Hume Highway

Hume Highway

Hume Freeway

Australian National Route M31.svg Australian National Route 31.svg
Proposed _to_replace_A31NSW.png to replace Australian National Route 31.svg in NSW[1]
Length 812 km (505 mi)
Direction Northeast-Southwest
From NSW M5.png South Western Motorway, Casula, Sydney
via Goulburn, Yass, Tarcutta, Albury, Wodonga, Wangaratta, Benalla, Seymour, Craigieburn
To Australian National Route M80.svg Western Ring Road, Campbellfield, Melbourne
Established 1817
Allocation Casula - Campbelltown:
NSW M5.png
Campbelltown - NSW/Vic. Border:
Australian National Route 31.svg
NSW/Vic. Border - Campbellfield:
Australian National Route M31.svg
Formerly Australian National Route 31.svg
Major junctions NSW M7mwy.png WestLink
NSW M9.png Narellan Road
Australian State Route 69.svg Appin Road
Australian Route 48.svg Illawarra Highway
Australian National Route 23.svg Federal Highway
Australian National Route 25.svg Barton Highway
Australian State Route 81.svg Lachlan Valley Way
Australian State Route 94.svg Burley Griffin Way
Australian Route 18.svg Snowy Mountains Highway
Australian National Route 20.svg Sturt Highway
Australian Route 41.svg Olympic Highway
Australian Route 58.svg Riverina Highway
Australian Alphanumeric State Route B400.svg Murray Valley Highway
Australian Alphanumeric State Route A300.svg Australian Alphanumeric State Route B300.svg Midland Highway
Australian National Route M39.svg Goulburn Valley Freeway
Australian Alphanumeric State Route B75.svg Northern Highway
Australian State Route 55.svg Sydney Road

for full list see exits and major intersections
Location Hume Hwy.svg

The Hume Highway/Hume Freeway is one of Australia's major inter-city highways, running for 880 km between Sydney and Melbourne. It is part of the Auslink National Network and is a vital link for road freight to transport goods to and from the two cities as well as serving Albury-Wodonga and Canberra.

The main alternative route between Sydney and Melbourne is the Australian Alphanumeric State Route A1.svg Australian Route 1.svg Princes Highway which follows the coast for most of its length. Other inland alternate routes include the Australian Route 41.svg Olympic Highway route between Albury and Sydney via Cowra and Bathurst, and also the Australian National Route 23.svg Federal / Australian Route 23.svg Monaro Highway route via Canberra which links with the Hume Highway near Goulburn and the Princes Highway in East Gippsland.

Contents

History

The coast of New South Wales from the Queensland border to the Victorian border is separated from the inland by an escarpment, forming the eastern edge of the Great Dividing Range. There are few easy routes up this escarpment. To climb from the coast to the tablelands the Hume Highway uses the Bargo Ramp, a geological feature which provides one of the few easy crossings of the escarpment.

In the first twenty years of European settlement at Sydney (established 1788), exploration southwest of Sydney was slow. This area was heavily wooded at the time, especially the "Bargo brush", which was regarded as almost impenetrable. In 1798 explorers (Wilson, Price, Hacking, and Collins) reached the Moss Vale and Marulan districts, but this was not followed up. Any settlement would have to await the construction of an adequate access track, which would have been beyond the colony's resources at the time, and would have served little purpose as a source of supplies for Sydney, due to the time taken to reach Sydney. In 1804, Charles Throsby penetrated through the Bargo brush to the country on the tablelands near Moss Vale and Sutton Forest. On another expedition in 1818, he reached Lake Bathurst and the "Goulburn Plains".[2] Many of the early explorers would most likely have used aboriginal guides, but they do not appear to have given them credit.

After Charles Throsby's 1818 journey towards present day Goulburn, followed by Hamilton Hume and William Hovell's overland journey from Appin (near Campbelltown) to Port Phillip and return in 1824, development of the Southern Tablelands for agriculture was rapid. The present route of the Hume Highway is much the same as that used by the pioneers.

The route taken by the Hume Highway to climb from the coast to the Southern Tablelands and thence across the Great Divide is situated between the parallel river gorge systems of the Wollondilly and Shoalhaven Rivers. This country consists generally of a gently sloping plateau which is deeply dissected by the Nepean River and its tributaries. The route of the Highway, by using four high-level bridges to cross these gorges, avoids the Razorback Range, and has minimal earthworks. The climb from the western side of the Nepean River at Menangle up to Mittagong is fairly sustained, a fact that is hard to appreciate at high speed on the modern freeway. The highway climbs non-stop over a distance of 16 km from the Pheasant's Nest bridge over the Nepean River to Yerrinbool, before dropping slightly before the final climb to reach the tablelands at Aylmerton.

Early road construction

Governor Lachlan Macquarie ordered the construction of a road, which became known as the Great South Road (the basis of the northern end of the Hume Highway) in 1819 from Picton to the Goulburn Plains and he travelled to Goulburn in 1820, but it is unlikely that even a primitive road was finished at that time.

Towrang bridge of 1839

The Great South Road was rebuilt and completely re-routed between Yanderra and Goulburn by Surveyor-General Thomas Mitchell in 1833. The Main Roads Management Act of June 1858 declared the Great Southern Road, from near Sydney through Goulburn and Gundagai to Albury, as one of the three main roads in the colony. However, its southern reaches were described as only a 'scarcely formed bullock track' as late as 1858. The road was improved in the mid 1860s with some sections near Gundagai "metalled" and all creeks bridged between Adelong Creek (approximately 10 kilometres south of Gundagai) and Albury.[3]

Mitchell's route, except for the bypasses at Mittagong, Berrima and Marulan (dual carriageways were completed in 1986) is still largely followed by the current highway.[citation needed] Mitchell intended to straighten the route north of Yanderra, but was not granted funding, although his proposed route through Pheasants Nest has similarities to the freeway route opened in 1980.[4] Mitchell's work on the Great South Road is best preserved at Towrang Creek (10 kilometres north of Goulburn), where his stone arch culvert still stands, although it was superseded in 1965 by a concrete box culvert which in turn was superseded by the current route of the highway when it was duplicated in 1972.

