Floral emblem

In a number of countries, plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas. Some countries have a country-wide floral emblem; others in addition have symbols representing subdivisions. Different processes have been used to adopt these symbols - some are conferred by government bodies, whereas others are the result of informal public polls. The term floral emblem, which refers to flowers specifically, is primarily used in Australia and Canada. In the United States, the term state flower is more often used.

Contents

Africa

National flower of Ethiopia

Egypt

  • Egypt – Lotus this is the national flow

Ethiopia

Lesotho

  • Lesotho -

Liberia

Mauritius

Namibia

  • Namibia – Welwitschia mirabilis

Nigeria

  • Nigeria - Costus spectabilis

South Africa

  • South Africa – King protea

Tunisia

Zimbabwe

  • Zimbabwe – Flame lily

Asia

Nymphaea nouchali, National flower of Bangladesh

Bangladesh

The national flower and national emblem of Bangladesh is the Shapla (Bangla: শাপলা)] or White Water Lily Nymphaea nouchali)[2] See also: National Emblem of Bangladesh.

Bhutan

  • Bhutan - Blue poppy (Meconopsis grandis)

Brunei

  • Brunei – Simpor (Dillenia suffruticosa)[3]

Cambodia

China

Plum blossom or meihua (梅花)

China currently has no official national flower. Traditionally, various regions have different designations where national symbols are concerned.

In 1903, the Qing Dynasty named the peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) the floral emblem of the nation. The peony has long been considered a flower of wealth and honor in China.

The plum blossom meihua (Chinese: 梅花; pinyin: méihuā) has been long held as one of the most beloved flowers in Chinese culture. The Republic of China government named the plum blossom as the national flower in 1964.[5] The plum blossom is symbol for resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity, because plum blossoms often bloom most vibrantly even amidst the harsh winter snow.[5][6][7]

The People's Republic of China, which has controlled mainland China since 1949, has no official floral emblem. There have been several petitions in recent years to officially adopt one. However, the government has not taken any action yet. A poll in 2005 showed that 41% of the public supports peony as the national flower while 36% supported the plum blossom.[8] Some scholars have suggested that the peony and plum blossoms may be designated as dual national flowers. The orchids and chrysanthemum have also been held as possible floral symbols of China, along with the peony and plum blossoms.

Bauhinia blakeana, the floral emblem of Hong Kong

Hong Kong

The Bauhinia blakeana, a native species discovered in Hong Kong, is the floral emblem of that territory.

It was chosen as the logo of the Urban Council in 1965, and it was later incorporated in the flag and emblem of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China after the 1997 handover of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China.

Macau

The flower representing Macau is lotus, a stylised depiction of which can be seen in the territory's flag.

India

The flower of India is also the Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). The reason this flower was chosen is because it signifies that which keeps itself pure even when living in a rough environment.[9]

Kerala's state floral emblem is Cassia fistula. Tamil Nadu's floral emblem is Glory lily. Water Lily is the state flower of Andhra Pradesh. Bihar's floral emblem is Kachnaar and that of Uttarakhand is Rhododendron.

Indonesia

Jasminum sambac, the national flower of Indonesia and the Philippines

There are three categories of floral emblem that symbolize Indonesia; puspa bangsa (national flower) of Indonesia is Melati (Jasminum sambac), puspa pesona (flower of charm) is Anggrek Bulan (Moon Orchid) (Phalaenopsis amabilis[3]) and puspa langka (rare flower) is Padma Raksasa Rafflesia (Rafflesia arnoldii). All three were chosen on World Environment Day in 1990.[10] and enforced by law through Presidential Decree (Keputusan Presiden) No. 4 1993,[11] On the other occasion Bunga Bangkai (Titan arum) was also added as puspa langka together with Rafflesia.

Melati (jasminum sambac), a small white flower with sweet fragrance, has long been considered as a sacred flower in Indonesian tradition, as it symbolizes purity, sacredness, graceful simplicity and sincerity. For example, on her wedding day, a traditional Indonesian bride's hair is often adorned with arrangements of jasmine, while the groom's kris is often adorned with a lock of jasmine. However, jasmine is also often used as floral offering for spirits and deities, and also often present during funerals which gave it its mystical and sacred properties. Moon Orchid was chosen for its beauty, while the other two rare flowers, Rafflesia arnoldii and Titan arum were chosen to demonstrate uniqueness and Indonesian rich biodiversity.

