Chinese Soviet Republic
Chinese Soviet Republic
Unrecognized state ← 1931 - 1937 →
Capital Ruijin, later Bao'an, later Yan'an Language(s) Chinese Religion irreligious/State atheism Political structure Socialist republic Historical era Interwar period - Established 1931 - Disestablished 1937 Chinese Soviet Republic Traditional Chinese 中華蘇維埃共和國 Simplified Chinese 中华苏维埃共和国 Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin Zhōnghuá Sūwéi'āi Gònghéguó - Wade–Giles Chunghua Suwei'ai Kunghekuo - IPA [tʂʊ́ŋxwǎ sýwěɪáɪ kʊ̂ŋxɤ̌kwɔ̌]
The Chinese Soviet Republic (simplified Chinese: 中华苏维埃共和国; traditional Chinese: 中華蘇維埃共和國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Sūwéi'āi Gònghéguó), also translated as the Soviet Republic of China or the China Soviet Republic, and often referred to in historical literature as the Jiangxi Soviet (after its largest component territory the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet, seat of its central government), was a state established in November 1931 by the future Communist Party of China leader Mao Zedong, general Zhu De and others. Its other discontiguous territories were:
- Northeastern Jiangxi Soviet
- Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet
- Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi Soviet
- Hunan-Western Hubei Soviet
- Hunan-Hubei-Sichuan-Guizhou Soviet
- Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet
- Szechuan-Shensi Soviet
- Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet
- Honghu Soviet
Haifeng-Lufeng Soviet in eastern Guangdong, China's first Soviet territory, had been crushed before the declaration of the CSR and is considered more a predecessor than a constituent part.
Mao Zedong was CSR State Chair and Prime Minister - at once the Head of the State and of its Government. It was from this "small state within a state" that he gained the experience in Mobile Warfare and peasant organization that he later used to accomplish the Communist reunification of China in the late 1940s.
- 1 Establishment
- 2 The State Apparatus
- 3 Collapse of Jiangxi Soviet and Long march
- 4 Dissolution
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes and references
- 7 External links
On November 7, 1931, the anniversary of the 1917 Russian Bolshevik Revolution, with the help of the Soviet Union, a National Soviet People's Delegates Conference took place in Ruijin (瑞金), Jiangxi province, which was selected as the national capital. "Chinese Soviet Republic" (Chinese: "中華蘇維埃共和國") was born, even though the majority of China was still under the control of the nationalist Government of the Republic of China. On that day, they had an open ceremony for the new country, and Mao Zedong and other Communists attended the military parade. Because it had its own bank, printed its own money, collected tax through its own tax bureau, therefore, it is considered as the beginning of Two Chinas.
With Mao Zedong as both Head of State ("國家主席", 'State Chairman') and Government ("總理", Prime Minister), the Jiangxi Soviet gradually expanded, reaching a peak of more than 30,000 square kilometres and a population that numbered more than three million, covering considerable parts of two provinces (with Tingzhou in Fujian). Furthermore, its economy was doing better than most areas that were under the control of the Chinese warlords. In addition to the militia and guerilla, its regular Chinese Red Army alone already numbered more than 140,000 by the early 1930s, and they were better armed than most Chinese warlords' armies at the time. For example, not only did the Chinese Red Army already have modern communication means such as telephones, telegraphs and radios which most Chinese warlords' armies still lacked, it was already regularly transmitting wireless messages in codes and breaking nationalist codes. Only Chiang Kai-shek's army could match this formidable Communist force.