In 1914 the NSW section of the highway was declared a main road. Until it was named the Hume Highway in 1928 it was known as the "Great South Road" in NSW and "Sydney Road" in Victoria. It was named after Hamilton Hume, who with William Hovell were the first Europeans to traverse an overland route between Sydney and Port Phillip, in what later became Victoria.

Route

At its Sydney end, the Hume Highway begins at Parramatta Road, in Summer Hill. This route is numbered as Australian State Route 31.svg. The first 35 km of the highway was known as Liverpool Road until August 1928, when it was renamed as part of the Hume or Great Southern Highway, as part of the creation of the NSW highway system. Sections of the highway through Sydney's suburbs continue to be also known by its former names of Liverpool Road, Sydney Road and Copeland Street (through Liverpool).

The main Hume Highway effectively commences at the junction of the M5 South Western Motorway and the Westlink M7 at Casula. Heading eastbound, the M5 provides access to Sydney Airport and the CBD; while the M7 provides access to Newcastle and Brisbane bypassing the Sydney CBD. Both of these routes are tolled.

Other than sections within the urban areas of Sydney and Melbourne, the Hume Highway is dual carriageway or freeway standard for its full length in Victoria, with three N.S.W. sections totalling 20 km, through the towns of Tarcutta, Holbrook and Woomargama. Projects to bypass these towns are presently at design stage, with construction envisaged to be completed by 2013[5].

Although (other than abovementioned three sections where town bypasses are proposed) the full length of the Hume Highway is dual carriageway (with at-grade intersections and restricted entry from adjoining land), there are considerable lengths of the highway which are of full freeway standard. Most of these sections are bypasses of the larger towns on the route, where the need to deviate the route to construct the bypass made it practical to deny access from adjoining land and thus provide full freeway conditions. In addition to these bypasses the sections between Casula (in southwestern Sydney) and Berrima (built 1973-92), and Broadford to Wallan (1976), which both were constructed as major deviations, are also of full freeway standard. The entire section in Victoria is categorised as a freeway by government roads authority VicRoads, although there a few intersections along the route that are not yet grade-separated. The speed limit on the full length of the highway, other than the three sections in New South Wales where bypasses are yet to be built, is 110 km/h.

As the Hume Freeway approaches Melbourne at the suburb of Craigieburn, 27 km north of the city centre, the Craigieburn Bypass now diverts the Hume Freeway (and the M31 designation) to the east of the former route, to terminate at the Western Ring Road/Metropolitan Ring Road Australian National Route M80.svg. This bypass was opened in two stages, in December 2004 and December 2005.

At its Melbourne end, the original alignment of the Melbourne-Sydney route followed Royal Parade northward from where it begins at its intersection with Elizabeth Street and Flemington Road. Royal Parade becomes Sydney Road at Brunswick Road and then became the Hume Highway itself at Campbellfield. This ceased to be the designated route of the Hume Highway in 1992, with the completion of Stage 1 of the Western Ring Road, at which point the designation of the southbound highway was truncated. The former highway south from the Western Ring Road to Elizabeth street is route is now numbered as Australian State Route 55.svg, and is now officially called Sydney Road (Hume Highway).

Current New South Wales Upgrading

Work commenced in January 2009 to widen both carriageways between Brooks Road and Narellan Road. This work is being undertaken in 3 stages. The first stage, widening to 4 lanes each way between Brooks Road and St Andrews Road St Andrews is expected to be completed in 2010. The second stage, widening to 4 lanes each way between St Andrews Road and Raby Road commenced in 2009 and be completed in mid 2011. The final stage, widening to 3 lanes each way between Raby Road and Narellan Road, is scheduled to commence in late 2010 (following completion of the first stage) and be completed in late 2011.[6] Construction of a pedestrian bridge over the highway to link Claymore and Woodbine is also underway. This section of the highway, opened as part of the two stages opened in October 1973 and December 1974, was originally designed for widening of the carriageways to three lanes.

Work commenced in 2009 on bypasses of Tarcutta and Woomargama, and in 2010 on a bypass of Holbrook. These three projects are scheduled to completion from 2013, and will result in dual carriageway (much to freeway standard) over the full length of the Hume Highway/Freeway.

Distances to destinations along the highway from Sydney.
Approximate road distances (in kilometres) along the Hume Freeway southwards from the Victorian border

Current Victorian Upgrade Projects

VicRoads has undertaken a planning study for the upgrading of the Hume Freeway by removal of direct access from adjoining properties and grade-separation of the intersections between Kalkallo and Beveridge. These intersections have the highest accident rate of the Hume Freeway in Victoria.[7] The study, completed in March 2009, intended to amend council planning schemes so as to reserve space for the upgrade, but no timetable has been set for the project.[8]

In addition a 4-level interchange between the Hume Freeway and the Outer Metropolitan Ring Road is proposed for construction after 2020.[9][10]

Views

Heading north from Melbourne, the road passes through the hills of the Great Dividing Range, some of which is covered with box eucalypt forest but of which much is cleared for farmland, before levelling out near Seymour to cross flat, mostly cleared farming country to Wodonga and the Victoria-New South Wales border. Victoria's landscape differs to that of the typical 'true Australian Outback', but a dry summer can leave the ground parched. Mount Buffalo can be seen in the distance to the east as the highway comes down off the Warby Range near Glenrowan, and a museum commemorating Ned Kelly is located nearby. At Wangaratta the highway passes close to the Rutherglen and Milawa wine-producing areas.

Continuing north, the Murray River, the south bank of which is the Victoria-New South Wales border, is crossed on the bypass of Albury-Wodonga. From Albury, the highway skirts Lake Hume and continues across undulating country generally north-east towards Holbrook and then Tarcutta. Just north of Tarcutta the highway encounters the first of several ranges which form outliers of the Great Dividing Range, and which are crossed as the highway climbs the slopes to the tablelands west of Yass. From here the highway runs eastward, to Goulburn where it again turns northeast. Most of the New South Wales countryside from Albury to Marulan has been developed for wool production, with Yass and Goulburn in particular noted for their fine wool.

