Ningbo


Ningbo
Ningbo
宁波
—  Sub-provincial city  —
宁波市
Clockwise from top: Ningbo's Skyline, Tianyi Square, Tianyi Chamber, Port of Ningbo, Hangzhou Bay Bridge, and Tianfeng Pagoda
Ningbo City (yellow) in Zhejiang
Ningbo is located in China
Ningbo
Location in China
Coordinates: 29°52′N 121°33′E / 29.867°N 121.55°E / 29.867; 121.55
Country People's Republic of China
Province Zhejiang
County-level divisions 11
Township divisions 148
Government
 – CPC Ningbo Committee Secretary Wang Huizhong (王辉忠)
 – Mayor Liu Qi[disambiguation needed ] (刘奇)
Area
 – Sub-provincial city 9,521 km2 (3,676.1 sq mi)
Elevation 150 m (488 ft)
Population (2010 census)[1]
 – Sub-provincial city 7,605,700
 – Density 798.8/km2 (2,069/sq mi)
 – Urban 3,089,180
 – Metro 3,089,180
Time zone China Standard Time (UTC+8)
Postal code 315000
Area code(s) 574
GDP 2009[1]
 - Total CNY 421.46 billion (USD 61.72 billion)
 - per capita CNY 73,998 (USD 10,836)
 - Growth increase 8.6%
Website www.ningbo.gov.cn (Chinese)
City trees
Camphor Laurel Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb.)
City flowers
Camellia
Ningbo
Simplified Chinese 宁波
Traditional Chinese 寧波
Wu nyinpou
Literal meaning tranquil waves

Ningbo (Chinese: 宁波; pinyin: About this sound Níngbō ; Ningbo dialect: About this sound Nyinpou ) is a seaport city of northeastern Zhejiang province, Eastern China. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, the municipality has a population of 7,605,700 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 3,089,180 in the built up area made of 6 urban districts. It lies south of the Hangzhou Bay, facing the East China Sea to the east. Ningbo borders Shaoxing to the west and Taizhou to the south, and is separated from Zhoushan by a narrow body of water.

Contents

Etymology

The first character in the city's name (宁 or 寧) means "serene", while its second character (波) translates to "waves". Together, the name literally means "Serene Waves". The city is abbreviated Yǒng (甬), after the Yong Hill (甬山), a prominent coastal hill near the city, just like the Yong River (甬江) that flows through Ningbo. The abbreviation Ning is used more commonly for Nanjing.

It was once named "明州" (Míngzhōu). The character Ming (明) was composed by two parts, representing two lakes inside the city wall, i.e., the Sun Lake (日湖) and the Moon Lake (月湖), but only Moon Lake remains.

History

Ningbo is one of China's oldest cities, with a history dating back to the Hemudu culture in 4800 BC . Once known as Mingzhou (明州), Ningbo was known as a trade city on the silk road at least two thousand years ago, and then as a major port, along with Yangzhou and Guangzhou in the Tang Dynasty; thereafter, the major ports for foreign trade in the Song Dynasty.

Tang and Song dynasty

Since the Tang dynasty Ningbo was an important commercial port. Arab merchants lived in Ningbo during the Song dynasty when it was known as Mingzhou, due to the fact that the ocean going trade passsages took precedence over land trade during this time.[2][3] Another name for Mingzhou/Ningbo was Siming. It was a well known center of ocean going commerce with the foreign world.[4] These merchants did not intermingle with native Chinese, practicing their own customs and religion and they inhabited ghettos. They did not try to proselytize Islam to Chinese.[5]

Ming Dynasty

The city of Ningbo was known in Europe for a long time under the name of Liampó. This is the usual spelling used e.g. in the standard Portuguese history, João de Barros's Décadas da Ásia, although Barros explained that Liampó was a Portuguese "corruption" of the more correct Nimpó.;[6][7] the spelling Liampó is also attested in the Peregrination (Peregrinação) by Fernão Mendes Pinto, a (so-called) autobiography written in Portuguese during 16th century. For the mid-16th century Portuguese, the nearby promontory, which they called the cape of Liampó, after the nearby "illustrious city" was the easternmost known point of the mainland Asia.[6]

Massacre of Portuguese community

After the Portuguese bribed their way into obtaining a trade mission in Ningbo, they inflicted savage behaviour against the Chinese. In retaliation, in 1545 the entire Portuguese community of Ningbo were exterminated by Chinese forces.[8][9][10][11][12] The Portuguese began trading in Ningbo around 1522. By 1542, the Portuguese had a sizable community in Ningbo (or, more likely, on nearby small islands). Portuguese activities from their Ningbo base included pillaging and attacking multiple Chinese port cities around Ningbo for plunder and spoil. They also enslaved people during their raids.[13][14] The resulting complaints made it to the province's governor who commanded the settlement destroyed and the inhabitants wiped out. In 1542 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their expulsion in 1545, when a force of 60,000 Chinese troops descended on the community, 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed.[15][16][17][18]

