee in 1972 and '76. Still, he would not cut his convictions to fit the prevailing style.
I'm deeply proud, as he would have been, to have Jackson Democrats serve in my administration. I'm proud that some of them have found a home here.
- In 1983, he was awarded Delta Chi of the Year.
- With his death in office, the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport was initially renamed Henry M. Jackson International Airport, but political resistance to the change led to this being reversed in favor of Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. It wasn't that the public didn't want to honor the late Senator, but rather leaders in both Seattle and Tacoma (Tacoma, in particular), fearing the loss of convention business, demanded that both cities' names be included in the name of the airport. The airport lies between the two cities in the municipality of SeaTac.
- One of Jackson's last acts as Senator was to sponsor legislation creating what became the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, which was named after him after his death.
- The Jackson family created the Henry M. Jackson Foundation to give grants to nonprofits and educational institutions. Board members have included Richard Perle, Tom Foley, and Jeane Kirkpatrick.
- The University of Washington has named the Jackson School of International Studies in his honor. However, students objecting to Jackson's hawkish views on the Cold War in the mid-1980s caused the university to move a bust of the senator to the end of an abandoned corridor until it was restored to a more prominent place outside the Jackson School in 2006.
- The US Navy Ohio class ballistic missile submarine Henry M. Jackson was also named after him, in recognition of his longtime support of the nation's military.
- In 1994, the Everett School District completed construction of Henry M. Jackson High School in Mill Creek, Washington.
- The Henry M. Jackson Wilderness Area was created in his honor by the 1984 Washington Wilderness Act.
- The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs, with the cooperation of the Jackson family, awards a Henry M. "Scoop" Jackson Distinguished Service Award to individuals for their career dedication to U.S. national security. Jackson won the first award in 1982, and it was named after him after his death. Winners include Max Cleland, Joe Lieberman, Dick Cheney, Jane Harman, and Paul Wolfowitz.
Influence on neoconservatism
Jackson believed that evil should be confronted with power. His support for civil rights and equality at home, married to his opposition to détente, his support for human rights and democratic allies, and his firm belief that the United States could be a force for good in the world inspired a legion of loyal aides who went on to propound Jackson's philosophy as part of neoconservatism. In addition to Richard Perle, neoconservatives Paul Wolfowitz, Elliott Abrams, Charles Horner, and Douglas Feith were former Democratic aides to Jackson who, disillusioned with the Carter administration, supported Ronald Reagan and joined his administration in 1981, later becoming prominent foreign policy makers in the 21st-century Bush administration. Neoconservative Ben Wattenberg was a prominent political aide to Jackson's 1972 and 1976 presidential campaigns. Wolfowitz has called himself a "Scoop Jackson Republican" on multiple occasions. Many journalists and scholars across the political spectrum have noted links between Senator Jackson and modern neoconservatism.
Jackson's influence on foreign policy has been cited as foundational to the George W. Bush administration's foreign policy, and the Iraq War. Jackson biographer Robert Kaufman says "There is no question in my mind that the people who supported Iraq are supporting Henry Jackson's instincts."
Peter Beinart, author of The Good Fight: Why Liberals — and Only Liberals — Can Win the War on Terror and Make America Great Again, argues that the Democratic Party should return to Jackson's values in its foreign policy, criticizing current-day neoconservatives for failing to adopt Jackson's domestic policy views along with his foreign policy views.
The Henry Jackson Society
In 2005, the Henry Jackson Society was formed at the University of Cambridge, England. The non-partisan British group is dedicated to "pursuit of a robust foreign policy ... based on clear universal principles such as the global promotion of the rule of law, liberal democracy, civil rights, environmental responsibility and the market economy" as part of "Henry Jackson's legacy." The organisation is now based in London and hosts high-profile speaker events in the House of Commons.