Speed limits

Like most roads in Australia, the Hume Highway is speed-limited, although it was as recent as 1977 that speed limits were introduced on the section between the Federal Highway and Albury.[citation needed] The speed limit on most of the dual carriageway length of the Hume Highway is 110 km/h, with the speed limit reduced to 50 km/h through Tarcutta and Holbrook, and to 70 km/h through Woomargama (the remaining three towns yet to be bypassed).

Fixed speed camera locations

In Sydney: next to Ashfield Primary School, near Culdees Road Burwood, Willee St Enfield, Brennan St Yagoona, and Knight St Lansvale. In January 2008, fixed speed-cameras were installed in the median strip along the Craigieburn Bypass and northward to Seymour, in Victoria, at roughly 15–20 km intervals.

Point to Point speed camera on the Hume Highway in Victoria

Freeway section exits and major intersections

Hume Highway Australian National Route 31.svg
Hume Freeway Australian National Route M31.svg
South Western Freeway NSW M5.png
Northbound exits / intersections High Speed Intersection Distance to
Sydney
(km)
Distance to
Melbourne
(km)
Southbound exits / intersections High Speed Intersection
End South Western Freeway NSW M5.png
continues as South Western Motorway NSW M5.png
to Bankstown / Sydney
Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport
42 838 Start South Western Freeway NSW M5.png
from South Western Motorway NSW M5.png
and WestLink NSW M7mwy.png
Newcastle, Brisbane
WestLink NSW M7mwy.png
Liverpool
Camden Valley Way Australian State Route 89.svg
no exit 47 833 Ingleburn
Brooks Road
Denham Court, Ingleburn
Campbelltown Road Australian State Route 56.svg
48 832 no exit
no exit 52 828 Campbelltown
Campbelltown Road Australian State Route 56.svg
End Hume Highway Australian National Route 31.svg
continues as South Western Freeway NSW M5.png
58 822 Campbelltown, Penrith
Appin Road Australian State Route 69.svg
Narellan Road NSW M9.png
Camden, Campbelltown, Bulli
Narellan Road NSW M9.png
Appin Road Australian State Route 69.svg
Start Hume Highway Australian National Route 31.svg
from South Western Freeway NSW M5.png
Picton, Wollongong
Picton Road Australian State Route 88.svg
80 800 Picton, Wollongong
Picton Road Australian State Route 88.svg
Bargo, Picton
Remembrance Drive / Old Hume Highway
92 788 Bargo
Avon Dam Road
Colo Vale, Yerrinbool
Church Avenue / Old Hume Highway Australian State Route 89.svg
105 775 Yerrinbool, Colo Vale
Old Hume Highway / Church Avenue Australian State Route 89.svg
no exit 107 773 Mittagong, Bowral
Old Hume Highway Australian State Route 79.png
Richlands, Mittagong, Bowral
Wombeyan Caves Road / Old Hume Highway
115 765 no exit
Start Freeway 128 752 Berrima, Medway
Medway Road
Berrima
Mereworth Road / Old Hume Highway
End Freeway[11]
Moss Vale, Wollongong
Illawarra Highway Australian Route 48.svg
139 741 Moss Vale, Canyonleigh
Illawarra Highway Australian Route 48.svg
Exeter, Bundanoon, Service Centre
Sallys Corner Road
142 738 Exeter, Bundanoon, Service Centre
Sallys Corner Road
Heavy vehicle checking station 166 714 Marulan, Heavy vehicle checking station
George Street
Marulan, Service Centre
George Street
167 713 Service Centre
Goulburn
Sydney Road
190 690 Goulburn
Sydney Road
Goulburn
Hume Street
200 680 Goulburn
Hume Street
Canberra, Queanbeyan, Cooma
via U-turn High Speed Intersection
208 672 Barkers Lane High Speed Intersection
no exit 209 671 Canberra, Queanbeyan, Cooma
Federal Highway Australian National Route 23.svg
Breadalbane
Cullerin Road High Speed Intersection
219 661 Breadalbane
Cullerin Road High Speed Intersection
Gunning, Gundaroo
Gundaroo Road
242 638 Gunning, Collector
Gunning-Collector Road
Yass, Canberra, Queanbeyan
Barton Highway Australian National Route 25.svg
272 608 Yass, Canberra
Barton Highway Australian National Route 25.svg
Yass, Service Centre
Yass Valley Way
281 599 Yass, Service Centre
Yass Valley Way
Boorowa, Cowra
Lachlan Valley Way Australian State Route 81.svg High Speed Intersection
284 596 Boorowa, Cowra
Lachlan Valley Way Australian State Route 81.svg High Speed Intersection
Harden, Temora
Burley Griffin Way Australian State Route 94.svg High Speed Intersection
293 587 Harden, Temora
Burley Griffin Way Australian State Route 94.svg High Speed Intersection
no exit 334 546 Jugiong, Harden
Riverside Drive
Murrumburrah, Jugiong
Jugiong Road
337 543 no exit
no exit 339 541 Jugiong
Riverside Drive
Coolac, Cootamundra
Cootamundra Road
357 523 Coolac, Cootamundra
Cootamundra Road
Pettit
Coleman Street
361 519 Pettit
Gobarralong Road
Dog on the Tuckerbox, Service Centre High Speed Intersection 369 511 Dog on the Tuckerbox, Service Centre High Speed Intersection
no exit 373 507 Gundagai
West Street
Gundagai
Sheridan Street
376 504 Gundagai
Sheridan Street
South Gundagai
Cross Street
378 502 South Gundagai
Middle Street
South Gundagai
Mount Street
Tumblong
Grahamstown Road High Speed Intersection
389 491 Tumblong
Grahamstown Road High Speed Intersection
Adelong, Tumut, Cooma
Snowy Mountains Highway Australian Route 18.svg
403 477 Adelong, Tumut
Snowy Mountains Highway Australian Route 18.svg
Wagga Wagga, Narrandera
Sturt Highway Australian National Route 20.svg High Speed Intersection
413 467 Wagga Wagga, Narrandera, Mildura, Adelaide
Sturt Highway Australian National Route 20.svg
END SINGLE CARRIAGEWAY SECTION 414 466 START SINGLE CARRIAGEWAY SECTION
Planned upgrade completion 2012
Tarcutta 421 459 Tarcutta
Holbrook 491 389 Holbrook
Woomargama 511 369 Woomargama
START SINGLE CARRIAGEWAY SECTION
Planned upgrade completion 2012
515 365 END SINGLE CARRIAGEWAY SECTION
Culcairn, Wagga Wagga, Cowra
Olympic Highway Australian Route 41.svg
535 345 Culcairn, Wagga Wagga
Olympic Highway Australian Route 41.svg
no exit 544 336 Ettamogah, Jindera
Wagga Road
Springdale Heights, Thurgoona
Thurgoona Drive
549 331 Thurgoona
Thurgoona Drive
North Albury, Wirlinga
Dallinger Road
551 329 no exit
Albury, Lake Hume, Corowa
Riverina Highway Australian Route 58.svg
555 325 Lake Hume, Albury
Riverina Highway Australian Route 58.svg
South Albury
Bridge Street
556 324 Albury
Bridge Street
Start Hume Highway Australian National Route 31.svg 558 322 End Hume Highway Australian National Route 31.svg
MURRAY RIVER MURRAY RIVER
NEW SOUTH WALES
STATE BORDER
VICTORIA
End Hume Freeway Australian National Route M31.svg 558 322 Start Hume Freeway Australian National Route M31.svg
no exit 559 321 Tallangatta
Bandiana Link Australian Alphanumeric State Route B410.png