Each of the 33 Provinces of Indonesia also have native plants used as floral emblems.

Iran

Iraq

The Rakefet, Israel's national flower.

Israel

The Israeli floral emblem is the Rakefet (Cyclamen; רקפת in Hebrew)

Black iris, national flower of Jordan

Jordan

The chrysanthemum, Imperial seal of Japan

Japan

Japan's national government has never formally named a "national flower", as with other symbols such as the green pheasant, which was named as national bird (by a non-government body) in 1947, but it wasn't until 1999 that the national flag and national anthem were officially passed into law.

A de facto national flower for Japan for many is the sakura or cherry blossom, while a stylised picture of a chrysanthemum is used as the official seal of the Japanese Imperial Family.

North Korea

  • Magnolia, Nonazhreea makenna Mamariaia
Rose of Sharon, the South Korean floral emblem.

South Korea

Kuwait

Laos

Laos national flower is the Plumeria (champa),[3] despite it being no longer endemic.

National flower of Malaysia

Malaysia

The national flower of Malaysia is the Bunga Raya (Chinese Hibiscus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis).[3][12]

The flower of the Eastern Malaysian state of Sarawak is the Phalaenopsis bellina, while that of the state of Kedah is the pokok padi.

Maldives

  • Maldives – Fiyaathoshi Finifenmaa, Pink Rose (Rose Polyantha)[13]

Myanmar

Nepal

Poet's Jasmine (Chameli) in full bloom, the National flower Of Pakistan.

Pakistan

The National symbols of the country constituting the nation-state such as the Poet's Jasmine (National flower of Pakistan) and Rhododendron the (State flower) and the Chinar (State tree) in the Regional state of Jammu and Kashmir (disputed territory), Deodar (National tree of Pakistan), Mango (National fruit of Pakistan),

Unofficial provincial floral emblems of Pakistan

The Provincial floral emblems of Pakistan are the symbols of the four constituting provinces of the nation-state; however they are all unofficial and are not recognised by the new Government of Pakistan.

Also See: National Emblem of Pakistan.[14]

The Philippines

The Philippines adopted the Sampaguita (Arabian jasmine, Jasminum sambac) as its national flower because it symbolises purity and cleanliness due to its colour and sweet odour.[3]

Singapore

The national flower for Singapore is the orchid Vanda Miss Joaquim.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka - Nil Mānel, Water Lily (Nymphaea stellata).[15][16] Although "Nil" means ‘blue’ in Sinhala, the Sinhalese name of this plant is often rendered as " Water Lily" in English.

This beautiful aquatic flower appears in the Sigiriya frescoes and has been mentioned in Sanskrit, Pali and Sinhala literary works since ancient times under the names "Kuvalaya", "Indhīwara", "Niluppala", "Nilothpala" and "Nilupul" as a symbol of virtue, discipline and purity. Buddhist lore in Sri Lanka claims that this flower was one of the 108 auspicious signs found on Prince Siddhartha's footprint.[17][18]

Republic of China (Taiwan)

The National Flower was officially designated as the plum blossom by the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China on July 21, 1964.[5] The plum blossom, known as the meihua (Chinese: 梅花; pinyin: méihuā), is symbol for resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity, because plum blossoms often bloom most vibrantly even amidst the harsh winter snow.[7][6] The triple grouping of stamens represents Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People, while the five petals symbolize the five branches of the government.[5][6]

Thailand

The national flower for Thailand is Golden Shower Tree, locally called dok khuen or Rachapruek[3]

Vietnam

Lotus - Floral emblem of India, Macau and Vietnam.

Eurasia

Armenia

  • Armenia – [National Flower's of Armenia, Althaea Armeniaca, Armenian Basket, Muscari Armeniacum, Armenian Poppy, Armenian Vartig (Vargit Flower), Paphiopedilum Armeniacum, Tulipa Armena ] Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca], Pomegranate and [Rubus Armeniacus], which symbolizes fertility in Armenian belief.

Cyprus

  • Cyprus – Cyprus cyclamen

Russia

Soviet Union

Turkey

Europe

Albania

Red poppy

The floral emblem of Albania is the red and black poppy. The poppy can be found everywhere in this Illyrian country, and are recognized for their beauty, medicinal value, and seeds, though they originate from Anatolia.