In 1564, Portugal commanded the trade of India, Japan, and China, though their pride was deeply shocked at the supreme indifference with which the Chinese treated them. Their atrocities at Ningpo and Macao, and their subsequent servility, had opened the eyes of the Celestials to their true character, and unfortunately for other European adventurers, they had come to the conclusion that all western nations were alike. The senate of Macao complained to the viceroy of Goa, of the contempt with which the Chinese authorities treated them, confessing however that, “it was owing more to the Portuguese themselves than to the Chinese.” The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal to the port of Macao, in 1631.[19]

Qing dynasty

Ningbo was one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened by the Treaty of Nanjing (signed in 1842) at the end of the First Opium War between Britain and China. During the war, British forces took possession of the walled city of Ningbo briefly after storming the fortified town of Zhenhai at the mouth of the Yong River on October 10, 1841. The British repulsed a Chinese attempt to retake the city in the Battle of Ningpo on March 10, 1842. In 1864, the forces of the Taiping Rebellion held the town for six months. In March 1885, during the Sino-French War, Admiral Courbet's naval squadron blockaded several Chinese warships in Zhenhai Bay and exchanged fire with the shore defences.

Ningbo was once famed for traditional Chinese furniture production.

During the Qing dynasty, western encyclopedias described Ningbo as a center of craftsmanship and industry- "The gold and silversmiths of Ningpo are noted for the delicacy and tastefulness of their work, and Ningpo confectionery is celebrated all over China. The specialty of the place, however, is its elegantly carved and inlaid furniture. Silk-culture is extensively carried on in the surrounding country, and silk-weaving is an important industry. In 1893 498 piculs of silk piece-goods were exported. The development of manufacturing interests in Japan has given a groat impetus to cotton-culture, and in 1893 the steam cotton-ginning establishments of Ningpo cleaned over 60,000 piculs of raw cotton."[20][21][22][23][24][25][26]

A caste of "degraded" outcasts existed in Ningbo city during the Qing dynasty, around 3,000 people in a class called "to min". These "to min" people were said to be Jin Dynasty (1115–1234) (aka Kin dynasty) descendants. Normal people refused to fraternize with them, the min were forced to enter professions such as play-acting, music, sedan-bearing, matchmaking, barbery, they were identified by a unique dress and always had with them a checkered handkerchief bundle. They were barred from taking the Imperial examination and having normal professions.[27][28][29][30]

A detailed account of an Englishman who stayed in Ningbo can be found in The Chinese repository, Volume 13, published in 1844. He visited the mosque of the local Hui people. The imam was from Shandong, and claimed to be a descendant of Muslims from the city of Medina. He spoke both Arabic and Chinese, and could read Arabic as well. Around 30 families attended his congregation, Quranic verses decorated his apartments, and his possessions included Muslim holy texts and clothing. However, the imam described Hangzhou as being the "Stronghold" of Islam in the region.[31]

The Hui population of Ningbo were descended from Hui people from Shandong who moved to Ningbo during the 1600s. Their main profession was trade, and they spoke the Shandong Mandarin dialect. The Hui Muslim mosque was called "Hwuy-Hwuy Tang" HuiHui Tang, in Chinese. The keepers of the building were from Shandong and spoke Mandarin. The mosque was a small building, with many Arabic inscriptions, 500 muslims lived in Ningbo. There was formerly a Jewish synagogue in Ningbo, as well as one in Hangzhou, but no traces of them are now discoverable, and the only Jews known to exist in China are in Kaifeng.[32] These Hui could speak Mandarin Chinese, and read and write Arabic, but were not able to read a single Chinese character.[33][34] The Ah-hung (Imam) of the Hui community in Ningbo was always from Shandong, their home province. The Ah-hung which the Englishman met was originally from Chi-nan Fu (in Shandong) but for twenty years had been living at Ningbo and Hangzhou. He had an Arabic New Testament in his possision, and he told western missionaries about Jewish communities living in Changsha, Hunan, and at Hangzhou. He mentioned that at Hangzhou are some families of the Kwan Ch'uan-kiao, i.e., the patriarchal sect. [35]

When the Chinese Jewish community existed in Ningbo, floods and fire repeatedly destroyed the books of the Kaifeng Jewish synagogue, they obtained some from Ningxia and Ningbo to replace them, another Hebrew roll of law was bought from a Muslim in Ning-keang-chow in Shen-se (Shanxi), who acquired it from a dying Jew at Canton. [36]

Massacre of Portuguese pirates

During the Qing dynasty, in the 1800s, the Ningbo authorities contracted Cantonese pirates to exterminate and massacre Portuguese pirates who raided Cantonese shipping around Ningbo. The massacre was "successful", with 40 Portuguese dead and only 2 Chinese dead, being dubbed "The Ningpo Massacre" by an English correspondent, who noted that the Portuguese pirates had behaved savagely towards the Chinese, and that the Portuguese authorities at Macau should have reigned in the pirates.