continues as Australian National Route M31.svg 560 320 Wodonga, Albury
High Street Australian Alphanumeric State Route B400.svg Australian Alphanumeric State Route C315.png
Lincoln Causeway Australian Alphanumeric State Route C315.png
Albury, Wodonga
Lincoln Causeway Australian Alphanumeric State Route C315.png
High Street
Australian Alphanumeric State Route B400.svg Australian Alphanumeric State Route C315.png
continues as Australian National Route M31.svg Australian Alphanumeric State Route B400.svg'
no exit 562 318 Wodonga
Melrose Drive / Moloney Drive
Wodonga
Melbourne Road
564 316 no exit
continues as Australian National Route M31.svg Australian Alphanumeric State Route B400.svg 576 304 Yarrawonga, Echuca
Murray Valley Highway Australian Alphanumeric State Route B400.svg
Yarrawonga, Echuca
Murray Valley Highway Australian Alphanumeric State Route B400.svg
continues as Australian National Route M31.svg
Barnawartha, Upper Indigo
Indigo Creek Road
582 298 Barnawartha, Upper Indigo
Indigo Creek Road
Chiltern, Beechworth
Chiltern-Howlong Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C377.png /
Beechworth-Chiltern Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C377.png
591 289 Chiltern, Beechworth
Chiltern-Howlong Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C377.png /
Beechworth-Chiltern Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C377.png
Springhurst, Rutherglen
Rutherglen-Springhurst Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C376.png
603 277 Springhurst, Rutherglen
Rutherglen-Springhurst Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C376.png
Bowser, Wangaratta
Wangaratta Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C314.png
620 260 Bowser, Wangaratta
Wangaratta Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C314.png
Wangaratta, Beechworth, Bright, Mount Hotham
Great Alpine Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route B500.svg
627 253 Wangaratta, Bright, Mount Hotham
Great Alpine Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route B500.svg
Wangaratta, Greta
Greta Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C523.png
635 245 Wangaratta, Greta
Greta Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C523.png
Wangaratta
Wangaratta Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C314.png
638 242 no exit
Milawa
Snow Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C522.png
640 240 no exit
Service Centre 642 238 Service Centre
no exit 645 235 Glenrowan, Moyhu
Glenrowan-Moyhu Road
Glenrowan, Winton
Winton-Glenrowan Road
647 233 no exit
Winton, Benalla
Benalla-Winton Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C313.png
662 218 Winton, Benalla
Benalla-Winton Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C313.png
Benalla, Shepparton, Mansfield
Midland Highway Australian Alphanumeric State Route A300.svg Australian Alphanumeric State Route B300.svg
674 206 Mansfield, Shepparton
Midland Highway Australian Alphanumeric State Route B300.svg Australian Alphanumeric State Route A300.svg
Violet Town, Harrys Creek
Murchison-Violet Town Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C345.png /
Harrys Creek Road
697 183 Violet Town, Harrys Creek
Harrys Creek Road /
Murchison-Violet Town Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C345.png
Euroa
Euroa Main Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C312.png
714 166 Euroa
Euroa Main Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C312.png
Euroa
Euroa Main Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C312.png
721 159 Euroa
Euroa Main Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C312.png
Avenel, Tarcombe
Avenel-Nagambie Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C346.png /
Tarcombe Road High Speed Intersection
753 127 Tarcombe, Avenel
Tarcombe Road /
Avenel-Nagambie Road
_Australian Alphanumeric State Route C346.png High Speed Intersection
Seymour, Nagambie, Shepparton, Brisbane
Goulburn Valley Freeway Australian National Route M39.svg /
Goulburn Valley Highway Australian Alphanumeric State Route B340.svg
766 114 Seymour, Shepparton
Goulburn Valley Highway Australian Alphanumeric State Route B340.svg /
Goulburn Valley Freeway Australian National Route M39.svg
Seymour, Puckapunyal, Tooborac
Seymour-Tooborac Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C384.png
774 106 Seymour, Puckapunyal, Tooborac
Seymour-Tooborac Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C384.png
Service Centre 777 103 Service Centre
no exit 780 100 Tallarook
Upper Goulburn Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C383.png
Tallarook
Upper Goulburn Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C383.png
783 97 no exit
no exit 793 87 Broadford, Kilmore
Broadford-Kilmore Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C311.png
Broadford, Flowerdale
Strath Creek Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C382.png
794 86 no exit
Waterford Park, Clonbinane
Broadford-Wallan Road
803 77 Waterford Park, Clonbinane
Broadford-Wallan Road
Kilmore, Wandong
Epping-Kilmore Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C729.png
811 69 Wandong, Kilmore
Epping-Kilmore Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C729.png
Service Centre 815 65 Service Centre
no exit 820 60 Whittlesea, Wallan
Wallan-Whittlesea Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C727.png
Wallan, Echuca
Northern Highway Australian Alphanumeric State Route B75.svg
824 56 no exit
Beveridge
Lithgow Street
827 53 Beveridge
Old Hume Highway
Mickleham, Donnybrook
Donnybrook Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C723.PNG
835 45 Mickleham, Donnybrook
Donnybrook Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route C723.PNG
Craigieburn
Sydney Road Australian State Route 55.svg
via
Amaroo Road
839 41 Craigieburn
Sydney Road Australian State Route 55.svg
Craigieburn, Wollert
Craigieburn Road East Australian Alphanumeric State Route C722.PNG
842 38 no exit
Roxburgh Park, Epping
Cooper Street Australian State Route 58.svg
849 31 Epping, Roxburgh Park
Cooper Street Australian State Route 58.svg
Start Hume Freeway Australian National Route M31.svg
from Western Ring Road Australian National Route M80.svg
and Metropolitan Ring Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route M80.svg
854 26 Greensborough
Metropolitan Ring Road Australian Alphanumeric State Route M80.svg
End Hume Freeway Australian National Route M31.svg
continues as Western Ring Road Australian National Route M80.svg
to Melbourne / Geelong
Avalon Airport / Melbourne Airport