Jackson Papers controversy
In 2005, twenty-two years after his death, US government officials, including three members of the Central Intelligence Agency, seized and removed several of Senator Jackson's archived documents housed at the University of Washington. Though a team of the university's staff in 1983 removed all information considered classified at the time, the officials were verifying anything still considered classified, or reclassified since then, had been removed. The documents are pending declassification at the University as of March 2005.
U.S. Senate (Class 1) elections in Washington: Results 1952–1982 Year Democrat Votes Pct Republican Votes Pct 3rd Party Party Votes Pct 3rd Party Party Votes Pct 1952 Henry M. Jackson 595,288 56.23% Harry P. Cain 460,884 43.53% Thomas C. Rabbitt Progressive 1,912 0.18% Henry Killman Socialist Labor 651 0.06% 1958 Henry M. Jackson 597,040 67.32% William B. Bantz 278,271 31.38% Henry Killman Socialist Labor 7,592 0.86% Archie G. Idso Constitution 2,257 0.26% 1964 Henry M. Jackson 875,950 72.21% Lloyd J. Andrews 337,138 27.79% 1970 Henry M. Jackson 879,385 82.43% Charles W. Elicker 170,790 16.01% William Massey Socialist Workers 9,255 0.87% Edison Fisk Buffalo 7,377 0.69% 1976 Henry M. Jackson 1,071,219 71.84% George M. Brown 361,546 24.25% Dave Smith American Independent 28,182 1.89% Richard K. Kenney Libertarian 19,373 1.30% 1982 Henry M. Jackson 943,665 68.96% Douglas Jewett 332,273 24.28% King Lysen Independent 72,297 5.28% Jesse Chiang Independent 20,251 1.48%
- "In matters of national security, the best politics is no politics."
- "I'm not a hawk or a dove. I just don't want my country to be a pigeon."
- "If you believe in the cause of freedom, then proclaim it, live it and protect it, for humanity's future depends on it."
- "The richest country in the world can afford whatever it needs for defense." (1960, campaigning for Kennedy)
- "We all want to put the brakes on the arms race...we all want to achieve arms control...but to those who say we must take risks for peace by cutting the meat from our military muscle, I say you are unwittingly risking war."
- "When we have something we feel strongly about — and in this case it is civil liberties and freedom and what this nation was founded upon, that we should do something to implement international law — and it is international law now, the right to leave a country freely and return freely — that we should put that issue of principle on the table knowing that the Russians are not going to agree to it." (1974, opposing détente)
- "I believe that international terrorism is a modern form of warfare against liberal democracies. I believe that the ultimate but seldom stated goal of these terrorists is to destroy the very fabric of democracy. I believe that it is both wrong and foolhardy for any democratic state to consider international terrorism to be 'someone else's' problem.... Liberal democracies must acknowledge that international terrorism is a 'collective problem.'" (1979, Jerusalem)
- "The danger of Americans being killed, the danger of divisiveness that would accrue from those developments ... are all too real. A superpower should not play that kind of role in a cauldron of trouble, because sooner or later we are going to get hurt." (on Reagan's 1982 decision to send troops to Lebanon)
- ^ Time: "Time weekly roundup." Retrieved April 17, 2007.
- ^ Oldham, Kit (November 1, 2003). "Voters re-elect Senator Henry Jackson and six U.S. Representatives on November 4, 1958.". HistoryLink.org. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=5583.
- ^ Peter J. Ognibene, Scoop: The Life and Politics of Henry Jackson, 1975
- ^ "The Nation: The Democrats' Liberal Hawk on Capitol Hill". Time. March 22, 1971. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,904896,00.html. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- ^ http://www.law.washington.edu/Multimedia/2008/Miller/transcript.pdf
- ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 321. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.
- ^ Meyerson, Adam. "Scoop Jackson Democrat", Hoover Institution, Policy Review, 1990.
- ^ "Media Influence on National Security Decisionmaking", Brookings Institution, 12-12-2001.
- ^ a b Boswell, Sharon; Lorraine McConaghy (September 29, 1996). "Twin towers of power". Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/centennial/september/towers.html.
