:"For information on urushiol poisoning, see Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis."

Urushiol (pronEng|ʊˈruːʃiɒl) is an oil found in plants of the Family Anacardiaceae, especially "Toxicodendron" "spp." ("e.g." poison oak, poison ivy, and poison sumac). It is also found in the nut shell of cashew fruit ("Anacardium occidentale") and in mango sap and the skin of the mango fruitFact|date=July 2008. Breaking the vine of a green mango fruit produces a fine aerosol of sap that causes severe reactions in previously sensitized individuals. It causes an allergic skin rash on contact, known as urushiol-induced contact dermatitis. The name comes from the Japanese word "urushi", which denotes a lacquer produced in East Asia from the sap of "kiurushi" trees ("Lacquer Tree"). The oxidation and polymerization of urushiol in the tree's sap in the presence of moisture allows it to form a hard lacquer, which is used to produce traditional Chinese and Japanese lacquerwares.

Urushiol is a yellow liquid with a boiling point of 200-210 °C. It is miscible in alcohol and ether, but nearly immiscible in water. Chemically, urushiol is a mixture of several closely related organic compounds. Each consists of a catechol substituted with an alkyl chain that has 15 or 17 carbon atoms. The alkyl group may be saturated or unsaturated; urushiol oil is a mixture of saturated and unsaturated molecules. The exact mixture depends on the species of the plant. For example, poison oak urushiol contains mostly catechols with C17 side chains, but poison ivy and poison sumac contain mostly catechols with C15 side chains. The allergic reaction is dependent on the degree of unsaturation of the alkyl chain. Less than half of the general population reacts with the saturated urushiol alone, but over 90% react with urushiol containing at least two degrees of unsaturation (double bonds).

ee also

* Burow's solution, for treating the toxin
* Bentoquatam, a barrier creme
* Hapten
* Mangoes, the skin
* Poison ivy
* Toxin
* Western Poison-oak
* Pistachio
* Cashew
* Anti-itch drug
* Anacardic acid

External links

* [http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0802.htm Poison Oak] at "Wayne's Word"
* [http://www.cattail.nu/ivy/ivy_index.html The Poison Ivy Tutorial]

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  • Urushiol — ist ein starkes Kontaktallergen in mehreren Varianten (3 Alkylbrenzcatechin und 3 Alkenylbrenzcatechin), die insbesondere im Giftsumach vorkommen, einer nordamerikanischen Pflanze. Auch in nicht ausgehärtetem Urushi ist Urushiol enthalten, woraus …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • urushiol — Resina tóxica de la savia de ciertas plantas del género Rhus, como el roble venenoso y el zumaque venenoso, que produce dermatitis de contacto tóxica en muchas personas. Diccionario Mosby Medicina, Enfermería y Ciencias de la Salud, Ediciones… …   Diccionario médico

  • urushiol — [o͞o′ro͞o shē ôl΄, o͞o ro͞o′shē ôl΄; o͞o ro͞o shēōl΄] n. [Jpn urushi, lac tree, lacquer + OL1: coined (1907) by Toshiyuki Mashima, who isolated it] a poisonous, irritant liquid, C21H32O2, present in poison ivy, poison sumac, etc …   English World dictionary

  • Urushiol — L’urushiol est une toxine organique que l on trouve dans les plantes de la famille des Anacardiaceae, spécialement dans le genre Toxicodendron (par exemple le sumac grimpant en Amérique du Nord). Il provoque des allergies de la peau ou dermatites …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Urushiol — El urushiol es un aceite que se encuentra en ciertas plantas de la familia de las Anacardiaceae, especialmente el Toxicodendron spp.. Se encuentra también en la piel de los anacardos (Anacardium occidentale), en algunos casos provoca una especie… …   Wikipedia Español

  • urushiol — noun ʊˈɹuʃiˌɔl An oil found in plants of the family Anacardiaceae, causing an allergic skin rash on contact; consists of a variable mixture of several organic compounds. All three produce an oil, called urushiol, that is a potent allergen.… …   Wiktionary

  • urushiol — A mixture of nonvolatile hydrocarbons, derivatives of catechol with unsaturated C15 or C17 side chains, constituting the active allergen of the irritant oil of poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans, poison oak, T. diversilobum, and the Asiatic… …   Medical dictionary

  • urushiol — Poison Poi son, n. [F. poison, in Old French also, a potion, fr. L. potio a drink, draught, potion, a poisonous draught, fr. potare to drink. See {Potable}, and cf. {Potion}.] 1. Any agent which, when introduced into the animal organism, is… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • urushiol — urušiolis statusas T sritis chemija formulė (HO)₂C₆H₃(CH₂)₇CH=CH(CH₂)₆H atitikmenys: angl. urushiol rus. урушиол ryšiai: sinonimas – 3 (8 pentadecenil) 1,2 benzendiolis …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • urushiol — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary, from Japanese urushi lacquer + International Scientific Vocabulary 1 ol Date: 1908 a mixture of catechol derivatives with saturated or unsaturated side chains of 15 or 17 carbon atoms that is… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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