Infobox musical artist
Name = Rush
Img_capt = Alex Lifeson, Geddy Lee, and Neil Peart of Rush
"30th Anniversary tour photo, 2004"
Img_size = 250
Landscape = yes
Background = group_or_band
Years_active = 1968–present
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Label = Moon, Mercury, Anthem, Atlantic
Geddy Lee Alex Lifeson Neil Peart
URL = [http://www.rush.com/ www.rush.com]
Rush is a Canadian rock band originally formed in August 1968, in the Willowdale neighbourhood of
Toronto, Ontario, currently comprised of bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. The band and its membership went through a number of re-configurations between 1968 and 1974, achieving their definitive form when Neil Peart replaced original drummer John Rutseyin July 1974, two weeks before the group's first U.S. tour.
Since the release of the band's self-titled debut album in March 1974, Rush has become known for the instrumental skills of its members, complex compositions, and eclectic lyrical motifs drawing heavily on
science fiction, fantasy, and libertarian philosophy, as well as addressing humanitarian, social, emotional, and environmental concerns.
Musically, Rush's style has evolved over the years, beginning in the vein of blues-inspired heavy metal on their first albums, then encompassing
hard rock, progressive rock, a period dominated by synthesizers and, more recently, modern rock. They have influenced various musical artists, including Metallica,Austin Chronicle Music [http://www.austinchronicle.com/gyrobase/Issue/review?oid=oid%3A218424 Rush's 30th Anniversary Tour] , Accessed 16 August 2006] [ Geddy Lee Article [http://www.articlesbase.com/music-articles/geddy-lee-and-his-influence-on-progressive-metal-music-391192.html Articlebase] Accessed 7 July 2008] The Smashing PumpkinsCNN.com [http://www.cnn.com/interactive/entertainment/0205/rush.thru.decades/content.3.html Rush profile] Accessed 17 August 2006] and Primus, as well as notable progressive metalbands such as Dream Theaterand Symphony X.Symphony X Official website [http://www.symphonyx.com/faq_band.html FAQ] Accessed 16 August 2006]
Rush has won a number of
Juno Awards, and was inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Famein 1994. Over the course of their careers, the individual members of Rush have been acknowledged as being some of the most proficient players on their respective instruments, with each band member winning several awards in magazine readers' polls. As a group, Rush possesses 24 gold records and 14 platinum (3 multi-platinum) records. According to the RIAA, Rush's sales statistics place them fourth behind The Beatles, The Rolling Stonesand Aerosmithfor the most consecutive gold or platinum albums by a rock band. Rush also ranks 78th in U.S. album sales with 25 million units. [ [http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=tblTopArt RIAA Website] ] Although total worldwide album sales are not calculated by any single entity, as of 2004 several industry sources estimated Rush's total worldwide album sales at over 40 million units.
The band recently finished promoting their latest album, "
Snakes & Arrows" with an intercontinental tour. The second leg began in San Juan, Puerto Ricoon April 11, and ended on July 24, 2008 in Noblesville, Indiana. [Official Rush Website [http://www.rush.com/low/tour.html Rush tour schedule] ]
The early years (1968–1976)
title="Working Man" (1974)
description=Sample of "Working Man" from the debut album "Rush". This was the song responsible for giving the band the recognition they needed to procure a record contract.
The original line-up formed in August 1968 in the neighbourhood of Willowdale in Toronto, Ontario, by guitarist Alex Lifeson, front man Jeff Jones, and drummer
John Rutsey. Within a couple weeks of forming, and before their second performance, bassist and lead vocalist Jones was replaced by Geddy Lee, a schoolmate of Lifeson. After several lineup reformations, Rush's official incarnation was formed in May 1971 consisting of Lee, Lifeson, and Rutsey. The band was managed by local Torontoresident Ray Danniels, a frequent attendee of Rush's early shows. [cite book | last = Banasiewicz | first = Bill | title = Rush Visions: The Official Biography | publisher = Omnibus Press | year = 1990 | isbn = 0711911622 ] [cite web | last = Banasiewicz | first = Bill | title = Rush Visions: The Official Biography (excerpt) | url=http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/transcripts/BanasiewiczVisions.htm | accessdate = 2007-03-10 ]
After gaining stability in the lineup and honing their skills on the local bar/high school dance circuit, the band came to release their first single "Not Fade Away", a cover of the
Buddy Hollysong, in 1973. Side B contained an original composition, "You Can't Fight It", credited to Rutsey and Lee. The single generated little reaction and, due to record company indifference, the band formed their own independent record label, "Moon Records". With the aid of Danniels and the newly enlisted engineer Terry Brown, the band released their self-titled debut album in 1974, which was considered highly derivative of Led Zeppelin. "Rush" had limited local popularity until the album was picked up by WMMS, a radio station in Cleveland, Ohio. Donna Halper, a DJ and music director working at the station, selected "Working Man" for her regular play list. The song's blue collar theme resonated with hard rock fans and this new found popularity led to the album being re-released by Mercury Recordsin the U.S. [ Donna Halper, and the Rush Discovery Story [http://www.geocities.com/SunsetStrip/Amphitheatre/2740/discov.html Geocities] Accessed 7 July 2008] [History of Rush [http://www.erikandanna.com/Rush/history_of_rush.htm History of Rush] Accessed February 2006]
Immediately after the release of the debut album, Rutsey resigned in July 1974 due to his affliction with
diabetesand a distaste for touring. Rush held auditions and eventually selected Neil Peart as Rutsey's replacement. Peart officially joined the band on 29 July 1974, two weeks before the group's first US tour. They performed their first concert together, opening for Uriah Heep and Manfred Mannwith an attendance of over 11,000 people at the Civic Arena in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvaniaon August 14. In addition to becoming the band's drummer, Peart assumed the role of principal lyricist as Lee and Lifeson had very little interest in writing, contributing to only a handful of song lyrics over the rest of the band's career. Instead, they focused primarily on the musical aspects of Rush. "Fly by Night" (1975), Rush's first album after recruiting Peart, saw the inclusion of the band's first epic mini-tale "By-Tor and the Snow Dog", replete with complex arrangements and multi-section format. Lyrical themes also underwent dramatic changes after the addition of Peart due to his love for fantasy and science-fiction literature.Fly By Night Review [http://wm04.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:39fwxqy5ldhe Allmusic Guide] . Accessed 20 September 2007] However, despite these many differences some of the music and songs still closely mirrored the blues style found on Rush's debut. [Banasiewicz, Bill (1990). "Rush Visions: The Official Biography". Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-1162-2]
Following quickly on the heels of "Fly By Night", the band released 1975's "