Portuguese pirates who raided Cantonesee shipping in the early 1800s were exterminated by Cantonese forces around Ningbo.[37]

The Ningbonese people supported the Cantonese massacre of the Portuguese pirates and the attack on the Portuguese consul. The Cantonese did not see the Portuguese as the same as other Europeans, not being afraid of them and fighting them man to man. The Ningbo authorities had made an agreement with a Cantonese pirate named A'Pak to exterminate the Portuguese pirates. The Portuguese did not even try to fight when the Cantonese pirates sacked their consulate, trying to flee and hide among the tombs, the Cantonese butchered around 40 Portuguese while sacking the consulate. Only two Chinese and one Englishman who sided with the Cantonese died.[38][39]

Republican Era

During World War II in 1940, Japan bombed Ningbo with fleas carrying the bubonic plague.[40] According to Daniel Barenblatt, Prince Tsuneyoshi Takeda received, with Prince Mikasa, a special screening by Shiro Ishii of a film showing imperial planes loading germ bombs for bubonic dissemination over Ningbo in 1940.[41]

"It has been said of the Ningbo fishermen that, 'no people in the world apparently made so great an advance in the art of fishing; and for centuries past no people have made so little further progress.'"[42]

Geography and climate

  • Ningbo covers an area of 9,365 square kilometres (3,616 sq mi) and has a total coastline of 1,562 km (971 mi) including 788 km (490 mi) of mainland coastline and 774 km (481 mi) of island coastline.
  • Climatic Features: monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa), featuring temperate and humid weather and four distinct seasons; frost-free period of 230–240 days
  • Mean Temperature: annual-17.0 °C (62.6 °F), January-4.8 °C (40.6 °F), July-29.0 °C (84.2 °F)
  • Average Rainfall: 1,450 millimetres (57.1 in)

Administrative Structure

The mayor of Ningbo is Liu Qi[disambiguation needed ]. Wang Huizhong is the secretary of CPC in Ningbo, who is first-in-charge of the city.

Ningbo Local Government Offices

    • Ningbo Foreign Affairs Office[45]
    • Ningbo Foreign Trade & Economic Cooperation Bureau[46]
    • Ningbo Govt.[47]

The sub-provincial city of Ningbo has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts (区 qu) (urban), 3 county-level cities (市 shi) and 2 Counties (县 xian):

Subdivisions of Ningbo-China.png Subdivision
Ningbo City Proper
Haishu-qu 海曙区
Jiangdong-qu 江东区
Jiangbei-qu 江北区
Zhenhai-qu 镇海区
Beilun-qu 北仑区
Yinzhou-qu 鄞州区
Ningbo Suburban and Rural
Yuyao-shi 余姚市
Cixi-shi 慈溪市
Fenghua-shi 奉化市
Ninghai-xian 宁海县
Xiangshan-xian 象山县

Economy

Ningbo is an important port city located 220 km south of Shanghai. The city's export industry dates back to the 7th century. Today Ningbo is a major exporter of electrical products, textiles, food, and industrial tools.

Historically Ningbo was geographically isolated from other major cities. In 2007 the Hangzhou Bay Bridge was built, cutting highway transit time between the two port cities to two and a half hours from four.

In 2009, Ningbo's economic activity reached USD 60.8 billion, down 10.4% from 2008. The exports totalled USD 38.65 billion, down 16.6% from the previous year. In addition, Ningbo imported USD 22.16 billion of goods, up 3.1% from the previous year.[48]

Ningbo's economy grew 8.6 percent in 2009 to 421.5 billion yuan (US$61.7 billion). The city's per capita output was US$10,833, about three times the national average.[49]

Ningbo is famous for the Si Lan Nong Xiang flower. Used for dying cloth, 2008 exports were responsible for 3% of the Ningbo economic growth.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

Ningbo Economic & Technological Development Zone

Located in the north-east of Ningbo, behind Beilun Port, NETD is 27 kilometers away from the city center. With more than 20 years of great effort, NETD has already formed the general framework for large scale construction and development, and established perfect investment environment. It is situated close to the Ningbo Port and Ningbo Lishe International Airport. Major Investors include Exxon Mobile, Dupont and Dow Chemical.[50]

Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in 1999 and was upgraded to a national level zone in January 2007. It is only 10 km away from Ningbo International Airport and 18 km away from Ningbo Port. The zone serves as the important technical innovation base of Yangtze River Delta. Industries encouraged include Chemicals Production and Processing, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Raw Material Processing, Research and Development.[51]

Ningbo Free Trade Zone

Ningbo Free Trade Zone is one of the 15 free trade zones authorized by the State Council of China, and is the only free trade zone in Zhejiang Province. It was established by State Council in 1992, covering the area of 2.3 square kilometers. It lies in the middle of the coastline of Mainland China, at the south of Yangtze River Delta. In 2008, its industrial output value was RMB 53.33 billion and grew at 19.8% as compared to 2007.[52]

Nordic Industrial Park

The Nordic Industrial Park Co. Ltd. (NIP) is one of the first wholly foreign-owned industrial parks in China located in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. NIP is managed and operated by a Scandinavian management team.[53]

Ningbo Port

Ningbo is not just an ordinary city – it has the same authority as provincial governments for economic administration – and has a port second only to Shanghai around the world in terms of annual cargo throughput. Unlike Shanghai, the port is deepwater and capable of handling 300,000 tonne vessels. The port is located mainly in Beilun district and Zhenhai district. In 2006, Ningbo Port started its expansion to the neighbouring island City of Zhoushan for the purpose of building a even larger port with higher capacity to compete with neighbouring ports in the region, such as Shanghai's Yangshan Deep-Water Port. The statistics in 2010 showed that total cargo throughput was 627,000,000 tonnes and container throughput 13,144,000 TEUs. With bulk container breakdowns, hugely improved logistics, and massive chemical and foodstuff, processing developments, Ningbo could yet win the race with Shanghai as port of choice for servicing the Chinese east coast.[54]

