Leontios

Infobox Monarch
name =Leontius
title =Emperor of the Byzantine Empire


caption =
reign =695 – 698
predecessor =Justinian II
successor =Tiberios III
dynasty =Heraclian Dynasty
date of death =705|

Leontios or Leontius ( _el. Λεόντιος, _la. LEONTIVS), (d. 705), was Byzantine emperor from 695 to 698. His actual and official name was Leo (Λέων, "Leōn"), but he is known by the name used for him in Byzantine chronicles.

Early life

Leontios (αλλιώς Πρισμένος) was born in Isauria.cite web| title=Leontius (695-98 A.D.)| publisher=De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families| month=May| year=1999| url=http://www.roman-emperors.org/leonti2.htm| accessdate=2007-10-12] A professional soldier from an early age, he rose swiftly through the ranks and was appointed strategos (military governor) of the Anatolic theme during the reign of Emperor Constantine IV.

In 686 Leontios was chosen by Justinian II to lead the Byzantine army against the Arabs in Georgia and Armenia. Ruthless even by the standards of the day, Leontios carried the war further into Azerbaijan and Albania. His successes eventually forced the negotiation of a treaty between Byzantium and the Arabic Caliph Abd al-Malik with substantial Arabic concessions and tributes to the Byzantine Emperor.

Leontios was less successful when war against the Arabs was renewed in 692. Leading a substantial Byzantine army, he was defeated at the Battle of Sebastopolis when a large Slavic contingent deserted and left his remaining forces exposed.cite book| title=The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium| first=Cyril| last=Mango| year=2002| publisher=Oxford University Press| url=http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/HistoryWorld/Ancient/General/~~/dmlldz11c2EmY2k9OTc4MDE5ODE0MDk4Ng=| isbn=9780198140986] Furious at the loss of the army, the Emperor Justinian imprisoned Leontius for two years.

Rebellion

The Emperor freed Leontios in 695 and appointed him stategos of the Helladic theme with specific responsibility for recovering land lost to the Arabs. Instead he organized a revolt against the emperor, led largely by his former prison comrades. With the help of the Blue charioteers faction, the Patriarch Kallinikos, and his own military prowess, Leontios soon deposed Justinian and seized the throne himself. Justinian's nose and tongue were slit and he was exiled to Cherson in the Crimea.cite book| title=A Short History of Byzantium| first=John Julius| last=Norwich| year=1998| publisher=Penguin Books| url=http://books.google.com.au/books?id=3IVZAAAACAAJ&dq=A+short+history+of+Byzantium| isbn=9780140259605]

Emperor

During his unpopular reign, Leontios (formally "Leo") refrained from most military operations, attempting to consolidate the empire. This inactivity and defensive posture led to Abd al-Malik dispatching an expedition to take Carthage which fell in 697. Leontios had sent a fleet to retake the city but failed at the Battle of Carthage (698).

Rather than return to report their failure the Byzantine army rebelled, overthrowing their admiral and naming a German sailor named Tiberius Apsimarus as their leader. Tiberius Apsimarus hastily changed his name to Tiberios III and the fleet returned to Constantinople where with the support of the Green charioteers faction, they overthrew Leontius in 698.

Imprisonment and death

In what had by now become a tradition for deposed emperors, Leontios had his nose and tongue slit and was imprisoned in the monastery of Psamathion in Constantinople. When the previous Emperor Justinian returned to the throne in 705, both Tiberios and Leontios were paraded through the streets while the citizenry pelted them with ordure. They were then led to the Hippodrome where they were sentenced to death and executed.

References

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Leontios — (griech. Λεόντιος) oder Leontius (latinisiert) war der Name mehrerer historischer oder mythologischer Personen. Der Name bedeutet so viel wie löwenartig. In der griechischen Antike: ein Kommandant des Ptolemaios IV., siehe Leontios (Kommandant)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Leontĭos — Leontĭos, 1) Patricier u. Feldherr des byzantinischen Kaisers Justinian II., wurde 695 n. Chr. dessen Nachfolger auf dem byzantinischen Throne u. von dem Usurpator Absimar 698 entthront u. 705 hingerichtet, s. Byzantinisches Reich. 2) L.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Leontĭos — Leontĭos, oström. Kaiser, stürzte als Feldherr 695 den Kaiser Justinian II. und schickte ihn nach Cherson in die Verbannung, wurde aber selbst schon 698 durch einen Aufstand des Heeres, das Tiberius gegen ihn zum Kaiser ausrief, gestürzt …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Leontios —    1) Magister militum of Zeno (qq.v.) who was proclaimed emperor (q.v.) in 484. He was sent by Zeno to suppress the rebellion of Illos, which was supported by Verina (q.v.). Instead, he joined forces with them and was declared emperor by Verina… …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • Leontios Trattou — (griechisch Λεόντιος Τράττου; * 11. Februar 1973) ist ein zyprischer Fußballschiedsrichter. Seit 2006 leitet er für die FIFA internationale Spiele.[1] Trattou gab am 12. September 2009 beim Spiel zwischen dem APOEL Nikosia und dem AEP Paphos …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Leontios Makhairas — or Machairas (in Greek: Λεόντιος Μαχαιράς) was a mediæval Cypriot historian. The main source of information on him is his chronicle, written in the mediæval Cypriot dialect. The chronicle documents events from the visit of Saint Helena to Cyprus… …   Wikipedia

  • Leontios of Neapolis — Leontios was Bishop of Neapolis (Limassol) in Cyprus in the 7th century A.D. Works: Life of St. John the Merciful, commissioned by the archbishop of Constantia Arcadius, Life of Symeon the holy fool,a lost Life of Spyridon and an apologia against …   Wikipedia

  • Leontios (Byzanz) — Solidus des Leontios Leontios (griechisch Λεόντιος; † 15. Februar 706 in Konstantinopel) war byzantinischer Kaiser (695–698). Sein offizieller Kaisername war Leon. Dieser Name erscheint auf seinen Münzen und in westlichen Quellen, wurde aber …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Leontios of Byzantium —    See Severos …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • Leontios of Neapolis —    See John The Almsgiver …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium


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