Caress of Steel", a five track hard rock album featuring two extended multi-chapter songs, "The Necromancer" and "The Fountain of Lamneth." "Caress of Steel" was reported by some critics to be unfocused and an audacious move for the band due to the placement of two protracted numbers back-to-back, as well as a heavier reliance on atmospherics and story-telling, a large deviation from "Fly by Night". [ Greg Prato [http://wm04.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:a9fqxqy5ldhe Caress of Steel Review] , Allmusic Guide] Accessed 20 September 2007] Intended to be the band's first "break-through" album, "Caress of Steel" sold below expectations and the promotional tour consisted of small venues which led to the moniker the "Down the Tubes Tour." [Tour Archive [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/Tours.htm Caress of Steel Tour Archive] Accessed 17 April 2006] In light of these events, Rush's record label pressured them into molding their next album in a more commercially friendly and accessible fashion. However, the band ignored the requests and developed their next album, "2112". It was the band's first taste of commercial success and their first platinum album in Canada. [ [http://www.rush.com/php/band_details.php?f=0&sub=highlights Rush Highlights] , Official Rush website, Accessed 16 March 2006] The supporting tour for the album culminated in a three night stand at Massey Hallin Toronto, which the band recorded for the release of their first live album titled "All the World's a Stage". Allmusic Guidecritic Greg Prato summarily reminds listeners and fans of how the album demarcates the boundary between the band's early years and the next era of their music. [Allmusic Guide [http://wc06.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&token=&sql=10:w9fpxqy5ldhe Greg Prato on All the World's a Stage] , Accessed December 14, 2007] [Power Windows Website [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/transcripts/HarriganRush.htm Rush: By Brian Harrigan] , Accessed 17 April 2007]
The progressive rock era (1977–1981)
After "2112", Rush retreated to the United Kingdom to record 1977's "
A Farewell to Kings" and 1978's "Hemispheres" at Rockfield Studiosin Wales. These albums saw the band members pushing the progressive rock envelope for Rush even further than before by expanding their use of progressive elements. Trademarks such as increased synthesizer usage, extended-length concept songs, and highly dynamic playing featuring complex time signaturechanges became a staple of Rush's compositions. To achieve a broader, progressive palette of sound, Alex Lifeson began to experiment with classical and twelve-string guitars, and Geddy Lee added bass-pedal synthesizers and Minimoog. Likewise, Peart's percussion became diversified in the form of triangles, glockenspiel, wood blocks, cowbells, timpani, gongand chimes. Beyond instrument additions, the band kept in stride with the progressive rock movement by continuing to compose long, conceptual songs with science fiction and fantasy overtones. However, as the new decade approached, Rush gradually began to dispose of their older styles of music in favor of shorter, and sometimes softer, arrangements. The lyrics up to this point (most of them written by Peart) were heavily influenced by classical poetry, fantasy literature, science fiction, and the writings of novelist Ayn Rand, as exhibited most prominently by their 1975 song "Anthem" from "Fly By Night" and a specifically acknowledged derivation in 1976's "2112". [2112 and Ayn Rand [http://www.nimitz.net/rush/faq2ans.html#62 Rush FAQ] Accessed 16 March 2006]
Permanent Waves" (1980) shifted Rush's style of music dramatically via the introduction of reggaeand new wave.cite journal|title=Rush: Progressive To The Core|author=Geoff Barton|year=2006|month=September|journal=Classic Rock Magazine Issue|volume=97] Although a hard rock style was still evident, more and more synthesizers were introduced. Moreover, due to the limited airplay Rush's previous extended-length songs received, "Permanent Waves" included shorter, more radio-friendly songs such as " The Spirit of Radio" and "Freewill", two songs which helped "Permanent Waves" become Rush's first U.S. Top 5 album; both songs continue to make appearances on classic rock radio stations in Canada and the United States to this day. [Review of "Permanent Waves" by Greg Prato [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:d9fexqy5ldhe Allmusic Guide] Accessed 22 March 2008] Meanwhile, Peart's lyrics shifted toward an expository tone with subject matter that dwelled less on fantastical or allegorical story-telling and more heavily on cerebral topics that explored humanistic, social, emotional and metaphysical elements.listen
title="Tom Sawyer" (1981)
description=Sample of "Tom Sawyer" from the album "Moving Pictures". This is the band's best known song with heaviest radio airplay.
OggRush's popularity reached its pinnacle with the release of "Moving Pictures" in 1981. "Moving Pictures" essentially continued where "Permanent Waves" left off, extending the trend of highly accessible and commercially friendly pop-progressive rock that helped thrust them into the spotlight. The lead track, "Tom Sawyer", is probably the band's best-known song [ Rush Biography [http://wm04.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:gifwxqr5ldke~T1 Allmusic guide, Jason Ankeny] Accessed 20 September 2007] with "Limelight" also receiving satisfactory responses from listeners and radio stations. "Moving Pictures" was Rush's last album to feature an extended song, the ten-and-a-half-minute "The Camera Eye". The song also contained the band's heaviest usage of synthesizers up to that point, hinting that Rush's music was shifting direction once more. "Moving Pictures" reached #3 on the " Billboard 200" album chart and has been certified quadruple platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. [Moving Pictures Certification [http://riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=SEARCH Search "Moving Pictures"] Accessed 7 July 2008]
Following the success of "Moving Pictures" and the completion of another four studio albums, Rush released their second live recording, "
Exit...Stage Left", in 1981. The album delineates the apex of Rush's progressive period by featuring live material from the band's "Permanent Waves" and "Moving Pictures" tours. As with their first live release, "Exit...Stage Left" identified the margin of a new chapter of Rush's sound. The band underwent another radical stylistic transmutation with the release of "Signals" in 1982. [ Signals Review by Greg Prato [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:w9fexqy5ldhe Allmusic Guide] Accessed 22 March 2008]
The synthesizer period (1982–1989)
While Geddy Lee's synthesizers had been featured instruments ever since the late 70s, keyboards were suddenly shifted from the contrapuntal background to the melodic front-lines [Signals [http://rateyourmusic.com/release/album/rush/signals/ Rate Your Music] Accessed 6 May 2006] [Signals Review [http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/rush/albums/album/118693/review/6068212/signals Rolling Stone] Accessed 7 July 2008] as evidenced by songs such as "Countdown" and the lead-off track "Subdivisions". Both feature nimble lead synthesizer lines with minimalistic guitar chords and solos. Other previously unused instrument additions were seen in the song "Losing It," featuring collaborator
Ben Minkon electric violin. [ Signals Review by Greg Prato [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:w9fexqy5ldhe Allmusic Guide] Accessed 22 March 2008] listen
description=Sample of "Subdivisions" from the album "Signals". This song is notable for demonstrating the band's foray into their synthesizer period.