Tourism

The Junjing Hall (尊经阁) located within the Tianyi Chamber
Ningbo along rivers
  • Tianyi Pavilion Museum, (Tian Yi Ge Bowuguan) Ningbo's best tourist attraction, the Tianyi Chamber (daily 8am-4.30pm; ¥20), is comfortably tucked away in the vicinity of Moon Lake (Yuehu). Built in 1516 and said to be the oldest surviving library building in China, it was founded by Ming official Fan Qin, whose collection went back to the 11th century and included woodblock and handwritten copies of the Confucian classics, rare local histories and lists of the candidates successful in imperial examinations. Nowadays you can visit the library's garden and outhouses, some of which contain small displays of old books and tablets. It's quite a charming place and the gold-plated, wood-paneled buildings, their bamboo groves, pool and rockery still preserve an atmosphere of seclusion, contemplation and study.
  • Baoguo Temple, the oldest intact wooden structure in Southern China, is located in Jiangbei District, 15 km north of Ningbo city.
  • Tianfeng Pagoda
  • Qingan Association
King Ashoka Temple.
  • Ashoka Temple
  • Tiantong Temple
  • Tian Yi Square
  • Yushan Islands
  • Dongqian Lake
  • Xuedou Temple
  • Hemudu Relics
  • Jiulong Lake
  • Zhaobao Mountain
  • Mount Phoenix Theme Park

Notable people

The monument of victory in the Battle of Zhenhai (Sino-French War)

Many well known Chinese came from Ningbo or their ancestral home was Ningbo.

People in mainland China

  • Zhang Jianhong (張建紅), freelance writer, playwright, poet, and also a democracy activist.
  • Pan Tianshou (潘天寿), artist in Chinese painting.
  • Zhou Xinfang (周信芳), artist in Peking Opera.
  • Sha Menghai (沙孟海), the Master Calligrapher.

People in Hong Kong

People in Taiwan

People overseas

Transportation

Zhao bao shan Bridge, Zhenhai District, Ningbo

Bridge

As there are three main rivers running through Ningbo, it is crucial to build bridges to improve the efficiency of transport network in Ningbo. The Ling Bridge which connects Haishu district and Jiangdong District is the earliest modern bridge built in Ningbo, designed by German engineers. Since the late 1980s, 16 bridges have been built on the three rivers. Currently another 27 bridges are under construction. The Hangzhou Bay Bridge, a combination cable-stayed bridge and causeway across Hangzhou Bay, opened to the public on May 1, 2008. This bridge connects the municipalities of Shanghai and Ningbo, and is considered the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world. It is the world's second-longest bridge, after the Lake Ponchartrain Causeway in Louisiana, USA. The Jintang Bridge, linking Jintang Island of Zhoushan and the Zhenhai district, is a 27-kilometer long, 4 lane sea crossing bridge which opened on December 26, 2009.

Sea

The port of Ningbo is one of the world's busiest ports, ranked 2nd by cargo tonnage in 2008, and 7th in TEU.

Air

Ningbo Lishe International Airport connects Ningbo by air to the rest of China, with regularly scheduled domestic and international flights. In 2009, new air routes between Ningbo and Taiwan were opened. Jetstar Asia also launched a new air routes between Ningbo and Singapore which commerce in 2011 September.

Railway

Two railway lines intersect in Ningbo: the Xiaoshan-Ningbo Railway (Xiaoyong Line), which runs west to Hangzhou and the Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou (Yongtaiwen) Railway, which runs south to Wenzhou. With the booming economy in the region, the Xiaoyong Railway, a conventional railway built in the 1950s, cannot meet the demand for railway travel between Zhejiang's two largest cities, so construction of a new high-speed railway line between Hangzhou and Ningbo started in 2009. The new railway line will be finished by 2011, and will reduce travel time between Ningbo and Hangzhou to 26 minutes. The Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway is a high-speed railway that opened in September 2009. It connects Ningbo with cities along the coast to the south to Fujian Province. High-speed trains on this line operate at speeds of up to 250 km/hour.

Expressway

Five expressways connect Ningbo with its surrounding cities:

  • The Hangyong expressway, built in the 1990s, connects Hangzhou and Ningbo, now part of Hangzhou Bay ring expressway (G9211).
  • The Yongtaiwen expressway (G15), opened in 2000, connects Ningbo with Taizhou and Wenzhou.
  • The Yongjin expressway (G1512) connects Ningbo and Jinhua.
  • The Huyong expressway (G15) connects Ningbo and Shanghai via the Hangzhou Bay bridge.
  • The Yongzhou expressway (G9211) via Jintang Bridge.[55]

The first phase of Ningbo ring expressway also opened in 2007, connecting western parts of districts around the city of Ningbo. The second phase is expected to open on 2012. Another expressway connecting Ningbo and Taizhou via Xiangshan county is currently under construction.