- ^ Jason Vest. "The Men From JINSA and CSP", The Nation, August 15, 2002.
- ^ Alexander Cockburn. Al Gore: A User's Manual, pg. 82, 2000.
- ^ a b c Perry, Nick (May 12, 2006). ""Scoop" out of the shadows". Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002988731_scoop12m.html.
- ^ "Part VIII: White Man's Land", Eliminationism in America, "Orcinus", 01-23-2007.
- ^ a b c David Wilma and Kit Oldham (November 7, 2003). "State voters elect Dixy Lee Ray as first woman governor of Washington, re-elect Senator Henry Jackson and House incumbents, and prefer Ford to Carter on November 2, 1976.". HistoryLink.org. http://www.washington.historylink.org/output.cfm?file_id=5611.
- ^ a b c d Salam, Reihan (May 27, 2003). "Double Scoop". The New Republic Online. http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?i=express&s=salam052703.
- ^ "A Message of Discontent from Wisconsin", "AllPolitics", Time, 04-17-1972.
- ^ a b "Jimmy Carter's Big Breakthrough". Time Magazine. May 10, 1976. http://cgi.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1996/analysis/back.time/9605/10/.
- ^ "What Would Scoop Jackson Say?", Fact-O-Rama, Cybercast News Service. Retrieved June 2, 2006.
- ^ a b c d e Fryer, Alex (January 12, 2004). "Scoop Jackson's protégés shaping Bush's foreign policy". Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2001834779_jackson12m.html.
- ^ "The Henry M. "Scoop" Jackson Distinguished Service Award". Jinsa.org. September 21, 2004. http://www.jinsa.org/articles/articles.html/function/view/categoryid/1366/documentid/2173/history/3,2359,2166,1366,2173.
- ^ a b Wolfowitz, Paul (November 18, 2002). "Henry M. "Scoop" Jackson Distinguished Service Award". United States Department of Defense. http://www.defenselink.mil/speeches/2002/s20021118-depsecdef.html.
- ^ a b Borger, Julian (December 6, 2002). "Democrat hawk whose ghost guides Bush". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,854703,00.html.
- ^ a b Wasserman, Elizabeth (April 12, 2006). "Beinart Talks Back". The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200604u/beinart-liberals.
- ^ "Ronald Reagan Dies". Paula Zahn Now (CNN). Aired June 5, 2004. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0406/05/pzn.00.html. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- ^ "Empire builders: Neocon 101". The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/specials/neocon/neocon101.html.
- ^ a b (dead link?)
- ^ Kaplan, Lawrence F. "Regime Change", The New Republic, 02-19-2003.
- ^ The Washington Times, (broken link).
- ^ "Pseudo-Random Thoughts", Jim Miller on Politics, SEANET, 03-2005.
- ^ a b Harrop, Froma. "Dems Need Another Scoop Jackson", RealClearPolitics, 11-23-2005.
- ^ Shribman, David (September 3, 1983). "Senator Henry M. Jackson is dead at 71". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10713FF395C0C708CDDA00894DB484D81.
- ^ Morris, Roger (April 6, 2003). "The road the U.S. traveled to Baghdad was paved by 'Scoop' Jackson". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. http://www.seattlepi.com/opinion/115505_focus06.shtml.
- ^ "Statement of Principles", Henry Jackson Society, March 11, 2005.
- ^ (dead link?)
- ^ Bain, Lara (February 15, 2005). "CIA seizes Sen. Jackson papers". HeraldNet. Archived from the original on October 25, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061025205103/http://www.heraldnet.com/stories/05/02/15/100loc_jackson001.cfm.
- ^ Kaste, Martin (March 15, 2005). "CIA's Seizure of Files Raises Questions". Morning Edition (National Public Radio). http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4535175.