The Kuomintang (KMT), led by Chiang Kai-shek, felt threatened by the Soviet republic and led other Chinese warlords to have the National Revolutionary Army besiege the Soviet Republic repeatedly, launching what Chiang and his fellow nationalists called Encirclement Campaigns at the time, while the Communists called their counter attacks counter encirclement campaigns. Chiang Kai-shek's first, second and third encirclement campaigns were defeated by the Chinese Red Army led by Mao. However, after the third counter encirclement campaign, Mao was removed from the leadership and replaced by the Chinese Communists returning from the Soviet Union such as Wang Ming, and the command of the Chinese Red Army was handled by a three man committee that included Wang Ming's associates Otto Braun (Li De), the Comintern military advisor, Bo Gu, and Zhou Enlai. The Jiangxi Soviet thus began its inevitable rapid downfall under their policy of extreme leftism and incompetent military command, though the new leadership could not immediately rid itself of Mao's influence which prevailed during the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, and thus saved the Communists temporarily. However, as a result of the complete dominance the new Communist leadership achieved after the fourth counter encirclement campaign, the Red Army was nearly halved, with most its equipment lost during Chiang's fifth encirclement campaign, started in 1933 and orchestrated by his German advisors, that involved the systematic encirclement of the Jiangxi Soviet region with fortified blockhouses. This method proved to be very effective. In an effort to break the blockade, the Red Army under the orders of the three man committee besieged the forts many times but suffered heavy casualties with little success, resulting in the Jiangxi Soviet shrinking significantly in size due to the Chinese Red Army's disastrous manpower and material losses.
The State Apparatus
The Communists seemed to be doomed under the crushing blows of the nationalists. However, Zhou Enlai had previously achieved a brilliant intelligence success by planting more than a dozen moles in Chiang Kai-shek's inner circle, including at the general headquarters for the nationalist forces at Nanchang. Surprisingly, the most important of the agents, Mo Xiong (莫雄), was actually never a Communist, but his contribution eventually saved the Communist Party of China and the Chinese Red Army.
Under the recommendation of Chiang Kai-shek's secretary-general Yang Yongtai (楊永泰), who was unaware of Mo's Communist activities, Mo Xiong (莫雄) steadily excelled in Chiang Kai-shek's regime, eventually becoming an important member within Chiang Kai-shek's general headquarters in the early 1930s. In January 1934, Chiang Kai-shek named him as the administrator and commander-in-chief of the Fourth Special District in northern Jiangxi. Mo used his position to plant more than a dozen Communist agents within Chiang's general headquarters, including Liu Yafo (劉亞佛),the Communist who first introduced to the Communist Party of China, Xiang Yunian (項與年) his Communist handler, whom he hired as his secretary, and Lu Zhiying (盧志英), the Communist agent who was the acting head of the spy ring, which was directly under the command of Zhou Enlai.
After successfully besieging the adjacent regions of Ruijin, the capital of the Jiangxi Soviet, and occupying most of Jiangxi Soviet itself, Chiang was confident that he would finish off the Communists in a final decisive strike. In late September 1934, Chiang distributed his top secret plan named "Iron Bucket Plan" to everyone in his general headquarter at Lushan (the alternative summer site to Nanchang), which detailed the final push to totally annihilate the Communist forces. The plan was to build 30 blockade lines supported by 30 barbed wire fences, most of them electric, in the region 150 km around Ruijin, to starve the Communists. In addition, more than 1,000 trucks were to be mobilized to form a rapid reaction force in order to prevent any Communist breakout. Realizing the certain annihilation of the Communists, Mo Xiong (莫雄) handed the document weighing several kilograms to his Communist handler Xiang Yunian (項與年) the same night he received it, risking not only his own life, but that of his entire family.
With the help of Liu Yafo (劉亞佛) and Lu Zhiying (盧志英), the Communist agents copied the important intelligence onto four dictionaries and Xiang Yunian (項與年) was tasked to take the intelligence personally to the Jiangxi Soviet. The trip was hazardous, as the nationalist force would arrest and even execute anyone who attempted to cross the blockade. Xiang Yunian (項與年) was forced to hide in the mountains for a while, and then used rocks to knock out 4 of his own teeth, resulting in swollen face. Disguised as a beggar, he tore off the covers of the four dictionaries and hid them at the bottom of his bag with rotten food, then successfully crossed several lines of the blockade and reached Ruijin on October 7, 1934. The valuable intelligence provided by Mo Xiong (莫雄) finally convinced the Communists in Jiangxi Soviet to abandon its base and started a general retreat before Chiang could complete the building of his blockade lines with supporting barbed wire fences, and mobilizing trucks and troops, thus saving themselves from total annihilation.
Bank and currency
February 1 of 1932, National Bank of Chinese Soviet Republic was established with Mao Zemin as its president. The CSR Central Mint issued three kinds of currency, including the paper bill, the copper coin, and the silver dollar.