Austria

  • Austria - Alpine gentian (German: Enzian), edelweiss

Belarus

Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina - Lilium bosniacum

Bulgaria

Croatia

Czech Republic

Denmark

  • Denmark – Red clover

Estonia

Finland

France

The Iris is the national flower of France as represented in Fleur-de-lis emblem, the symbol of French monarchy.

Germany

Greece

Iceland

Ireland

  • The shamrock (or trefoil) is widely used as an unofficial symbol for Ireland.

County flowers in Ireland

Italy

Latvia

Lithuania

  • Lithuania - Rue

Macedonia

  • Republic of Macedonia - Poppy

Malta

Netherlands

Norway

County Flowers of Norway

  • Lily-of-the-valley was chosen as the county flower of Østfold[22]
  • Globe flower is the county flower of Troms[23]

Poland

Portugal

Romania

  • Romania - Dog Rose, Edelweiss, Romanian Peony

Russia

Serbia

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

The national flower of Spain is the carnation (clavel).

The national flower of Spain is considered to be the carnation, in Spanish clavel. Essentially it's associated with Spanish folklore, especially from southern Spain, or Andalusia.

In any case, it's not only related to the more seedy side of Spain, like gipsy's lapels or thrown into the bullringruedos, but it's also associated with Renacentist a symbol of affection between lovers[24] and especially as a religious symbol related to the Jesus passion that represents the Crown of Thorns (Clavos de Cristo).

It comes from the catalan language word for clove: "clavell" because the carnation also has a nice fragrant aroma, as does this spice.

In Spain and America it symbolizes passion, and it's a very expressive gesture to bite its stem and hold the clavel between one's teeth. In the Spanish language of flowers represents caprice[disambiguation needed ], passion, wish and desire.

Subnational flowers of Spain

Sweden

Sweden has no national floral emblem, however, each of the traditional provinces has a province flower.

Province flowers of Sweden

Switzerland

  • Switzerland – Edelweiss, alpenrose (Rhododendron ferrugineum), alpine gentian (Gentiana alpina)

Ukraine

United Kingdom

Heraldic floral badges of the United Kingdom.

Each of the four countries of the United Kingdom has a traditional floral emblem. For England this is officially the Tudor rose[26] or unofficially the red rose and English Oak; in Northern Ireland the flax, orange lily, or shamrock;[citation needed] in Scotland the thistle, Scottish bluebell (harebell) or heather; and in Wales the daffodil, leek or sessile oak.

County flowers in the United Kingdom

A county flower is a flowering plant chosen to symbolise a county. They exist primarily in the United Kingdom, but some counties in other countries also have them.

One or two county flowers have a long history in England - the Red rose of Lancashire dates from the Middle Ages, for instance. However, the county flower concept was only extended to cover the whole United Kingdom in 2002, as a promotional tool by a charity. In that year, the plant conservation charity Plantlife ran a competition to choose county flowers for all counties, to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II.

Plantlife's scheme is loosely based on Britain's historic counties, and so some current local government areas are not represented by a flower, and some of the counties included no longer exist as administrative areas. Flowers were also chosen for thirteen major cities: Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nottingham and Sheffield. The Isles of Scilly was also treated as a county (distinct from Cornwall) for the purpose of the scheme. The Isle of Man was included, but not the Channel Islands.

A total of 94 flowers was chosen in the competition. 85 of the 109 counties have a unique county flower, but several species were chosen by more than one county. Foxglove or Digitalis purpurea was chosen for four counties - Argyll, Birmingham, Leicestershire and Monmouthshire - more than any other species. The following species were chosen for three counties each:

And the following species were chosen for two counties:

In addition, Sticky Catchfly Lychnis viscaria was chosen for both Edinburgh and Midlothian, the county containing Edinburgh.

For most counties, native species were chosen, but for a small number of counties, non-natives were chosen, mainly archaeophytes. For example Hampshire has a Tudor Rose as it's county flower even though it is not a native species.