Source

Hume Highway on Google Maps.

Towns

The Hume Highway by-passing the Albury CBD.

Almost all towns on the Hume Highway are bypassed. In New South Wales, from Sydney, southwards to Victorian border, the bypassed towns include Campbelltown, Camden, Picton, Mittagong, Berrima, Marulan, Goulburn, Gunning, Yass, Bowning, Bookham, Jugiong, Coolac, Gundagai and Albury. The three remaining towns on the Hume Highway yet to be bypassed are Tarcutta, Woomargama and Holbrook, which are intended to be bypassed by 2012.[12]

In Victoria; all towns have been bypassed. They are, in order from the NSW border, Wodonga, Chiltern, Wangaratta, Benalla, Euroa, Violet Town, Seymour, Broadford and Craigieburn.

Camden

Camden lies 60 km south west of Sydney on the Nepean River, and the town dates from 1840. It retains a rural character with many historic buildings of interest remaining. There is an aviation museum at nearby Narellan. Urban sprawl has made Camden part of the Sydney metropolitan area.

The old route (pre-mid 1980s) of the Hume Highway runs straight west from the Cross Roads at Prestons, 4 km south of Liverpool to Carnes Hill, where it joins the route of the Cowpasture Road. It then runs southwest to Camden (the section of the former highway from the Cross Roads to Camden is now called Camden Valley Way).

Camden has been bypassed by the Hume Highway twice. The first bypass was opened in 1973, via the Macarthur Bridge, and runs from Narellan to Benkennie (South Camden). This bypass was in turn bypassed in December 1980 when the section of what was then called the South Western Freeway (route F5) from Campbelltown to Yerrinbool was opened. This linked the freeway sections from the Cross Roads to Campbelltown Rd at St Andrews (opened August 1973) and St Andrews-Camden Road (opened December 1974) to its north with the section from Yerrinbool to Aylmerton (opened May 1977) to its south.

From Camden south to Aylmerton the former highway is now named Remembrance Drive. It climbs southwards from Camden through the Razorback Ridge to Picton, then begins to climb through Tahmoor and Bargo to reach the Southern Tablelands and rejoin the present route of the Hume Highway at Aylmerton, 6 km north of Mittagong. The designation Hume Highway and national route 31 were transferred from what are now Camden Valley Way and Remembrance Drive to the freeway route in the mid 1980s and the former highway route from the Cross Roads to Aylmerton is now state route 89.

Hume Highway through Southern Highlands

An alternative route to the highway runs from Aylmerton through Mittagong and Bowral to join the Illawarra Highway at Moss Vale and then follows the Illawarra Highway through Sutton Forest to rejoin the Hume Highway at Hoddles Crossroads (named after Surveyor Robert Hoddle who also laid out the Melbourne CBD).

Mittagong

Mittagong lies 110 km south-west of Sydney, just off the Hume Highway at the edge of the Southern Tablelands. It is notable for being the location of Australia's first ironworks. Mittagong's streets are lined with various species of deciduous trees and it has a busy town centre.

Until 1992 when the Mittagong bypass was opened, the town was dominated by trucks and in winter it was also busy with skiers' traffic on the way to the Australian Alps. Today the Hume Highway bypasses Mittagong and all the towns of the Southern Tablelands. In the late 1990s, engineers detected subsidence under part of the bypass where it runs along a steep slope near the Nattai River. This was caused by features of the local geology, and mining activity at the adjacent Mount Alexandra coalmine from the 1950s to the 1970s.[13] The problem was remedied by closing one carriageway at a time and building a pair of 'land bridges' across the unstable section of the slope.

Bowral

Bowral is home to the famous Bradman Museum which not only celebrates the achievements of Bowral's favourite son, Sir Donald Bradman, but also contains a wealth of world sporting information and memorabilia. Bowral is also the setting for "Tulip Time", a Spring celebration where over 100,000 tulips and 25,000 flowers are planted in the town centre.

The population swells during winter when, thousands of visitors book into local hotels and B&Bs to enjoy romantic fires and secluded winter getaways. Spring is also very popular with gardening enthusiasts, who come to view some of the world's most beautiful formal gardens designed by eminent landscape architects such as Paul Sorensen, who designed the gardens of Invergowrie.

Key attractions are the glorious gardens, fine restaurants, many successful vineyards and fresh, local produce of a wide variety. Antique and book stores abound, as do quality fashion retailers and specialty stores.

Moss Vale

Moss Vale has several beautiful old and attractive buildings and Leighton Gardens, in the centre of the main street, is a pleasant park. It is best during spring when its flowers are in blossom or in autumn when the leaves of its exotic deciduous trees are changing colour.

Twin bridges carrying the Hume Highway over Greenhills Road north of Berrima 34°28′S 150°21′E / 34.467°S 150.35°E / -34.467; 150.35

Sutton Forest is surrounded by farms, vineyards and is home to elegant country homes and estates. It comprises a church, and inn, a couple of restaurants and one or two specialty shops.