Subway line

Ningbo has been constructing two subway lines, Line 1 and Line 2. Both lines are scheduled to be finished in the year 2015. Altogether, future plans foresee that there will eventually be 6 subway lines serving Ningbo.

Military

Ningbo is the headquarters of the East Sea Fleet of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy. Its responsibility includes projecting force in the region around the Republic of China (Taiwan), which the People's Republic of China views as a renegade province.

Food

Ningbo is known for Ningbo Tangyuan, small stuffed buns which are boiled. The stuffing is usually ground sesame mixed with sugar. It can also be mixed with pork. The stuffing is wrapped with sticky rice powder.

Education

Universities and colleges

Ningbo has four universities. Towards the north of the city is Ningbo University, while the Ningbo Higher Education Zone (Yinzhou district) is home to Zhejiang Wanli University as well as the University of Nottingham Ningbo, China – a joint venture between the University of Nottingham and the Wanli Education Group. Affiliated to Zhejiang University, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, which was ranked as the eleventh best of independent colleges in China in 2011 [56], is also located in this beautiful education zone.

Secondary and primary education

Compulsory education (basic education in Chinese terms) is from the age 6 -15. Students are catered for in a variety of state and private schools. Studying for the gaokao (university entrance test) is optional.[57]

International Education

Several schools are permitted to operate educational programmes instead of the Chinese National curriculum and accept international students into their schools.

Access International Academy Ningbo (AIAN) offers a US curriculum with the College Board Advanced Placement examinations, Ningbo Zhicheng School International is an IB World School and offers an international curriculum through the IB Diploma Programme, Ningbo International School has an Australian curriculum and offers its school leavers the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) while the Huamao Multicultural Education Academy offers education until age 16.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Ningbo is twinned with:

Sister cities

Cities of friendly exchanges (Chinese: 友好交流关系城市)