North America

Antigua and Barbuda

The national flower of Antigua and Barbuda is Agave karatto, also known as Dagger Log or Batta Log.[27]

The Bahamas

The national flower of The Bahamas is the Yellow Elder (Tecoma stans).[28]

Barbados

The national flower of Barbados is the known locally as the Pride of Barbados (Caesalpinia pulcherrima).[29]

Belize

The national flower of Belize is the Black Orchid (Prosthechea cochleata)[30]

Canada

The maple leaf is widely used as a symbol for Canada. Many Canadian flags and coat of arms have floral emblems on them. The Flag of Montreal has four floral emblems. On the right side of the Flag of Saskatchewan overlapping both green and gold halves is the western red lily, the provincial floral emblem. The Coat of Arms of Port Coquitlam has the City's floral emblem, the azalea displayed on a collar. The Coat of Arms of Prince Edward Island displays Lady's Slippers, the floral emblem of the Island. The Coat of Arms of Nova Scotia has the trailing arbutus or mayflower, the floral emblem of Nova Scotia, added when the arms were reassumed in 1929.

Alberta

British Columbia

Manitoba

New Brunswick

Newfoundland and Labrador

  • Newfoundland and Labrador - The Pitcher Plant was officially declared as the provincial flower in 1954 but had appeared on the colony's coinage as early as the 1880s. It can be found in the marshlands of the province feeding on insects that fall into its leaves and drown.

Northwest Territories

Nova Scotia

Nunavut

Ontario

Prince Edward Island

Quebec

Saskatchewan

Yukon

Floral emblem of Yukon

Costa Rica

  • Costa Rica - "Guaria morada", Guarianthe skinneri

Cuba

Dominica

  • Dominica - Caribwood or Bois Kwaib (Poitea carinalis)

Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic's national flower is the Caoba [Swietenia mahagoni] or Mahogany tree flower.

El Salvador

The national flower of El Salvador is Flor de Izote

Guatemala

Honduras

Jamaica

Jamaica – Lignum Vitae (Guaiacum officinale). And the national tree is the Blue Mahoe.

Mexico

National flower of Mexico

Nicaragua

Nicaragua's national flower is the Sacuanjoche (Plumeria alba), and was declared the country's national flower on August 17, 1971. Its name is derived from Nicarao, the name of the Nahuatl-speaking tribe which inhabited Nicaragua; "xacuan"(sacuan) means beautiful yellow petals and "xochilt"(joche) means flower. The flower can be found in the Masaya Volcano National Park among other places.

Panama

National flower of Panama

Panama's national flower is the Holy Ghost Orchid or La Flor del Espiritu Santo (Peristeria elata). It is best known for its ivory color petals, and beautiful blossoms.

Saint Kitts and Nevis

  • Saint Kitts and Nevis - Red Royal Poinciana

Trinidad and Tobago

  • Trinidad and Tobago - Chaconia (Warszewiczia coccinea)

United States

In 1986 President Ronald Reagan signed legislation to make the rose the floral emblem of the United States.[32] In the United States, state flowers and state trees have been adopted as symbols by state legislatures. (Lewis Mumford once remarked that “Our national flower is the concrete cloverleaf”.)

Oceania

Australia

The floral emblem of Australia is the Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha).

State flowers of Australia

Fiji

The national flower is "Tagimaucia" (Medinilla waterhousei), a vine with red and white flowers endemic to the highlands of the island of Taveuni.

New Zealand

The "Silver Fern" (foliage) is acknowledged as a national emblem in New Zealand. Other plant emblems are: Koru (a curled fern symbol), Kowhai (Sophora spp., native trees with yellow cascading flowers) and the crimson-flowered Pohutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa) also called New Zealand's Christmas tree.

Tonga

The "Heilala" (Garcinia sessilis), is Tonga's national flower. The name of Tonga's most popular beauty pageant, the Heilala Festival, is taken from this flower. Resorts as well as products are also often named after this flower such as the Heilala Lodge and Heilala Vanilla. The flower is also used in Tonga for medicinal and ornamental purposes.

South America

Argentina

National flower of Argentina, and Uruguay.

The national flower of Argentina is the flower of the ceibo tree, also known as seibo or bucaré (Erythrina crista-galli)[33]

Bolivia

Bolivian national flowers are Kantuta (Catua buxifolia) and patujú (Heliconia rostrata)

Brazil

The nation flower of Brazil is the Tabebuia alba flower.