Berrima

Berrima has flourished since it was bypassed in 1989, with tourists finding it an easy day trip from either Sydney or Canberra to enjoy the town square and the Georgian architecture of this historic town.

Marulan

The Marulan bypass was opened in 1986. The southern part of Governor Lachlan Macquarie's road of 1819 ran from Sutton Forest roughly along existing minor roads through what is now Penrose State Forest to Canyonleigh, Brayton, Carrick and Towrang, where it joined the current route to Goulburn. Branching from this route (now part of the Illawarra Highway) just west of Sutton Forest, a road, now known as Old Argyle Road, developed in the 1820s. It ran to Bungonia, via Wingello, Tallong, and the southern outskirts of Marulan.

When Thomas Mitchell rerouted the Great South Road in the 1830s, he decided to bring these two roads together to meet at old Marulan, with roads proceeding west to Goulburn and south to Bungonia. When the railway reached Marulan in 1868, the town migrated 3 km north to the railway station. Nevertheless, the old cemetery remains at the Bungonia Road intersection. A quarry is about to be developed near the intersection, so an interchange is to be built. It is at this point that the highway climbs the Marulan Ramp, which is part of the divide between the Shoalhaven and Wollondilly River systems.

Towrang Stockade

Towrang Creek was the site of a major stockade for chain-bound convicts and others involved in the construction of the Great South Road. The stockade was located on the western side of the Highway and was used from around 1836 to 1842. The stockade became the principal penal establishment in the southern district and was noted for its harsh discipline. There were usually at least 250 convicts stationed there. They slept on bare boards with a blanket apiece, 10 men to a box or cell. One of the two official floggers was later found murdered[14] The stockade used to be accessible by a stile, but this has been taken down to discourage use of the once daunting intersection of the Highway with Towrang Road. There are the remains of the powder magazine next to the Wollondilly River, three graves on the north bank of Towrang Creek, and the remains of a weir on Towrang Creek built for the stockade. Aboriginal stone tools have also been found on the banks of Towrang Creek, indicating that this was a route well-travelled long before Hamilton Hume came this way in 1824.

There is also a rest area on the eastern side of the highway, where a well-preserved bridge dating from 1839 (possibly designed by David Lennox) and a 1960s concrete box culvert can be viewed.

Goulburn

Goulburn is the first city along the Hume Highway from Sydney. It is the centre of a rich agricultural area specialising in fine wool production. From this area comes some of the world's finest wool. Goulburn was bypassed in 1992 and the main street (Auburn Street) is quieter, but still busy during Saturday morning shopping. Picturesque Belmore Park is located midway along Auburn Street. A number of architecturally and historically significant buildings are located near Belmore Park, including the courthouse, the post office and the railway station. Also in central Goulburn are two cathedrals, both of architectural note. A number of old houses and hotels are located near the railway station on Sloane Street.

Gunning

Gunning's 19th century main street was built very wide, for the time of horse and bullock-drawn wagons. This served the town well when the main highway between Sydney and Melbourne carried cars and trucks through the town, which ceased when the bypass was completed in 1994. It is now much quieter, and the town has been able to resume a more rural pace of life and to develop something of an industry in providing bed and breakfast accommodation.

Yass

Yass has an historic main street, with well-preserved 19th century verandah-post pubs (mostly converted to other uses). It is popular with tourists, some from Canberra and others taking a break from the Hume Highway. Hamilton Hume's farm Cooma Cottage is located east of Yass, close to the intersection of the former routes of the Hume and Barton Highways. He lived there until his death in 1873. Yass was bypassed in 1994.

Bookham

Bookham is situated 29 km west of Yass. The Hume Highway once passed through the village, but now bypasses it.

It is a popular site for police speed traps, hence some wags have rechristened the town "Book 'em"

The grazing lands around the village of Bookham were originally called Bogolong and were much sought after by the early pioneers. Childhood memories of the races at the old Bogalong Racetrack inspired Banjo Paterson to write his poem "Old Pardon the Son of Reprieve".

Bookham is the site of two very fine churches constructed from locally quarried granite: the Uniting Church (c1926) and the Catholic Church, St Columbas (c1910). It also features an old-fashioned cricket field, resplendent with a white picket fence, the site of many a bush bash.

Coolac

The 11 kilometre section at Coolac was the last two lane section of highway between Sydney and Gundagai until it was bypassed with a dual carriageway in August 2009.,[15] after a delay due to indigenous heritage issues, the construction contract was awarded to Abigroup Contractors Pty Ltd in February 2007.[16][17]

An earlier monument to the Dog on the Tuckerbox between Coolac and Gundagai, photographed in 1926

Gundagai

At Snake Gully, adjacent to the highway north of Gundagai is the "Dog on the Tuckerbox". A statue (with souvenir shop next door) was erected five miles (eight kilometres) from Gundagai. Snake Gully serves as a way station for many highway travellers.

Gundagai was bypassed in 1977 with the completion of the first Sheahan Bridge over the Murrumbidgee River. This bridge was the second longest road bridge in New South Wales (the Sydney Harbour Bridge being the longest), until the completion of the duplicate Sheahan Bridge in May 2009,[18] which is now the longest road bridge in New South Wales (1 m longer than the Sydney Harbour Bridge). The original Sheahan Bridge was only 1 lane in each direction.

The Prince Alfred Bridge, on the old route of the highway across the Murrumbidgee floodplain, is of major engineering interest, as it is one of Australia's longest timber trestle bridges, as is the adjacent 1903 railway bridge. Gundagai was originally located on the river flats directly beside the Murrumbidgee River, but a disastrous flood in 1852 destroyed the town and drowned 89 people. The town was then relocated to its present position. A grade-separated interchange was completed at the intersection of the Highway and West Street in 2006.[19]

Tumblong

The route of the highway between Tumblong and Tarcutta is the third route of the highway in this location. The original route led west from Tumblong along the Murrumbidgee River, before turning south over difficult country, crossing what is now the Sturt Highway and rejoining the current route of the highway as Lower Tarcutta Road. This was replaced in December 1938 by the first Tumblong deviation, to the east of the current route. The main features of this section of the highway were a deep, narrow cutting and the reinforced concrete bowstring arch bridge over Hillas Creek. This bridge has been preserved as it is one of only two bridges in New South Wales built to this design, and is visible on the western side of the highway close to the interchange with the Snowy Mountains Highway.