Ogg"Signals" also represented a drastic stylistic transformation apart from instrumental changes. The album contained Rush's only U.S. top-40 pop hit, "New World Man", [New World Man [http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=3328 Song Facts] Accessed 7 July 2008] while other more experimental songs such as "Digital Man", "The Weapon", and "Chemistry" expanded the band's use of ska, reggae, and funk. [Signals Musical Style [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/transcripts/BanasiewiczVisions.htm Visions, the Official Rush Biography, Chapter 10] Accessed 6 May 2006] More specifically, Alex Lifeson's guitar tone and playing style on "Signals" were very reminiscent of contemporary acts of the time who were well known for incorporating such rhythms into their music. Although the band members consciously decided to move in this overall direction, they felt dissatisfied with long-time producer Terry Brown's studio treatment of "Signals" and parted ways with him in 1983. These diverse styles would come into further play on their next studio album.
The style and production of "Signals" were augmented and taken to new heights on 1984's "Grace Under Pressure". It was Peart who named the album, as he borrowed the words of
Ernest Hemingwayto describe what the band had to go through after making the decision to leave Terry Brown. Producer Steve Lillywhite, who gleaned fame with successful productions of Simple Mindsand U2, was enlisted to produce "Grace Under Pressure". However, he backed out at the last moment, much to the ire of Lee, Lifeson and Peart. Lee said "Steve Lillywhite is really not a man of his word....after agreeing to do our record, he got an offer from Simple Minds, changed his mind, blew us off,..so it put us in a horrible position." Eventually Rush hired Peter Henderson to co-produce and engineer the album in his stead. [Power Windows "Grace Under Pressure" [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/GUPlyrics.htm Power Windows Website] Accessed 16 February 2008]
Musically, although Lee's use of sequencers and synthesizers remained the band's cornerstone, his focus on new technology was complemented by Peart's adaptation of Simmons electronic drums and percussion. Lifeson's contributions on the album were decidedly enhanced to act as an overreaction to the minimalistic role he played on "Signals". [Grace Under Pressure [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/transcripts/GettSuccess.htm "Success Under Pressure"] Accessed 7 May 2006] Still, many of his trademark guitar textures remained intact in the form of open reggae chords and funk and new-wave rhythms; "Distant Early Warning", "Red Lenses", "
Red Sector A" and "The Enemy Within" serving as prime examples.
With new producer
Peter Collins, the band released 1985's "Power Windows" and 1987's " Hold Your Fire". The music on these two albums gives far more emphasis and prominence to Geddy Lee's multi-layered synthesizer work. While fans and critics took notice of Lifeson's diminished guitar work, his presence was still palpable on "The Big Money", (the album's modest-charting single) with spotlights on "Grand Designs", "Middletown Dreams" and "Marathon." Lifeson, like many guitarists in the late 1980s, experimented with processors that reduced his instrument to echoey chord bursts and razor-thin leads. "Hold Your Fire" represents both a modest extension of the guitar stylings found on "Power Windows", and, according to Allmusic critic Ed Rivadavia, the culmination of this era of Rush. [ Hold Your Fire Review [http://wm04.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:09frxqy5ldhe Allmusic Guide, Ed Rivadavia] Accessed 20 September 2007] Whereas the previous five Rush albums sold platinum or better, "Hold Your Fire" only went gold in November 1987, although it managed to peak at number 13 on the "Billboard 200". [ Hold your Fire [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/HYFlyrics.htm Power Windows Website] Accessed 14 September 2007]
A third live album and video, "
A Show of Hands" (1989), was also released by Mercury following the "Power Windows " and "Hold Your Fire" tours, demonstrating the aspects of Rush in the 80s. "A Show of Hands" met with strong fan approval, but " Rolling Stone" critic Michael Azerrad dismissed it as "musical muscle" with 1.5 stars, claiming Rush fans viewed their favourite power trio as "the holy trinity". [Rolling Stone [http://www.rollingstone.com/reviews/album/321540/a_show_of_hands A Show of Hands Review] Accessed 6 June 2006] Nevertheless, "A Show of Hands" managed to surpass the gold album mark, reaching number 21 on the "Billboard 200". [ A Show of Hands [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/ASOHlyrics.htm Power Windows Website] Accessed 14 September 2007] At this point, the group decided to change record labels from Mercury to Atlantic. After Rush's departure in 1989, "Mercury" released a double platinum two-volume compilation of their Rush catalogue, "Chronicles" (1990). [ Chronicles [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/CHRNlyrics.htm Power Windows Website] Accessed 14 September 2007]
Returning to their roots (1989–1997)
description=Sample of "Dreamline" from the album "Roll the Bones". This song is notable for demonstrating the band's return to a more standard three piece instrument style, where synthesizers are used more sparingly and the guitar returning to the forefront of the sound.
OggRush started to deviate from their 1980s style with the albums "Presto" and " Roll the Bones". Produced by record engineer and musician Rupert Hine, these two albums saw Rush shedding much of their keyboard-saturated sound. Beginning with 1989's "Presto", the band opted for arrangements that were notably more guitar-centric than the previous two studio albums. Although synthesizers were still used in many songs, the instrument was no longer featured as the centerpiece of Rush's compositions. Continuing this trend, 1991's "Roll the Bones" extended the use of the standard three-instrument approach with even less focus on synthesizers than its predecessor. While musically these albums do not deviate significantly from a general pop-rock sound, Rush stuck to their creative approach of incorporating traces of more exotic musical styles. "Roll the Bones", for instance, exhibits funk and hip hop elements, and the instrumental track "Where's My Thing?" features several jazz components. ["Roll the Bones" [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:th9ds37ba3vg Allmusic:] Accessed 18 March 2006] This return to three-piece instrumentation helped pave the way for future albums in the mid-90s, which would adopt a more straightforward rock formula.