See also

References

  •  This article incorporates text from Johnson's universal cyclopedia: a new edition, by A.J. Johnson Company, a publication from 1895 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Universal cyclopædia and atlas, Volume 8, a publication from 1909 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Johnson's universal cyclopaedia, Volume 6, by Charles Kendall Adams, a publication from 1895 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Universal cyclopaedia and atlas, Volume 8, by Charles Kendall Adams, Rossiter Johnson, a publication from 1902 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from appleton's new practical cyclopedia, a publication from 1910 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Appleton's new practical cyclopedia: a new work of reference based upon the best authorities, and systematically arranged for use in home and school, by Marcus Benjamin, Arthur Elmore Bostwick, Gerald Van Casteel, George Jotham Hagar, a publication from 1910 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The universal cyclopaedia, a publication from 1900 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Universal cyclopædia and atlas, Volume 8, by Charles Kendall Adams, Rossiter Johnson, a publication from 1901 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Middle kingdom: a survey of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ..., by Samuel Wells Williams, a publication from 1848 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Middle Kingdom: a survey of the geography, government, literature, social life, arts, and history of the Chinese empire and its inhabitants, Volume 1, by Samuel Wells Williams, a publication from 1882 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The middle kingdom; a survey of the Chinese empire and its inhabitants, by Samuel Wells Williams, a publication from 1883 now in the public domain in the United States.
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  •  This article incorporates text from The Chinese repository, Volume 13, a publication from 1844 now in the public domain in the United States.
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  6. ^ a b João de Barros, Décadas da Ásia; 1st Decade, Book IX, Chapter VII. Lisbon, 1552 (e.g., pp. 336-337, in the 1988 reprint)
  7. ^ João de Barros, Décadas da Ásia, 3rd Decade, Book II, Chapter VII. Lisbon, 1563 (folio 44 in the original edition and the 1992 facsimile reprint)
  8. ^ Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. Volume 7 of Europe and the World in Age of Expansion. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0816608539. http://books.google.com/books?id=B9jOp9SlQIwC&pg=PA226&dq=The+Portuguese,+who+considered+all+Eastern+peoples+legitimate+prey,+established+trading+settlements+at+Ningpo+and+in+Fukien,+but+both+were+wiped+out+by+massacres+in+1545+and+1549.&hl=en&ei=_C2fTurjFqrb0QHx9NytCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20Portuguese%2C%20who%20considered%20all%20Eastern%20peoples%20legitimate%20prey%2C%20established%20trading%20settlements%20at%20Ningpo%20and%20in%20Fukien%2C%20but%20both%20were%20wiped%20out%20by%20massacres%20in%201545%20and%201549.&f=false. Retrieved 18 October 2011. "The Portuguese, who considered all Eastern peoples legitimate prey, established trading settlements at Ningpo and in Fukien, but both were wiped out by massacres in 1545 and 1549. For some years the Portuguese were second only to the" 
  9. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1964). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (4, reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 235. http://books.google.com/books?ei=gzCfTsmcFYXI0AGv6PySCQ&ct=result&id=MkBwAAAAMAAJ&dq=A+settlement+which+the+Portuguese+established+near+Ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+a+massacre+%281545%29%2C+and+a+similar+fate+overtook+a+trading+colony+in+Fukien+%281549%29.+For+a+time+the+Portuguese+retained+a+precarious+tenure+only+on+islands+south+of+Canton&q=Ningpo+massacre+1545. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  10. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1486). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2. 9 (2 ed.). Macmillan. p. 313. http://books.google.com/books?ei=4TCfTpa8NKby0gHktryACQ&ct=result&id=ixAhAAAAMAAJ&dq=A+settlement+which+the+Portuguese+established+near+Ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+a+massacre+%281545%29%2C+and+a+similar+fate+overtook+a+trading+colony+in+Fukien+%281549%29.+For+a+time+the+Portuguese+retained+a+precarious+tenure+only+on+islands+south+of+Canton&q=ningpo+massacre+1545. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  11. ^ John William Parry (1969). Spices: The story of spices. The spices described. Volume 1 of Spices. Chemical Pub. Co.. p. 102. http://books.google.com/books?id=llo-AQAAIAAJ&q=The+Portuguese+succeeded+in+establishing+a+settlement+near+Ningpo+which+was+wiped+out+by+massacre+in+1545;+another+Portuguese+settlement+in+Fukien+province+met+a+similar+fate+in+1549,+but+they+finally+succeeded+in+establishing+a&dq=The+Portuguese+succeeded+in+establishing+a+settlement+near+Ningpo+which+was+wiped+out+by+massacre+in+1545;+another+Portuguese+settlement+in+Fukien+province+met+a+similar+fate+in+1549,+but+they+finally+succeeded+in+establishing+a&hl=en&ei=lzGfTrWnGsL40gGyh-2JCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The Portuguese succeeded in establishing a settlement near Ningpo which was wiped out by massacre in 1545; another Portuguese settlement in Fukien province met a similar fate in 1549, but they finally succeeded in establishing a" (the University of California)
  12. ^ Witold Rodziński (1983). A history of China, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Pergamon Press. p. 203. ISBN 0080218067. http://books.google.com/books?ei=pjGfTvKME-H20gG_68DzCA&ct=result&id=X63tAAAAMAAJ&dq=In+1545+the+Portuguese+colony+in+Ningpo+was+completely+wiped+out+after+three+years+of+existence+and+later%2C+in+1+549%2C+the+same+fate+met+the+settlement+in+Ch%27+iianchou.+Somewhat+later%2C+the+Portuguese+did+succeed+finally+in+gaining&q=1545+wiped. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A further attempt was made by the Portuguese in 1 522 by Af fonso de Mello Coutinho which also suffered defeat. In spite of these initial setbacks the Portuguese succeeded, probably by bribing local officials, in establishing themselves in Ningpo (Chekiang) and in Ch' uanchou (Fukien), where considerable trade with the Chinese was developed. In both cases, however, the unspeakably brutal behavious of the Portuguese caused a revulsion of Chinese feeling against the newcomers. In 1545 the Portuguese colony in Ningpo was completely wiped out after three years of existence and later, in 1 549, the same fate met the settlement in Ch' iianchou. Somewhat later, the Portuguese did succeed finally in gaining" (the University of Michigan)