38 km southwest of Gundagai is the interchange with the Sturt Highway, which leads to Wagga Wagga, Mildura and Adelaide.

Tarcutta

National Truck Driver Memorial at Tarcutta

Tarcutta is located almost exactly halfway between Sydney and Melbourne and has been a popular stopover and change-over point for truck drivers making their way between the two cities. There is a memorial to truck drivers who have died on the local stretch of the Hume Highway.

With improvements to the Hume Highway which have reduced travelling time between Sydney and Melbourne to about nine hours driving time in good conditions, the town's importance to the average motorist has diminished. It was near Tarcutta that the final section of the Hume Highway was sealed in 1940. Tarcutta is scheduled to be bypassed in 2012.

Holbrook

Holbrook was called Germanton until anti-German sentiment during World War 1 led to the town and the shire being renamed in honour of the wartime submarine captain, Lt Holbrook who was awarded the Victoria Cross. From 1995, a feature of the town has been a partial reconstruction of HMAS Otway, an Oberon class submarine. This landmark was in recognition of the town's namesake's connections with submarines. In Holbrook is the only set of traffic signals (for pedestrians) remaining on the Hume Highway between the Sydney Orbital and Melbourne's Western Ring Road. Like Tarcutta, Holbrook is scheduled to be bypassed in 2012.

Woomargama

Woomargama, is a village between Holbrook and Albury which acts as a local service centre for a rich woolgrowing area. It is the third of the towns scheduled to be bypassed in 2012, thereby completing the duplication of the Hume Highway.

Table Top

Table Top is about 16 km north of Albury. It has a population of approximately 4510 people.

Albury-Wodonga

Hume Highway bypass in Albury

Albury's history is linked with the two famous Australian explorers, Hamilton Hume and William Hovell, as the city's location sprung from their crossing of the Murray River. Albury, commonly associated with its Victorian twin, Wodonga, is one of the few rural Australian cities to experience a boom, mainly from industrialisation in recent times. Albury-Wodonga is the largest centre on the Hume Highway, with a population of nearly 80,000.

The Albury bypass, built by Abigroup,[20] opened in January 2007, having been first proposed in 1964. Following a series of announcements and changes of plans through the 1990s, when Albury residents failed to agree on whether an 'internal' or 'external' bypass route was more appropriate, the 'internal bypass' option was chosen, with approval being granted in 2004 and construction commencing in January 2005. The route is parallel to and on the eastern side of the Sydney-Melbourne railway, beginning at the railway overpass 10 km north of Albury. After crossing the Murray River, the bypass route crosses the railway to rejoin the previous highway at the southern end of the Lincoln Causeway, connecting to the Wodonga bypass. The Albury bypass includes a freeway standard connection to the Murray Valley Highway at Bandiana, east of Wodonga.

Wangaratta

Hume Highway near Wangaratta

Wangaratta is, after Wodonga, the largest centre in northeast Victoria (population 17,000). It is at the junction of the Hume and Ovens Highways (the 'Great Alpine Road'). Hume and Hovell passed through this area on their 1824 expedition and the town was founded in 1837 when the surrounding area was opened for farming.

The attractions around town include Merriwa Park, a sunken garden adjacent to the King River, Airworld at Wangaratta Airport, and old goldfield areas of nearby Beechworth and Chiltern.

Benalla

A passable section of "Sydney Road" in the shire of Benalla, 1914.

Benalla is a large town located just off the Hume Freeway between Melbourne and Wangaratta. Founded in 1848, growth was slow until a goldrush in the 1850s. It had many associations with the Kelly gang and the courthouse was the venue for a number of their trials. It also has a memorial to the Australian war hero Sir Edward 'Weary' Dunlop, an Australian doctor who acted as a leader to allied troops on the Thailand-Burma Railway in World War II.

Euroa

Euroa is famous for a Ned Kelly bank robbery. The town is located on the Seven Creeks and has pretty gardens and a number of attractive 19th century buildings.

Seymour

The Hume Highway bypass of Seymour opened in December 1982. Seymour remains on the Goulburn Valley Highway. The town is in the rich Goulburn Valley which supports the local vineyards. The large Puckapunyal military base is located west of Seymour. Once the centre of the bushranging area of Victoria, it has a museum which displays many period relics of that era. It was until the 1970s a major railway maintenance centre, and part of the railway workshops now houses a railway museum. The museum's collection of rolling stock, including State carriages used by governors and monarchs, is extensive.

Kalkallo

Construction of the Donnybrook Road interchange, immediately to the north of the Craigieburn Bypass, replaced the dangerous[21] at-grade intersection with (C723) at Kalkallo an overpass and entry/exit ramps in both directions, at a cost of $32 million. Works commenced in December 2007 and completion occurred in March 2009, 3 months ahead of schedule.[22]

Craigieburn

Craigieburn Bypass

Prior to the opening of the Craigieburn Bypass in 2005, the Hume Highway skirted Craigieburn (the town centre was bypassed in the 1950s). The section of the Highway from Craigieburn to Campbellfield (on Melbourne's outskirts) was a significant bottleneck, with 12 sets of traffic signals in 17 km section of road. The Craigieburn Bypass now links directly to the Western Ring Road/Metropolitan Ring Road.

There was some opposition for the bypass by several local governments in the northern suburbs of Melbourne, including the City of Darebin and the City of Moreland, as well as local environmental groups. Their alternative proposal was rejected by the state government.[23]

A pedestrian and cyclist cement path - the Galada Tamboore Pathway - runs the length of the bypass and connects with the Metropolitan Ring Road path, from where it is possible to connect to the Merri Creek Trail, Western Ring Road Trail, the City of Whittlesea Public Gardens and Edgars Road.