The Central Mint briefly issued both the paper bills and copper coins, but neither circulated for long, primarily because the currency could not be used in the rest of China.
The paper bill had the Chinese Soviet Republic (中華蘇維埃共和國) printed on the bill in traditional Chinese characters, and a picture of Vladimir Lenin.
Like the paper bill, the copper coins issued by the Central Mint also had the Chinese Soviet Republic (中華蘇維埃共和國) in the traditional Chinese character engraved, and due to the fact that the coin lasts longer than the paper bill, these coins were issued and circulated in much greater numbers. However, these coins are currently rarer than the paper bill, mainly because the copper used was in dire need to make cartridges so that these copper coins were recalled and replaced by silver dollars.
The largest and most predominant currency produced by the Central Mint was the silver dollar. Unlike the paper bills and the copper coins, the silver dollars had no Communist symbols and instead, they were the direct copy of other silver dollars produced by other mints in China, including the most popular Chinese silver dollar with Yuan Shikai's head engraved, and the eagle silver dollar of the Mexican peso. This and the fact that the coin was made of the precious metal silver, enabled them to be circulated in the rest of China and thus was the trade currency of choice.
When the Chinese Red Army's First Front began their Long March in October 1934, the Communist bank was part of the retreating force, with 14 bank employees, over a hundred coolies and a company of soldiers escorting them while they carried all of the money and mint machinery. One of the important tasks of the bank during the Long March whenever the Chinese Red Army stayed in a place for longer than a day was to tell the local population to exchange any Communist paper bills and copper coins to goods and currency used in nationalist controlled regions, so that the local population would not be persecuted by the pursuing nationalists after the Communists had left. After the Zunyi Conference, it was decided that carrying the entire bank on the march was not practical, so on January 29, 1935, at Earth Town (Tucheng, 土城), the bank employees burned all Communist paper bills and mint machinery under order. By the time the Long March had concluded in October 1935, only 8 out of the 14 original employees survived; the other 6 had died along the way.
In November 1931, the National Tax Bureau was founded.
- Red Tourism: In 2002, the original building was fixed for people to visit.
The Directorate General of Chinese Soviet Posts was founded at Ruijin on May 1st 1932. . The first stamps were designed by Huang Yaguang and printed lithographically by the Printing House of the Ministry of Finance in Ruijin. White paper or newspaper was used. They were imperforate and denominated in the Chinese Soviet silver dollar currency. They are all fairly rare and highly sought after by collectors. There are also many forgeries and bogus issues imitating the early stamps of the communist areas.
Collapse of Jiangxi Soviet and Long march
On October 10, 1934, the three-man committee Communist leadership formally issued the order of the general retreat, and on October 16, 1934, the Chinese Red Army begun what was later known as the Long March, fully abandoning the Jiangxi Soviet. 17 days after the main Communist force had already left its base, the nationalists were finally aware that the enemy had escaped after reaching the empty city of Ruijin on November 5, 1934. Contrary to the common erroneous belief, the original destination was He Long's Communist base in Hubei, and the final destination Yan'an was not decided on until much later during the Long March, well after the rise of Mao Zedong. To avoid panic, the goal was kept a secret from most people, including Mao Zedong, and the public was told that only a portion of the Chinese Red Army would be engaged in mobile warfare to defeat nationalist forces, and thus this part of the army would be renamed as the “Field Army”.
By the fall of 1934, the Communists faced total annihilation. This situation had already convinced Mao Zedong and his supporters to believe that the Communists should abandon their bases in the Jiangxi Soviet republic. However, the Communist leadership stubbornly refused to accept the inevitable failure and still daydreamed of defeating the victorious nationalist forces. The three man committee devised a plan of diversions, and then a regroup after a temporary retreat. Once the regroup was complete, a counterattack would be launched in conjunction with the earlier diversion forces, driving the enemy out of the Jiangxi Soviet.