- ^ "OurCampaigns, Henry Martin "Scoop" Jackson". OurCampaigns. http://www.ourcampaigns.com/CandidateDetail.html?CandidateID=6234. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
- ^ "STATE OF THE UNION: REAGAN REPORTS TO THE NATION; PRESIDENT REAGAN'S SPEECH BEFORE JOINT SESSION OF CONGRESS". New York Times. February 5, 1986. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DE5DA1331F936A35751C0A960948260&sec=health&pagewanted=3.
- ^ "Henry “Scoop” Jackson for President 1972 Campaign Brochure", 4President.org. Retrieved 07-02-2006.
- ^ "CNN Cold War", Episode 16: Détente, Episode Script. Retrieved June 2, 2006.
- ^ Wolfowitz, Paul (November 18, 2002). "Defending the 'Ancient Dream of Freedom'". Jinsa.org. http://www.jinsa.org/articles/articles.html/function/view/categoryid/1366/documentid/1839/history/3,2359,2166,1366,1839.
- Henry M. Jackson at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Henry M. Jackson at Find a Grave
- 1972 presidential campaign brochure, at 4president.org
- Henry M Jackson Papers, at the University of Washington
- Bust of Henry Jackson, at the U.S. Senate
- Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine
- Henry M Jackson Foundation
- The Henry Jackson Society, at the University of Cambridge
United States House of Representatives Preceded by
Monrad C. Wallgren
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Washington's 2nd congressional district
January 3, 1941 – January 3, 1953
United States Senate Preceded by
Harry P. Cain
United States Senator (Class 1) from Washington
January 3, 1953 – September 1, 1983
Served alongside: Warren G. Magnuson, Slade Gorton
Political offices Preceded by
Clinton P. Anderson
Chairman of the Senate Interior and Insular Affairs Committee
Committee replaced by
Energy and Natural Resources Committee
Committee replaced Interior and Insular Affairs Committee
Chairman of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee
James A. McClure
United States Senators from Washington Class 1 Class 3 United States presidential election, 1960 Democratic Party
Convention · Primaries
Convention · Primaries
Third party and independent candidates American Vegetarian PartyNominee: Symon Gould National States' Rights Party Prohibition Party Socialist Labor Party Socialist Workers PartyNominee: Farrell Dobbs Independents and other candidates:Other 1960 elections: House · Senate United States presidential election, 1972 Republican Party
Convention · Primaries
Convention · PrimariesNominee: George McGovern
VP Nominee: Sargent Shriver
Candidates: Shirley Chisholm · Walter Fauntroy · Fred R. Harris · Vance Hartke · Wayne Hays · Hubert Humphrey · Henry M. Jackson · John Lindsay · Eugene McCarthy · Wilbur Mills · Patsy Mink · Edmund Muskie · Terry Sanford · George Wallace · Sam Yorty
Third party and independent candidates American Independent Party Communist Party USA Libertarian PartyNominee: John Hospers
VP Nominee: Tonie Nathan
People's Party Prohibition PartyNominee: E. Harold Munn Socialist Labor PartyNominee: Louis Fisher Socialist Workers Party IndependentOther 1972 elections: House · Senate United States presidential election, 1976 Democratic Party
Convention · PrimariesNominee: Jimmy Carter
VP Nominee: Walter Mondale
Candidates: Birch Bayh · Lloyd Bentsen · Jerry Brown · Robert Byrd · Hugh Carey · Frank Church · Fred R. Harris · Hubert Humphrey · Henry M. Jackson · Leon Jaworski · Barbara Jordan · Eugene McCarthy · Ellen McCormack · Walter Mondale · Jennings Randolph · Terry Sanford · Milton Shapp · Sargent Shriver · Adlai Stevenson III · Mo Udall · George Wallace
Convention · Primaries
Third party and independent candidates American PartyNominee: Thomas J. Anderson American Independent PartyNominee: Lester Maddox Communist Party USA Libertarian Party People's Party Prohibition Party Socialist Workers Party U.S. Labor PartyNominee: Lyndon LaRoucheOther 1976 elections: House · Senate · Gubernatorial
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