The transition from synthesizers to more guitar-oriented and organic instrumentation continued with the 1993 album "Counterparts" Counterparts Review [http://www.allmusicguide.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:hnfpxqugld0e Allmusic Guide] Accessed 18 April 2007] and its follow-up, 1996's "
Test for Echo", again both produced in collaboration with Peter Collins. Musically, "Counterparts" and "Test For Echo" are two of Rush's most guitar-driven albums. Although the music in general did not meet the criteria for "progressive rock", some of the songs could be considered more adventurous than what one might expect from a standard modern rock band. [ All Music Guide [http://www.allmusicguide.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:kxfoxqlhld6e Test For Echo Review] Accessed 17 April 2007] For instance, "Time and Motion" possesses multiple time signature changes and organ usage, while the instrumental track "Limbo", consists of several relatively complex musical passages repeated throughout. Musically, "Test For Echo" still retained much of the hard rock/alternative style already charted on the previous record. Lifeson and Lee's playing remained more or less unchanged; however, a distinct modification in technique became apparent in Peart's playing due to formal Jazzand Swing training under the tutelage of jazz instructor Freddie Gruberduring the interim between "Counterparts" and "Test For Echo". [ Neil Peart's tutelage [http://www.drummerworld.com/drummers/Freddie_Gruber.html Drummerworld] Accessed 18 April 2007] In October 1996, in support of "Test For Echo", the band embarked on an extensive and successful North American tour, the band's first without an opening act and dubbed "An Evening with Rush." The tour was broken up into two segments spanning October through December, 1996 and May through July, 1997 with the band taking a respite between legs.
Hiatus and comeback (1997–2005)
After wrapping up the tour promoting "Test for Echo" in 1997, the band entered a five-year hiatus mainly due to personal tragedies in Peart's life. Peart's daughter Selena died in a car accident in August 1997, followed by his wife Jacqueline's death from
cancerin June 1998. Peart took a hiatus to mourn and reflect, during which time he traveled extensively throughout North America on his BMW motorcycle, covering 88,000 km (55,000 miles). At some point in his journey, Peart decided to return to the band. Peart wrote "" as a chronicle of his geographical and emotional journey. In this book he writes of how he had told his bandmates at Selena's funeral, "consider me retired."Peart, Neil. "Ghost Rider: Travels on the Healing Road". Toronto: ECW Press. 2002. ISBN 1550225464] On 10 November 1998 a triple CD live album entitled "Different Stages" was released, dedicated to the memory of Selena and Jacqueline. Mixed by producer Paul Northfieldand engineered by Terry Brown, it contained three discs packed with recorded performances from the band's "Counterparts", "Test For Echo", and "A Farewell to Kings" tours, marking the fourth officially released live album by the band.listen
title="One Little Victory" (2002)
description=Sample of "One Little Victory" from the album "Vapor Trails". This song's rapid tempo and heavy double bass drumming was done intentionally in order to herald the comeback of the band after their hiatus.
OggAfter a time to grieve and reassemble the pieces of his life, and while visiting long-time Rush photographer Andrew MacNaughtan in Los Angeles, Peart was introduced to his future wife, photographer Carrie Nuttall. Peart married Nuttall on 9 September 2000. In early 2001 he announced to his band mates that he was ready to once again enter the studio and get back into the business of making music. With the help of producer Paul Northfield the band returned in May 2002 with " Vapor Trails", written and recorded in Toronto. To herald the band's comeback, the single and lead track from the album, " One Little Victory" was designed to grab the attention of listeners due to its rapid guitar and drum tempos.Vapor Trails news archive [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/VTnews.htm Power Windows website] Accessed 16 March 2006] "Vapor Trails" marked the first studio recording not to include a single synthesizer, organ or keyboard part since the early 1970s. While the album is almost completely guitar-driven, it is mostly devoid of any conventional sounding guitar solos, a conscious decision made by Lifeson during the writing process. According to the band, the entire developmental process for "Vapor Trails" was extremely taxing and took approximately 14 months to finish, by far the longest the band had ever spent writing and recording a studio album. The album debuted to moderate praise and was supported by the band's first tour in six years, including first-ever concerts in Mexico Cityand Brazil, where they played to some of the largest crowds of their career.
A triple CD live album and dual
Rush In Rio DVDwas released in late October 2003 featuring an entire concert performance recorded on the last night of their Vapor Trails Tour, 23 November 2002, at Maracanã Stadiumin Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To celebrate their 30th anniversary, June 2004 saw the release of "Feedback", a studio EP recorded in suburban Toronto featuring eight covers of such artists as Cream, The Who and The Yardbirds, bands which the members of Rush cite as inspiration around the time of their inception. [ Feedback new archive [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/FBKnews.htm Power Windows Website] Accessed 28 April] Also in the summer of 2004, Rush hit the road again for the very successful , playing dates in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Sweden, the Czech Republic, and the Netherlands. On 24 September 2004 a Frankfurt, Germany concert was recorded at The Festhallefor DVD (titled ""), which was released 22 November 2005.
nakes & Arrows (2006–present)
During promotional interviews for the "R30 Live In Frankfurt" DVD, the band revealed their intention to begin writing new material in early 2006. While in Toronto, Lifeson and Lee began the songwriting process in January 2006. During this time, Peart simultaneously assumed his role of lyric writing while residing in Southern California. The following September, Rush chose to hire American producer
Nick Raskulineczto co-produce the album. The band officially entered Allaire Studios, in Shokan, New York in November 2006 in order to record the bulk of the material. Taking the band five weeks, the sessions ended in December. On 14 February 2007, an announcement was made on the official Rush web site that the title of the new album would be "Snakes & Arrows". The first single, entitled "Far Cry," was released to North American radio stations on 12 March 2007 and reached #2 on the Mediabase Mainstream and Radio and Records Charts. [ [http://www.rush.com/v4.html Rush Official Website] , Rush.com, accessed 3 August 2007.]