  13. ^ Sergeĭ Leonidovich Tikhvinskiĭ (1983). Modern history of China. Progress Publishers. p. 57. http://books.google.com/books?id=dCrVAAAAMAAJ&q=In+the+late+1540s,+there+were+more+than+3,000+people+there,+some+1,200+of+them+Portuguese.+From+this+base+the+latter+raided+neighbouring+coastal+cities,+pillaging+and+taking+people+into+slavery.+The+Chinese+authorities+responded+with+armed+expeditions+against+them+and,+finally,+the+Portuguese+had+to+abandon+the+factory+in+1540.&dq=In+the+late+1540s,+there+were+more+than+3,000+people+there,+some+1,200+of+them+Portuguese.+From+this+base+the+latter+raided+neighbouring+coastal+cities,+pillaging+and+taking+people+into+slavery.+The+Chinese+authorities+responded+with+armed+expeditions+against+them+and,+finally,+the+Portuguese+had+to+abandon+the+factory+in+1540.&hl=en&ei=NZO5TsSHJ-SJsgL_wZnYCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "Thereafter they made the factory near Ningbo their chief trading outlet. In the late 1540s, there were more than 3,000 people there, some 1,200 of them Portuguese. From this base the latter raided neighbouring coastal cities, pillaging and taking people into slavery. The Chinese authorities responded with armed expeditions against them and, finally, the Portuguese had to abandon the factory" (Indiana University)
  14. ^ Sergeĭ Leonidovich Tikhvinskiĭ (1983). Modern history of China. Progress Publishers. p. 57. http://books.google.com/books?id=sZdCAAAAYAAJ&q=1,200+portuguese+neighbouring+pillaging. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "Thereafter they made the factory near Ningbo their chief trading outlet. In the late 1540s, there were more than 3,000 people there, some 1,200 of them Portuguese. From this base the latter raided neighbouring coastal cities, pillaging and taking people into slavery. The Chinese authorities responded with armed expeditions against them and, finally, the Portuguese had to abandon the factory" (the University of Virginia)
  15. ^ A.J. Johnson Company (1895). Charles Kendall Adams. ed. Johnson's universal cyclopedia: a new edition. Volume 6 of Johnson's Universal Cyclopædia. NEW YORK: D. Appleton, A.J. Johnson. p. 202. http://books.google.com/books?id=VsEXAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA202&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=7pUlTrCjAqHe0QGy5JTLCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "Ningpo has long been an important center of trade. In 1522 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their"expulsion in 1542, when 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed. The city was occupied by the British from Oct. 13, 1841, to May 7, 1842, and was cap"tured Dec. 9,1861, by the Taipings, who, however, were compelled by the foreign fleets then in the river to retire on May 10, 1862. It is an important center of missionary work. Pop. estimated (1893) 255,000." (Original from the University of California)
  16. ^ Universal cyclopædia and atlas, Volume 8. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and Company. 1909. p. 490. http://books.google.com/books?id=_N1TAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA490&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=npUlTtjfHojg0QGZlInQCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "Ningpo has long been an important center of trade. In 1522 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their expulsion in 1542, when 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed. The city was occupied by the British from Oct. 13, 1841, to May 7, 1842, and was captured Dec. 9,1861, by the Taipings, who, however, were compelled by the foreign fleets then in the river to retire on May 10, 1862. It is an important center of missionary work. Pop. estimated (1893) 255,000." (Original from the New York Public Library)
  17. ^ Charles Kendall Adams (1895). Johnson's universal cyclopaedia, Volume 6. NEW YORK: A.J. Johnson Co.. p. 202. http://books.google.com/books?id=jjFOAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA202&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=WJUlToH1Mcjl0QHy8rj2Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "Ningpo has long been an important center of trade. In 1522 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their expulsion in 1542, when 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed. The city was occupied by the British from Oct. 13, 1841, to May 7, 1842, and was captured Dec. 9,1861, by the Taipings, who, however, were compelled by the foreign fleets then in the river to retire on May 10, 1*862. It is an important center of missionary work. Pop. estimated (1893) 2o5,000." (Original from Princeton University)
  18. ^ Charles Kendall Adams, Rossiter Johnson (1902). Universal cyclopaedia and atlas, Volume 8. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and Company. p. 490. http://books.google.com/books?id=ntdTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA490&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=D5UlTvm8EeTd0QHW76X1Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "Ningpo has long ljeen an important center of trade. In 1522 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their expulsion in 1542, when 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed. The city was occupied by the British from Oct. 13, 1841, to May 7, 1842, and was captured Dec. 9,1861, by the Taipings, who, however, were compelled by the foreign fleets then in the river to retire on May 10, 1862. It is an important center of missionary work. Pop. estimated (1893) 255,000." (Original from the New York Public Library)
