Yuan T. Lee
Yuan Tseh Lee ( _zh. 李遠哲 ;
pinyin: Lǐ Yuǎnzhé, Wade-Giles: Li³ Yüan³-che²; pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lí Oán-tiat) (born November 19, 1936) is a chemist. He was the first Taiwanese-born Nobel Prizelaureate, who, along with the Hungarian-Canadian John C. Polanyiand American Dudley R. Herschbachwon the Nobel Prize in Chemistryin 1986 "for their contributions to the dynamics of chemical elementary processes."
Physical chemistrywork was related to the use of advanced chemical kineticstechniques to investigate and manipulate the behavior of chemical reactions for relative large molecules using crossed molecular beams. From January 15, 1994 to October 19, 2006, Lee served as the President of the Academia Sinicaof the Republic of China(ROC).
Fujianese ancestry (specifically, Rongqiao Village (榕橋村), Nan'an County (南安縣), QuanzhouCity),Fact|date=September 2007 Lee was born in Hsinchu Cityin northern Taiwanto Lee Tze-fan(李澤藩 Lǐ Zéfán), an accomplished Hsinchu-born artist, and Ts'ai P'ei (蔡配 Cài Péi), an elementary school teacherfrom Wuchi Township (梧棲鎮), Taichung County. Lee played on the baseballand ping-pongteams of Hsinchu Elementary School(新竹國小), and later studied at the Hsinchu Senior High School(新竹高中), where he played tennisand trombone. Due to his achievements in high school, he entered National Taiwan Universitywithout taking the entrance examinationand earned a B.Sc.in 1959. He earned a M.S.at National Tsing Hua Universityin 1961 and Ph.D. at the University of California, Berkeleyin 1965.
Contributions to Chemistry
In February 1967, he started working with
Dudley Herschbachat Harvard Universityon reactions between hydrogenatoms and diatomic alkalimolecules and the construction of a universal crossed molecular beams apparatus. In 1974, he returned to Berkeley as professor of chemistry and principal investigator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, becoming a U.S. citizen the same year. At Berkeley, Lee retains the title of Professor of the Graduate School Emeritus. He is also University Professor Emeritus of the University of Californiasystem.
Road to Nobel prize
One of the major goals of
chemistryis the study of material transformations where chemical kineticsplays an important role. Scientists during the 19th century stated macroscopic chemical processes consist of many elementary chemical reactions that are themselves simply a series of encounters between atomic or molecular species. In order to understand the time dependence of chemical reactions, chemical kineticists have traditionally focused on sorting out all of the elementary chemical reactions involved in a macroscopic chemical process and determiningtheir respective rates.
Svante Arrheniusstudied this phenomenon during the late 1880s, and stated the relations between reactive molecular encounters and rates of reactions (formulated in terms of activation energies).
Other scientists at the time also stated a chemical reaction is fundamentallya
mechanical event, involving the rearrangement of atoms and moleculesduring a collision. Although these initial theoretical studies were only qualitative,they heralded a new era in the field of chemical kinetics; allowing the prediction of the dynamical course of a chemical reaction.
In the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, with the development of many sophisticated experimental techniques, it became possible to study the dynamics of elementary chemical reactions in the laboratory. Such as, the analysis of the threshold operating conditions of a chemical
laseror the spectra obtained using various linear or non-linear laser spectroscopic techniques.
Professor's Lee's research focused on the possibility to control the energies of the reagents, and to understand the dependence of chemical reactivity on molecular orientation, among other studies related to the nature of reaction intermediates, decay dynamics, and identifying complex
reaction mechanisms. To do so, Professor Lee used a breakthrough laboratory techniqueat the time, called the "crossed molecular beams technique", where the information derived from the measurements of angularand velocity distributions allowed him and his team to understand the dynamics of elementary chemical reactions.
Yuan T. Lee played an important role during the 2000 ROC Presidential election. On the last week of the election he announced his support for the candidacy of
Chen Shui-bianwho subsequently won a narrow victory over Lien Chan. Chen intended to nominate Lee to become Premier, but Lee declined after deliberating for a few days. Lee has been the President of the Academia Sinica since 1994 and renounced his U.S. citizenship to take the post.
During his tenure, Lee has worked tirelessly to create new research institutes, advance scientific research within Taiwan, and to recruit and cultivate top
scholarsfor the Academic Sinica.
However, Lee remains unpopular among many students and parents who have criticized him for his involvement in educational reforms that many feel to have put unnecessary burden and administrative complications on the students and reduced competitiveness of tertiary education. His critics have often said that Lee should stick to the sciences and stop using his Nobel pedigree to influence educational and political policies, areas with which he is not familiar.