The Rush website, newly redesigned on March 12 to support the new album, also announced that the band would embark on a tour to begin in the summer. "
Snakes & Arrows" was released 1 May 2007 in North America, where it debuted at #3 in the Billboard 200 with approximately 93,000 units sold in its first week. [ Katie Hasty, [http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003582756 "Ne-Yo Scores Second No. 1 In Debut-Heavy Week"] , Billboard.com, 9 May, 2007] To coincide with the Atlantic ocean hurricane season, "Spindrift" was released as the official second radio single on 1 June 2007, whereas " The Larger Bowl (A Pantoum)" saw single status on 25 June 2007. "The Larger Bowl" positioned within the top 20 of the Mainstream Rock and Media Base Mainstream charts, however, "Spindrift" failed to appear on any commercial chart. [ [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/News.htm Snakes and Arrows chart rankings] , Power Windows website, Accessed 12 August 2007.] The planned intercontinental tour in support of "Snakes & Arrows" began on 13 June 2007 in Atlanta, Georgia, coming to a close on 29 October 2007 at Hartwall Arenain Helsinki, Finland. [ [http://www.rush.com Official Rush Website] Accessed 26 March 2007.]
The 2008 portion of the tour started on 11 April 2008 in
San Juan, Puerto Ricoat José Miguel Agrelot Coliseumand culminated on 24 July 2008 in Noblesville, Indianaat the Verizon Wireless Music Center. [ Rush.com [http://rush.com/v4.html] ] On April 15, the band released " Snakes & Arrows Live", a double live album documenting the first leg of the tour. [ Power Windows Website [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/News.htm Latest Rush News] Accessed 20 January 2008] According to the latest Rush electronic newsletter and Peart's official website, it has been confirmed that performances filmed at the Ahoy arena in Rotterdam, Netherlandson October 16 and 17 of 2007 will be released on November 25 as a live concert DVD and Blu-Ray. [ [http://www.blu-ray.com/news/?id=1803 Blu-Ray.com Featured News Article] , Blu-Ray News Website, Accessed 22 September 2008] [ [http://www.neilpeart.net/news/index.html Snakes $ Arrows DVD release] , Neil Peart's Official website, Accessed 12 November 2007] In addition, the next-to-last performance on the 2008 tour, at the Verizon Wireless Amphitheater in Atlanta, GA was also filmed, and four songs from the Atlanta show will be included on the "Snakes & Arrows Live" video set. [ [http://www.therockradio.com/2008/07/rush-film-concert-for-possible-dvd.html] ]
As the band neared the conclusion of their "Snakes & Arrows" tour, they announced their first appearance on American television in over 30 years. Rush was interviewed by
Stephen Colbertand they performed "Tom Sawyer" on " The Colbert Report" on 16 July 2008. [http://sev.prnewswire.com/music/20080715/NYTU13315072008-1.html Rush to Perform for the First Time on U.S. Television in Over 30 Years on 'The Colbert Report'] , PR Newswire, 15 July 2008]
Musical style and influences
Rush's musical style has changed substantially over the years. Their debut album is strongly influenced by British-Blues rock: an amalgam of sounds and styles from such rock bands as Cream,
Led Zeppelin, and Deep Purple. Over the first few albums their style remained essentially hard rock, with heavy influences from The WhoAlex Lifeson Interview, March 2006 [http://www.guitarplayer.com/story.asp?sectioncode=6&storycode=13124 Guitar Player Magazine] Accessed 30 March 2006] and Led Zeppelin,Allmusic: "Rush" album [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:6mcyxddbjolj AllMusic.com] Accessed 18 March 2006] but also became increasingly influenced by the British progressive rock movement.Geddy Lee Interview, March 2006 [http://www.bassplayer.com/story.asp?sectioncode=21&storycode=13228 Bass Player Magazine] Accessed 30 March 2006] In the tradition of progressive rock, Rush wrote protracted songs with irregular and multiple time signaturescombined with fantasy/science fiction-inspired lyrics; however, they did not soften their sound. This fusion of hard and progressive rock continued until the end of the 1970s. In the 1980s, however, Rush successfully merged their sound with the trends of this period, experimenting with New Wave, reggae and pop rock. [Allmusic: "Signals" [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:6whqoa8abijn AllMusic.com] Accessed 18 March 2006] This period included the band's most extensive use of instruments such as synthesizers, sequencers and electronic percussion. It is largely agreed that the culmination of this era of Rush was in 1987 after the release of "Hold Your Fire". [http://www.progarchives.com/Progressive_rock_discography_CD.asp?cd_id=3083 ProgArchives] Accessed 18 March 2006] With the approach of the early '90s and Rush's character sound still intact, the band transformed their style once again to harmonize with the alternative rockmovement. [Allmusic: "Counterparts" [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:gzz1z81a8yvj AllMusic.com] Accessed 18 March 2006] The new millennium has seen them return to a more rock and roll roots sound, albeit with modern production.
* Geddy Lee –
bass guitar, lead vocals, keyboards, mellotron, bass and synthesizer pedals, electric and acoustic rhythm guitar (September 1968 – present)
* Alex Lifeson – six and twelve-string acoustic and
electric guitars, classical guitar, mandolin, mandola, Bouzouki, backing vocals, bass and synthesizer pedals (August 1968 – present)
* Neil Peart – drums, electronic and acoustic percussion (July 1974 – present)
John Rutsey– drums, percussion, backing vocals (August 1968 – July 1974)
* Jeff Jones – bass, lead vocals (August 1968 – September 1968)
More than 30 years of activity has provided Rush with the opportunity for musical diversity across their discography. As with many bands known for experimentation, such changes have inevitably resulted in dissent among critics and fans. The bulk of the band's music has always included synthetic instruments in some form or another, and this is a great source of contention in the Rush camp, especially the band's heavy reliance on synthesizers and keyboards during the 1980s, particularly on albums "Grace Under Pressure", "Power Windows", and "Hold your Fire". [Grace Under Pressure [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:kmdayl6jxpcb All Music] Accessed 18 March 2006] [Rush Profile [http://www.music.com/group/rush/1/ Music.com] Accessed 28 March 2006] Still, most fans saw this as nothing less than artistic growth and support for the band remained unwavering through each transitional phase.