Chile

Copihue, the national flower of Chile

Colombia

Cattleya trianae is the national flower of Colombia and is the Orchid which flowers in May. The May flower was chosen because the colors are the same as those of the Colombian flag.

Ecuador

Ecuador's national flower is the Rose.

Guyana

Peru

The national flower of Peru is the Cantuta (often spelled Kantuta or Qantuta, from Quechua qantu)(cantua buxifolia). It can be found at the high valleys of the Andean territory, in Peru and Bolivia.

Uruguay

Venezuela

References

  1. ^ http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/abtmtius?content_id=7c690d31693c8010VgnVCM100000ca6a12acRCRD
  2. ^ "Constitution of Bangladesh - Chapter I". Archived from the original on 2008-03-30. http://web.archive.org/web/20080330213029/http://www.pmo.gov.bd/constitution/part1.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-09. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "ASEAN National Flowers". ASEAN. http://www.asean.org/18204.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-08. 
  4. ^ "ROYAL DECREE on Designation of Animals and Plants as National Symbols of the Kingdom of Cambodia". Forestry Administration of Cambodia. http://www.forestry.gov.kh/Documents/ROYAL-DECREE-ENG.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-08. 
  5. ^ a b c d Government Information Office, Republic of China - National Flower
  6. ^ a b c National Flag, Anthem and Flower
  7. ^ a b "The Three Friends of Winter: Paintings of Pine, Plum, and Bamboo from the Museum Collection". Taipei: National Palace Museum (國立故宮博物院). http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh91/3friends/english/infor.htm. Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  8. ^ 民众呼吁尽快确定国花 梅花还是牡丹引起激辩 (Chinese: The public calls for speedy designation of national flower; debates between plum blossom and peony)
  9. ^ The Encyclopedia of religion, Volume 9‎, page-30
  10. ^ http://www.asean.org/18203.htm
  11. ^ Keputusan Presiden No. 4 Tahun 1993
  12. ^ Lian, Michelle. "Hibiscus - Malaysia's national pride". AllMalaysia.info. http://allmalaysia.info/services/printerfriendly.asp?file=/2005/2/28/people/10220245. 
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ "Information of Pakistan". Government of Pakistan. http://www.pak.gov.pk/BasicFacts.aspx. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  15. ^ "Sri Lanka National Flower". gov.lk. Government of Sri Lanka. http://www.gov.lk/info/index.asp?mi=19&xp=52&xi=56&xl=3&o=0&t=. Retrieved 2009-05-06. [dead link]
  16. ^ Zeylanica (Nymphaea stellata)
  17. ^ TokyoNet - National Statistics
  18. ^ [2]
  19. ^ [3]
  20. ^ http://www.destinations-uk.com/ireland.php?countyid=65
  21. ^ http://www.li.lv/index.php?Itemid=1065&id=65&option=com_content&task=view
  22. ^ http://www.ostfold-f.kommune.no/modules/module_123/proxy.asp?D=2&C=377&I=17148
  23. ^ http://www.tromsofoto.net/troms_county.htm
  24. ^ Clavel
  25. ^ http://www.festes.org/arxius/ginestaflornacional.pdf
  26. ^ National Flowers of the UK, 10 Downing Street. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
  27. ^ "National Symbols". Government of Antigua & Barbuda. http://www.ab.gov.ag/gov_v2/shared/about_nationalsymbols.html. 
  28. ^ "The Yellow Elder - The National Flower of the Bahamas". The Government of The Bahamas. http://www.bahamas.gov.bs/bahamasweb2/home.nsf/vContentW/4B4E97877E5B54D006256ED00001C3CB!OpenDocument&Highlight=0,elder. 
  29. ^ "The National Flower of Barbados". The Government of Barbados. http://www.gov.bb/portal/page/portal/BIG_Portal_Home_Page/BIG_Homepage_About_Barbados/BIG_HOMEPAGE_National_Information. 
  30. ^ "National Symbols". Government of Belize. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012043935/http://www.governmentofbelize.gov.bz/ab_symbols.html. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  31. ^ http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/symbl/101/117-eng.cfm#a6
  32. ^ National Flower of United States - Fresh from the Grower
  33. ^ "About Argentina". www.argentina.gov.ar. http://www.argentina.gov.ar/argentina/portal/paginas.dhtml?pagina=1470. 

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