The Craigieburn Bypass is shown in the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan as part of the F2 Freeway corridor, which extended south along Merri Creek, Hoddle St, Barkly St in St. Kilda, south through Elwood and Brighton, then east along South Road, connecting to the Dingley Freeway corridor.

See also

References

  1. ^ Alpha-Numeric Route Numbering for NSW. It is here!, Ozroads: the Australian Roads Website. Retrieved on 9 April 2010.
  2. ^ "Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia 1931". Australian Bureau of Statistics www.abs.gov.au. http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/0/4e782ee652d0db0aca2569de001fb2dd?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2006-04-28. 
  3. ^ "Hillas Creek Bridge". Heritage and conservation register. Roads and Traffic Authority of New South Wales. 2004. http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/index.cgi?action=heritage.show&id=4309569. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  4. ^ Lay, Max (1984). History of Australian Roads. Australian Road Research Board. ISBN 0-86910-164-1. 
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ F5 Freeway widening - RTA
  7. ^ "Hume Kalkallo Land Use Business and Agriculture" (PDF). VicRoads. http://www.vicroads.vic.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/A245C58C-88F0-4D1D-B3E4-277DEBC17159/0/HumeKalkalloLandUseBusinessandAgricultureupdate.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  8. ^ "Hume Highway, Kalkallo to Beveridge - Access restoration planning". VicRoads. http://www.vicroads.vic.gov.au/Home/RoadsAndProjects/RoadProjects/NothernSuburbs/HumeHighwayAccessRestoration+ProjectKalkallo.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  9. ^ "Outer Metropolitan Ring Road planning study". VicRoads. http://www.vicroads.vic.gov.au/Home/RoadsAndProjects/RoadProjects/PlanningStudies/OuterMetropolitanRingPlanningStudy.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  10. ^ "Map of recommended option for Outer Metropolitan Ring Road" (jpg). VicRoads. http://www.vicroads.vic.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/26785B2E-3762-4BCE-A89E-77FB9AF343C6/0/FigureS1maponly.jpg. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  11. ^ Google Maps street level view showing "end freeway" sign
  12. ^ PREFERRED ROUTES ANNOUNCED FOR TARCUTTA, HOLBROOK AND WOOMARGAMA BYPASSES
  13. ^ "Media release: Plan to Bridge the Hume Highway at Mittagong". Department of Transport and Regional Services www.dotars.gov.au. 2001. http://www.dotars.gov.au/dept/media/2001/d4_2001.aspx. Retrieved 2006-04-26. [dead link]
  14. ^ "Travel - Goulburn". Sydney Morning Herald www.smh.com.au. 2004. http://www.smh.com.au/news/New-South-Wales/Goulburn/2005/02/17/1108500193619.html. Retrieved 2006-04-26. 
  15. ^ "Coolac Bypass". Roads and Traffic Authority. http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/constructionmaintenance/majorconstructionprojectsregional/southwest/coolac/index.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25. 
  16. ^ "More delays to highway bypass". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 14 February 2006. http://www.abc.net.au/news/australia/nsw/riverina/200602/s1569224.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-05. 
  17. ^ "Contract awarded to construct Coolac bypass" (Press release). Australian Government. 1 March 2007. http://www.ministers.dotars.gov.au/jl/releases/2007/March/L022_2007.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-05. 
  18. ^ Sheahan Bridge duplication - NSW RTA, accessed 2009-06-13
  19. ^ Hume Highway West Street Interchange Gundagai - NSW RTA, accessed 2009-06-13
  20. ^ Albury Wodonga Hume Freeway project
  21. ^ "Fix for deadly" - Star News Group - article, 22 May 2007
  22. ^ "Donnybrook Road Interchange Project". VicRoads. http://www.vicroads.vic.gov.au/Home/RoadsAndProjects/RoadProjects/NothernSuburbs/Donnybrook+Road+Interchange.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  23. ^ BATCHELOR SLAMS COUNCILS OVER FLAWED RUSSELL REPORT - Media release, accessed 2009-06-13

External links

Construction news


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hume Highway — Der Hume Highway durch die Southern Highlands …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hume Highway — 36°03′58″S 146°56′22″E / 36.06611, 146.93944 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hume Highway — /hjum ˈhaɪweɪ/ (say hyoohm huyway) noun a highway connecting Sydney and Melbourne, an inland route. Over 900 km. {named after Hamilton Hume who pioneered the route in 1824 with William Hovell} …   Australian English dictionary

  • Old Hume Highway — The Old Hume Highway may be described as any part of an earlier route of the Hume Highway, which traverses Victoria and New South Wales between the cities of Melbourne and Sydney in Australia. In some places, the highway has been deviated several …   Wikipedia

  • Hume — bezeichnet: Hume (Name) Hume Highway, ein australischer Highway zwischen Sydney und Melbourne Lake Hume, ein nach Hamilton Hume benannter See in Victoria, Australien folgende Orte: in Australien: Hume City, ein Verwaltungsbezirk der australischen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hume — ( Home is an older variant spelling of Hume, still used for the senior branches of the family) is a surname that originated in the South East of Scotland, of which the senior representatives are the Earls of Home. The name can refer to several… …   Wikipedia

  • Hume and Hovell expedition — The Hume and Hovell expedition was one of the most important journeys of explorations undertaken in eastern Australia. In 1824 the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Thomas Brisbane, commissioned Hamilton Hume and former Royal Navy Captain William… …   Wikipedia

  • Hume — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Patronyme Par ordre alphabétique : Allan Octavian Hume (1829 1912), ornithologue britannique. Brit Hume (1943 ), journaliste de Fox News. David Hume… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Highway 1 (Australia) — Map of Australia s Highway 1 Australia s Highway 1 is a network of highways that circumnavigate the Australian continent, joining all mainland state capitals. At a total length of approximately 14,500 km (9,000 mi) it is the longest… …   Wikipedia

  • Highway 26 (Ontario) — Infobox road province=ON type=Hwy route=26 alternate name= maint=the Ministry of Transportation length km= length ref=Ministry of Transportation of Ontario, [http://www.raqsa.mto.gov.on.ca/techpubs/TrafficVolumes.nsf/tvweb 2004 Annual Average… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.