The members of Rush have themselves noted that people "either love Rush or hate Rush", resulting in strong detractors and an intensely loyal fan base. To the chagrin of fans, the band has not been nominated for entry into the American Rock and Roll Hall of Fame since their year of eligibility in 1998. The Hall's refusal to induct Rush may be a consequence of the band's insistence on remaining outside the mainstream of rock when it comes to self-promotion, in favor of maintaining a high degree of independence. [Vapor Trails Interview: "R30 Interviews"] To this day fans earnestly clamor for the band's inclusion into the Hall by citing noteworthy accomplishments including longevity, proficiency, and influence, as well as commercial sales figures and RIAA certifications. However, Lifeson has expressed his indifference toward the perceived slight saying "I couldn't care less, look who's up for induction, it's a joke". [ Rock & Roll Hall of fame [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/HallOfFame.htm Power Windows website] Accessed 12 November 2007] Rush has gained a degree of recognition in popular culture despite any official recognition from the Hall. [cite web|url=http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/RushReferences.htm|title=Power Windows — A Tribute to Rush|accessdate=March 3|accessyear=2006]
As a band, Rush has been nominated for and received various awards throughout its career. Likewise, the individual members have received coverage in various modern music magazines with specific technocratic recognition for instrumental ability. See
List of Rush awardsfor more details on this topic.
Geddy Lee's high-register vocal style has always been a main signature of the band — and sometimes, a focal point for criticism, especially during the early years of Rush's career when Lee's vocals were high-pitched, with a strong likeness to other singers like
Robert Plantof Led Zeppelin. In fact, his voice is often described as a "wail". [Allmusic: Geddy Lee Biography [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:h74zeflkhgf4~T1 AllMusic.com] Accessed 18 March 2006] [East Rutherford, N.J., 16 December 1996, Concert Review [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9503E4DA1E3EF93BA25751C1A960958260 New York Times] Accessed 5 April 2006] However, his voice has softened significantly over the years. His instrumental abilities, on the other hand, are rarely criticized. An award-winning musician, Lee's style, technique, and ability on the bass guitar have proven influential in the rock and heavy metal genres, inspiring such players as Steve Harris of Iron Maiden, [Steve Harris Biography [http://ironmaiden.webvis.net/steve.html] Accessed 18 December 2006] John Myungof Dream Theater, [John Myung Biography [http://www.dtfaq.com/category/7#34] Accessed 18 December 2006] Les Claypoolof Primus [Les Claypool [http://www.ram.org/music/primus/articles/les_bday_atn.html] Accessed 18 December 2006] and Cliff Burtonof Metallica [Cliff Burton [http://www.fender.com/artists/index.php?id=6] Accessed 18 December 2006] among others. Lee is notable for his ability to operate various pieces of instrumentation simultaneously. This is mostly evident during live shows when Lee must play bass, supply lead vocals, manipulate keyboards, and trigger foot pedals during the course of a performance, as in the song " Tom Sawyer". Because of this he is required to remain in one place during songs containing complex instrumentation. Lifeson and Peart are, to a lesser extent, responsible for similar actions during live shows.
Instrumentally, Lifeson is regarded as a guitarist whose strengths and notability rely primarily on signature riffing, electronic effects and processing, unorthodox chord structures, and a copious arsenal of equipment used over the years. [Alex Lifeson profile [http://www.dinosaurrockguitar.com/bios/Lifeson.shtml Dinosaur Rock God] Accessed 31 March 2006] [Alex Lifeson minor overview [http://www.guitarplayer.com/story.asp?storycode=13124 Guitar Player] Accessed 16 July 2007] [ Alex Lifeson Archive [http://www.rusharchives.com/rush-gear/alex-lifeson/ Alex Lifeson Archive and equipment] Accessed 16 July 2007] Despite his esteem, however, Lifeson is often regarded as being overshadowed by his bandmates due to Lee's on-stage multi-instrumental dexterity and Peart's status as a drummer. [Alex Lifeson profile [http://www.allclassical.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&uid=MIW030603310631&sql=11:ghdayl7jxpnb~T1 All Classical] Accessed 31 March 2006] During his adolescent years, he was influenced primarily by
Jimi Hendrix, Pete Townshend, Jeff Beck, Eric Claptonand Jimmy Page. [Alex Lifeson profile [http://www.epiphone.com/news.asp?NewsID=137 Epiphone] Accessed 31 March 2006] For versatility, Lifeson was known to incorporate touches of Spanish and classical music into Rush's guitar-driven sound during the 1970s. Taking a backseat to Lee's keyboards in the 1980s, Lifeson's guitar returned to the forefront in the 1990s, and especially on 2002's "Vapor Trails". During live performances, he is still responsible for cuing various guitar effects, the use of bass-pedal synthesizers and backing vocals.
Peart is commonly regarded by music fans, critics and fellow musicians as one of the greatest rock drummers. [Neil Peart profile [http://www.drummerworld.com/drummers/Neil_Peart.html Drummer World] Accessed 30 March 2006] He is also regarded as one of the finest practitioners of the in-concert drum solo. [Modern Drummer Magazine April 2006 Article "Soloing in the Shadow of Giants". Modern Drummer Publishing Inc. NJ, USA.] Initially inspired by
Keith Moon, Peart absorbed the influence of other rock drummers from the 1960s and 1970s such as Ginger Baker, Carmine Appice, and John Bonham. [Anatomy of a Drum Solo DVD, Neil Peart (2005) accompanying booklet. (Republished in Modern Drummer Magazine, April 2006)] Incorporation of unusual instruments (for rock drummers of the time) such as cowbells, glockenspiel, and tubular bells, along with several standard kit elements, helped create a highly varied setup. Continually modified to this day, Peart's drumkit offers an enormous array of percussion instruments for sonic diversity. For two decades Peart honed his technique; each new Rush album introduced an expanded percussive vocabulary. In the 1990s, he reinvented his style with the help of drum coach Freddie Gruber.