The first movements of the retreating diversion were undertaken by Fang Zhimin. Fang Zhimin and his deputy, Xun Weizhou, were first to break through Kuomintang lines in June, followed by Xiao Ke in August. These movements surprised the Kuomintang, who were numerically superior to the Communists at the time and did not expect an attack on their fortified perimeter. However, things did not turn out as the Communists had hoped: Fang Zhimin's force was crushed after its initial success, and with Xun Weizhou killed in action, nearly every commander in this force was wounded and captured alive, including Fang Zhimin himself, and all were executed later by the nationalists. The only exception was Su Yu, who managed to escape. Xiao Ke fared no better: although his force initially managed to break through and then reached He Long's Communist base in Hubei, but even with their combined forces, they were unable to challenge the far superior nationalist force besieging the Jiangxi Soviet, never to return until the establishment of the People's Republic of China 15 years later.
The failure of the diversion forces resulted in their loss of contacts with the Jiangxi Soviet, and the Communist leadership failed to coordinate its next proper move in a timely fashion, still believing that a temporary retreat near or within the Jiangxi Soviet would allow them to recover and counterattack, eventually driving out the nationalist force.
the Main Retreating Force
The portion of the First Front Red Army engaged in the so-called mobile warfare was actually the bulk of the Communist force making a general retreat, but this force was only much diminished from its peak of more than 140,000 men army. With most of its equipment lost, many of the surviving members of the Chinese Red Army were forced to arm themselves with ancient weaponry. According to the Statistical Chart of the Field Army Personnel, Weaponry, Ammunition, and Supply completed by the Chinese Red Army on October 8, 1934, two days before the Long March begun, the Communist Long March force consisted of:
- 5 combat corps totaling 72,313 combatants:
- The 1st Corps (The largest of the five, with 19,880 combatants)
- The 3rd Corps
- The 5th Corps
- The 8th Corps (The newest and smallest of the five, with 10,922 combatants)
- The 9th Corps
- 2 Columns
- Central Committee 1st Column
- Central Committee 2nd Column
- The 5 corps and the 2 columns had a total of 86,859 combatants.
The Statistical Chart of Field Army Personnel, Weaponry, Ammunition, and Supply (Currently kept at the People's Liberation Army's Archives) also provided the weaponry and provisions prepared for the Long March, and the weapons deployed included:
- Artillery: 39 total
- Breechloading Firearms: 33,244 total (with 1,858,156 rounds of munition), and of these, a total of 29,016 were distributed to the 5 corps, including:
- Other weapons included:
- Various weapons were also deployed but their numbers were not counted, and these included:
muzzle-loading rifled muskets and smoothbore muskets
The Chinese Soviet Republic continued to exist formally after the fall of the Jiangxi Soviet, as the communists still controlled some areas like the Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Soviet. Bao'an was for a time the Soviet Republic's capital, until the communist government was moved to Yan'an. The Chinese Soviet Republic was officially dissolved on 22 September 1937, when the Chinese Communist Party issued, in the context of the Second United Front, its manifesto on unity with the Kuomintang, as the Second Sino-Japanese War was only a few weeks old. The Chinese Communist Party remained, however, de facto in control of Yan'an, which remained its stronghold for the remainder of the war with Japan.
- Two Chinas
- National Revolutionary Army
- Whampoa Military Academy
- History of the Republic of China
- Military of the Republic of China
- History of China
- Politics of the People's Republic of China
- Chinese political parties
- Futian incident
- Anti-Bolshevik League incident
- China's Red Army Marches, an English-language report on the Jiangxi Soviet
Notes and references
- ^ (Chinese) People's Daily: History of Chinese national anthems in a hundred years
- ^ The Postage Stamp Catalogue of the Chinese People's Revolutionary Period, published by Chinese Postage Stamp Museum
- ^ Lyman P. Van Slyke, The Chinese Communist movement: a report of the United States War Department, july 1945, Stanford University Press, 1968, p. 44
- Yang's Postage Stamp Catalogue of The People's Republic of China (Liberated Area)
- Preface to Fundamental Laws of the Chinese Soviet Repub
- flags from FOTW website
- 12 stamps (explanatory caption in Simplified Chinese)
Chinese Civil War Main events pre-1945 Main events post-1945 Specific articles
Part of the Cold War
- Political status of Taiwan
- Legal status of Taiwan
- Chinese reunification
- Taiwan independence
- Cross-Strait relations
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