At the request of President Chen, Lee was
Chinese Taipei's representative in the 2002 APECleaders' summit in Mexico. (Presidents of the Republic of China have been barred from joining the APEC summits because of objections from the People's Republic of China.) Lee represented President Chen again in the 2003 and 2004 APEC summits in Thailandand Chile, respectively.
In January 2004, he and industrial tycoon
Wang Yung-chingand theatre director Lin Hwai-minissued a joint statement asking both Chen Shui-bian and Lien Chanto "drop hatred and extreme behavior and resort to honesty." This, and other critical statements of the President, led to speculation that he would not back Chen again in the 2004 elections until he issued a statement of support for the DPP on March 17, 3 days before polls opened.
Personal life and awards
With his wife Bernice Wu Chin-li (吳錦麗 Wú Jǐnlì), whom Lee has known since elementary school, he has 3 children: Ted (
newsbroadcasting personnel), Sidney (doctor), and Charlotte ( sociologist).
Lee was one of the four Nobelists who established the
Wu Chien-ShiungFoundation. In addition to the Nobel Prize, his awards and distinctions include Sloan Fellow(1969); Fellow of American Academy of Arts and Sciences(1975); Fellow Am. Phys. Soc. (1976); Guggenheim Fellow(1977); Member National Academy of Sciences (1979); Member International Academy of Science, Member Academia Sinica (1980); E.O. Lawrence Award (1981); Miller Professor, Berkeley (1981); Fairchild Distinguished Scholar (1983); Harrison Howe Award (1983); Peter Debye Award (1986); National Medal of Science(1986).
* [http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/laureates/1986/lee-bio.html Nobel bio]
* [http://www.cnn.com/2000/ASIANOW/east/03/14/taiwan.election.01/ CNN:Taiwanese Nobel laureate offers to be peace envoy to China]
* [http://www.sinica.edu.tw/as/asbrief.html#lee Academia Sinica profile]
* [http://chem.berkeley.edu/people/emeriti/lee.html Lee page at Berkeley]
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Yuan T. Lee — Yuan Tseh Lee Yuan Tseh Lee (né le 19 novembre 1936 à Hsinchu) est un chimiste taïwanais lauréat du prix Nobel de chimie en 1986 pour ses contributions à la dynamique des processus chimiques élémentaires. Les travaux de Lee en chimie physique… … Wikipédia en Français
Yuan Tseh Lee — au LBNL (photo prise le 21 octobre 1986). Yuan Tseh Lee (19 novembre 1936 à Hsinchu, Taïwan) est un chimiste taïwanais. Il obtint le prix Nobel de chimie de 1986 conjointement avec Dudley Robert Herschbach et John C. Polanyi pour « l … Wikipédia en Français
Yuan T. Lee — (* 19. November 1936 in Hsinchu, Taiwan) ist ein taiwanischer Chemiker. Im Jahr 1986 wurde er gemeinsam mit Dudley R. Herschbach und John C. Polanyi „für ihre Beiträge zur Dynamik von elementaren chemischen Prozessen“ mit dem Nobelpreis für… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Yuan T. Lee — Yuan Tseh Lee 李遠哲 Lee in lab, taken October 21, 1986 Nacimiento 19 de noviembre de 1936 (74 años) Hsinchu City, Taiwan … Wikipedia Español
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Chemienobelpreis 1986: Dudley Robert Herschbach — Yuan Tseh Lee — John Charles Polanyi — Die drei amerikanischen Wissenschaftler erhielten den Nobelpreis für ihre Arbeiten zur Dynamik chemischer Elementarprozesse. Biografien Dudley Robert Herschbach, * San José (Kalifornien) 18. 6. 1932; 1958 Promotion an der … Universal-Lexikon
Yuan Lee — Yuan Tseh Lee Yuan Tseh Lee (né le 19 novembre 1936 à Hsinchu) est un chimiste taïwanais lauréat du prix Nobel de chimie en 1986 pour ses contributions à la dynamique des processus chimiques élémentaires. Les travaux de Lee en chimie physique… … Wikipédia en Français
Lee (Name) — Lee ist ein häufiger in englischsprachigen Ländern sowie in Südkorea und anderen asiatischen Staaten verbreiteter Familienname, seltener auch ein Vorname. Herkunft und Bedeutung Bei dem Namen Lee handelt es sich um eine historisch bedingte… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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