Peart also serves as Rush's primary lyricist, attracting much attention over the years due to his eclectic style. Known for penning concept suites and songs inspired by literature, music fan opinions of his writing have varied greatly, running the gamut from cerebral and insightful to overly pretentious and preachy. During the band's early years, Peart's lyrics were largely fantasy/science fiction-focused, [ [http://www.johnmcferrinmusicreviews.org/rush.html Rush profile] , John Mcferrin's Rock and Prog Reviews, accessed 18 March 2006] though since 1980 he has focused more on social, emotional, and humanitarian issues. Peart's lyrics continue to divide audiences today. For example, in 2007, he was placed second on "Blender" magazine's list of the "40 Worst Lyricists In Rock". [ [http://www.blender.com/guide/articles.aspx?ID=2885 The 40 Worst Lyricists In Rock] , Blender, November 2007.]
Over the course of their career, Rush has come to release a total of 24 gold records and 14 platinum records (3 of which have gone multiplatinum), [ RIAA searchable Database [http://riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=SEARCH Recording Industry of America] 29 July 2007 ] placing them within the top 5 for the most consecutive gold albums by a rock band. [RIAA Top Artists [http://riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=tblTopArt] Recording Industry Association of America Accessed 29 July 2007 ] Rush ranks 78th in U.S. album sales according to the RIAA with sales of 25 million units. [RIAA Top Artists [http://riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=tblTopArt] Recording Industry Association of America Accessed 29 July 2007] Total worldwide sales approximate 40 million units. [ [http://classicrock.about.com/od/bandsandartists/p/rush_profile.htm] Classicrock.about.com by Dave White ] [ [http://www.rockreport.be/news.asp?monthyear=102005&start=20 Rockreport, Claim for 40 million sold albums, 5 October 2005] ] [cite news | last = | first = | coauthors = | title = Rush Turns Up The "Feedback" | publisher = Warner Music Group | year = 2004 | url = http://investors.wmg.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=182480&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=708782&highlight= | accessdate = 2007-05-09 ] [cite news | last = | first = | coauthors = | title = Rush adds second show | publisher = The Air Canada Centre (website) | date = 2007-04-27 | url = http://www.theaircanadacentre.com/aboutACC.php?level=4&articleID=277 | accessdate = 2007-05-09 ]
Despite having completely dropped out of the public eye for five years after the gold-selling "Test for Echo" (which peaked at number 5 on the "Billboard 200") and the band being relegated almost solely to classic rock stations in the U.S., "Vapor Trails" reached #6 on the "Billboard" 200 chart in its first week of release in 2002 with 108,000 albums sold. It has sold approximately 343,000 units to date. The subsequent "Vapor Trails" tour grossed over $24 million and included the largest audience ever to see a headlining Rush show — 60,000 fans in
São Paulo, Brazil. Nevertheless, "Vapor Trails" remains their first album not to achieve at least gold status.
However, Rush's triple CD live album, 2003's "Rush in Rio", was certified gold by the RIAA, marking the fourth decade in which a Rush album had been released and certified at least gold. Moreover, in 2004 "Feedback" cracked the top 20 on the "Billboard" 200 chart and received radio airplay. The band's most recent album, "
Snakes & Arrows", debuted at #3 (just one position shy of Rush's highest peaking album, 1993's "Counterparts", which debuted at #2) on the "Billboard 200" selling approximately 93,000 copies in its first week of release. [ Power Windows Website [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/News.htm Snakes & Arrows chart rankings] Accessed 7 August 2007] This marks the 13th studio album to appear in the Top 20 and the band's 27th album to appear on the chart regardless of position over the course of their career. The album also debuted at #1 on the Billboard's Top Rock Albums chart, as well as peaking at #1 on the Top Internet Albums chart when the album was released on the MVI format a month later. [ Power Windows Website [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/S&Anews.htm Snakes and Arrows news page] Accessed 7 August 2007] Still, "Snakes & Arrows" has yet to accumulate sales that approach or eclipse "Vapor Trails" or "Rush in Rio".
The two consecutive tours in support of "Snakes & Arrows" in 2007 and 2008 accrued $21 million and $18.3 million, respectively, earning Rush the number 6 and 8 spots among the top ten summer rock concerts. [ Summer Concert earnings [http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/22026885/midyear_music_biz_report_card/3 Rolling Stone Magazine] Accessed 8 August 2008] [ Summer concert earnings [http://www.usatoday.com/life/music/news/2007-10-10-summer-concerts_N.htm USAToday] Accessed 8 August 2008]
The members of Rush share a strong work ethic, desiring to accurately recreate songs from their albums when playing live performances. Toward this goal, beginning in the late 1980s, Rush has included in their concert equipment a capacious rack of digital samplers which the band members use, in real-time, to recreate the sounds of non-traditional instruments, accompaniments, vocal harmonies, and other sound "events" that are familiarly heard on the studio versions of the songs.
In live performances, the band members share duties throughout most songs, with each member triggering certain sounds with his available limbs, while playing his primary instrument(s). Each band member has one or more
MIDI controllers that enables him to use his free hands or feet to trigger sounds that have been loaded into the samplers for a particular song. [ [http://www.onstagemag.com/ar/performance_rush_rolls_again/index.htm "Rush Rolls Again", September 2002, OnStage Magazine] ] It is with this technology that the group is able to present their arrangements in a live setting with the level of complexity and fidelity that fans have come to expect, and without the need to resort to the use of backing tracksor employing an additional band member. [Peart, Neil [http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/transcripts/peartbscpresto.htm Rush Backstage Club Newsletter, March 1990, via "Power Windows" Rush Fan Site] ]
The band members' coordinated use of foot-pedal keyboards and other electronic triggers to "play" sampled instruments and audio events is subtly visible in their live performances, especially so on , their 2005 concert
A staple of Rush's concerts is a Peart drum solo. Peart's drum solos include a basic framework of routines connected by sections of improvisation, making each performance unique. Each successive tour sees the solo more advanced, with some routines dropped in favor of newer, more complex ones. Since the mid-1980s, Peart has used MIDI trigger pads to trigger sounds sampled from various pieces of acoustic percussion that would otherwise consume far too much stage area, such as a
marimba, harp, temple blocks, triangles, glockenspiel, orchestra bells, tubular bells, and vibra-slapas well as other, more esoteric percussion.
Rush actively participates in philanthropic causes. The band was one of a number of hometown favorites to play
Molson Canadian Rocks for Toronto, also dubbed SARStock, at Downsview Parkin Torontoon 30 July 2003, with an attendance of over half a million people. The concert was intended to benefit the Canadian economy after the SARSoutbreaks earlier in the year. The band has also sustained an interest in promoting human rights. They donated $100,000 to the Canadian Museum for Human Rightsafter a concert they held in Winnipeg on 24 May 2008. [Winnipeg First (29 May 2008) [http://www.winnipegfirst.ca/article/2008/05/29/rush_contribute_to_canadian_museum_for_human_rights Rush Contribute to Canadian Museum for Human Rights] accessed 25 July 2008] Rush continues to sell t-shirts and donate the proceeds to the museum. [CBC News (28 May 2008) [http://www.cbc.ca/canada/manitoba/story/2008/05/28/rush-cmhr.html?ref=rss Rockers Rush donate cash to human rights museum] accessed 25 July 2008]
The individual members of Rush have also been a part of philanthropic causes.
Hughes & KettnerzenTeras and TriAmps have been endorsed and used by Lifeson for many years. A custom signature amplifier was engineered by Lifeson and released in April 2005 with the stipulation that UNICEFwill receive a donation in the amount of $50 for every Alex Lifeson Signature TriAmp sold. [ Signature Amp Donation [http://www.record-producer.com/learn.cfm?a=1963 Hughes & Kettner Introduces Alex Lifeson Signature TriAmp] Accessed 25 July 2008] Lee, a longtime fan of baseball, donated 200 baseballs signed by famous Negro Leagueplayers, including Willie Mays, Hank Aaronand Josh Gibson, to the Negro Leagues Museum in June 2008. [MLB News (6 June 2008) [http://mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20080606&content_id=2853667&vkey=news_mlb&fext=.jsp&c_id=mlb Rush's Lee Makes Big Donataion] accessed 25 July 2008]
The band is featured on the music album "
Songs for Tibet", appearing with a number of other celebrities as an initiative to support Tibetand the current Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso. The album was made downloadable on August 5 via iTunesand was released commercially August 12. [E-Online (22 July 2008) [http://uk.eonline.com/uberblog/b147502_sting_matthews_mayer_gamer_tibet_beijing.html Sting, Matthews, Mayer Gamer for Tibet Than Beijing] ]
*"Fly by Night" (1975)
Caress of Steel" (1975)
A Farewell to Kings" (1977)
Permanent Waves" (1980)
*"Moving Pictures" (1981)
*"Grace Under Pressure" (1984)
*"Power Windows" (1985)
Hold Your Fire" (1987)
Roll the Bones" (1991)
Test for Echo" (1996)
Vapor Trails" (2002)
Snakes & Arrows" (2007)
List of Rush awards
* "Rush: Visions: The Official Biography" – Banasiewicz, Bill. (1988), Omnibus Press – ISBN 0-7119-1162-2
* "Rush Tribute: Merely Players" – Telleria, Robert (2002) – ISBN 1-55082-271-3
* "Rush: Success Under Pressure" – Gett, Steve. (1984) – ISBN 0-89524-230-3
* "Rhythm & Light" – Nuttall, Carrie, (2005), Rounder Books, ISBN 1-57940-093-0
* "Drum Techniques of Rush" – Peart (1985) – ISBN 0-7692-5055-6
* "More Drum Techniques of Rush" – Peart, Wheeler (1989) – ISBN 0-7692-5051-3
* "The Masked Rider: Cycling in West Africa" – Peart (1999) – ISBN 1-895900-02-6
* "" – Peart (2002) – ISBN 1-55022-546-4 (hardcover), ISBN 1-55022-548-0 (paperback)
* "Traveling Music: Playing Back the Soundtrack to My Life and Times" – Peart (2004) – ISBN 1-55022-664-9
* "Contents Under Pressure: 30 Years of Rush at Home and Away" – Popoff, Martin. Publisher: Ecw Press (28 June 2004) – ISBN 1-55022-678-9
* "Mystic Rhythms: The Philosophical Vision of Rush" – Price, et al. (1999) – ISBN 1-58715-102-2
* "Rush: Chemistry : The Definitive Biography " – Collins, Jon. (2006) Helter Skelter Publishing – ISBN 1-900924-85-4 (Hardcover)
* "Roadshow: Landscape With Drums - A Concert Tour By Motorcycle" – Peart (2006), Rounder – ISBN 1-57940-142-2
* [http://myslu.stlawu.edu/~shorwitz/Rush/JARS.pdf "Rand, Rush, and De-totalizing the Utopianism of Progressive Rock" by Steven Horwitz (2002)]
* [http://durrellbowman.com/textual_undercoding_2004.html "Textu(r)al Undercoding and the Music of the Rock Band Rush: String Quartets, Death Metal, Trip-Hop, and other Tributes" by Dr. Durrell Bowman (2004/2002)]
* [http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a793272011~db=all~order=page "'Open Secrets': Individualism and Middle-Class Identity in the songs of Rush," "Popular Music and Society" Volume 31 No. 3, July 2008, pp. 313-328, by Chris McDonald.]
* [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bpl/jacc/2002/00000025/F0020003/art00003 "'Making Arrows Out of Pointed Words': Critical Reception, Taste Publics and Rush," "Journal of American and Comparative Cultures", Volume 25 No. 3-4, September 2002, pp. 249-259, by Chris McDonald]
* [http://www.yorku.ca/grdmusic/Phd.html "Grand Designs: A Musical, Social and Ethographic Study of Rush" (dissertation, Ph.D. in ethnomusicology, York University, 2002) by Chris McDonald]
* "Structure, Function and Process in the Early Song Cycles and Extended Songs of the Canadian Rock Group Rush" (dissertation, Ph.D. in music theory, Ohio State University, 2002) by Brian Walsh
* [http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/humnet/musicology/grads/bowman/PDFS/DBowman_dissertation.pdf "Permanent Change: Rush, Musicians' Rock, and the Progressive Post-Counterculture" (dissertation, Ph.D. in musicology, UCLA, 2003) by Dr. Durrell Bowman]
* [http://www.rush.com Official Rush Home Page]
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