  19. ^ The Mirror of literature, amusement, and instruction, Volume 7. LONDON: J. Limbird. 1845. p. 262. http://books.google.com/books?id=AvRZAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA262&dq=In+I564,+Portugal+commanded+the+trade+of+India,+Japan,+and+China,+though+their+pride+was+deeply+shocked+at+the+supreme+indifference+with+which+the+Chinese+treated+them.+Their+atrocities+at+Ningpo+and+Macao,+and+their+subsequent&hl=en&ei=mqG5Tv_DFcjNhAfYvqyaBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=In%20I564%2C%20Portugal%20commanded%20the%20trade%20of%20India%2C%20Japan%2C%20and%20China%2C%20though%20their%20pride%20was%20deeply%20shocked%20at%20the%20supreme%20indifference%20with%20which%20the%20Chinese%20treated%20them.%20Their%20atrocities%20at%20Ningpo%20and%20Macao%2C%20and%20their%20subsequent&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "In I564, Portugal commanded the trade of India, Japan, and China, though their pride was deeply shocked at the supreme indifference with which the Chinese treated them. Their atrocities at Ningpo and Macao, and their subsequent servility, had opened the eyes of the Celestials to their true character, and unfortunately for other European adventurers, they had come to the conclusion that all western nations were alike. The senate of Macao complained to the viceroy of Goa, of the contempt with which the Chinese authorities treated them, confessing however that, “it was owing more to the Portuguese themselves than to the Chinese.” The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal to the port of Macao, in 1631. A partnership was then formed with some Chinese dealers in Canton, who were to furnish exports and take delivery of imports at Macao. This scheme did not suit the Chinese; they were dissatisfied with their partners, and speedily dissolved the connection." (Princeton University)
  20. ^ appleton's new practical cyclopedia. NEW YORK. 1910. p. 432. http://books.google.com/books?id=fuvi1-upO6MC&pg=PA432&dq=The+gold+and+silver+smiths+of+Ningpo+are+noted+for+the+delicacy+and+tastefulness+of+their+work,+and+Ningpo+confectionery+is+celebrated+all+over+China.+The+specialty+of+the+place,+however,+is+its+elegantly+carved+and+inlaid+furniture.+Silk-culture+is+extensively+carried+on+in+the+surrounding+country,+and+silk-weaving+is+an+important+industry.+In+1893+498+piculs+of+silk+piece-goods+were+exported.+The+development+of+manufacturing+interests+in+Japan+has+given+a+groat+impetus+to+cotton-culture,+and+in+1893+the+steam+cotton-ginning+establishments+of+Ningpo+cleaned+over+60,000+piculs+of+raw+cotton&hl=en&ei=cJolTrycA-jh0QH_psSvCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 18th of July, 2011. (Original from Harvard University)
  21. ^ Marcus Benjamin, Arthur Elmore Bostwick, Gerald Van Casteel, George Jotham Hagar, ed (1910). Appleton's new practical cyclopedia: a new work of reference based upon the best authorities, and systematically arranged for use in home and school. Volume 4 of Appleton's New Practical Cyclopedia. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and company,. p. 432. http://books.google.com/books?id=kixMAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA432&dq=The+gold+and+silver+smiths+of+Ningpo+are+noted+for+the+delicacy+and+tastefulness+of+their+work,+and+Ningpo+confectionery+is+celebrated+all+over+China.+The+specialty+of+the+place,+however,+is+its+elegantly+carved+and+inlaid+furniture.+Silk-culture+is+extensively+carried+on+in+the+surrounding+country,+and+silk-weaving+is+an+important+industry.+In+1893+498+piculs+of+silk+piece-goods+were+exported.+The+development+of+manufacturing+interests+in+Japan+has+given+a+groat+impetus+to+cotton-culture,+and+in+1893+the+steam+cotton-ginning+establishments+of+Ningpo+cleaned+over+60,000+piculs+of+raw+cotton&hl=en&ei=cJolTrycA-jh0QH_psSvCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 18th of July, 2011. (Original from the University of Michigan)
  22. ^ The universal cyclopaedia. Volume 8 of The Universal Cyclopaedia: A New Ed. Prepared by a Large Corps of Editors, Assisted by Eminent European and American Specialists, Under the Direction of Charles Kendall Adams ... Editor-in-chief; Illustrated with Maps, Plans, Colored Plates, and Engravings. NEW YORK: D. Appleton. 1900. p. 489. http://books.google.com/books?id=7xFGAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA489&dq=The+gold+and+silver+smiths+of+Ningpo+are+noted+for+the+delicacy+and+tastefulness+of+their+work,+and+Ningpo+confectionery+is+celebrated+all+over+China.+The+specialty+of+the+place,+however,+is+its+elegantly+carved+and+inlaid+furniture.+Silk-culture+is+extensively+carried+on+in+the+surrounding+country,+and+silk-weaving+is+an+important+industry.+In+1893+498+piculs+of+silk+piece-goods+were+exported.+The+development+of+manufacturing+interests+in+Japan+has+given+a+groat+impetus+to+cotton-culture,+and+in+1893+the+steam+cotton-ginning+establishments+of+Ningpo+cleaned+over+60,000+piculs+of+raw+cotton&hl=en&ei=cJolTrycA-jh0QH_psSvCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20gold%20and%20silver%20smiths%20of%20Ningpo%20are%20noted%20for%20the%20delicacy%20and%20tastefulness%20of%20their%20work%2C%20and%20Ningpo%20confectionery%20is%20celebrated%20all%20over%20China.%20The%20specialty%20of%20the%20place%2C%20however%2C%20is%20its%20elegantly%20carved%20and%20inlaid%20furniture.%20Silk-culture%20is%20extensively%20carried%20on%20in%20the%20surrounding%20country%2C%20and%20silk-weaving%20is%20an%20important%20industry.%20In%201893%20498%20piculs%20of%20silk%20piece-goods%20were%20exported.%20The%20development%20of%20manufacturing%20interests%20in%20Japan%20has%20given%20a%20groat%20impetus%20to%20cotton-culture%2C%20and%20in%201893%20the%20steam%20cotton-ginning%20establishments%20of%20Ningpo%20cleaned%20over%2060%2C000%20piculs%20of%20raw%20cotton&f=false. Retrieved 18th of July, 2011. (LIBRARY OF THE LELAND STANFORD JR. UNIVERSITY)
  23. ^ Charles Kendall Adams, Rossiter Johnson (1901). Universal cyclopædia and atlas, Volume 8. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and Company. p. 489. http://books.google.com/books?id=2W1HAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA489&dq=The+gold+and+silver+smiths+of+Ningpo+are+noted+for+the+delicacy+and+tastefulness+of+their+work,+and+Ningpo+confectionery+is+celebrated+all+over+China.+The+specialty+of+the+place,+however,+is+its+elegantly+carved+and+inlaid+furniture.+Silk-culture+is+extensively+carried+on+in+the+surrounding+country,+and+silk-weaving+is+an+important+industry.+In+1893+498+piculs+of+silk+piece-goods+were+exported.+The+development+of+manufacturing+interests+in+Japan+has+given+a+groat+impetus+to+cotton-culture,+and+in+1893+the+steam+cotton-ginning+establishments+of+Ningpo+cleaned+over+60,000+piculs+of+raw+cotton&hl=en&ei=cJolTrycA-jh0QH_psSvCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CD8Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=The%20gold%20and%20silver%20smiths%20of%20Ningpo%20are%20noted%20for%20the%20delicacy%20and%20tastefulness%20of%20their%20work%2C%20and%20Ningpo%20confectionery%20is%20celebrated%20all%20over%20China.%20The%20specialty%20of%20the%20place%2C%20however%2C%20is%20its%20elegantly%20carved%20and%20inlaid%20furniture.%20Silk-culture%20is%20extensively%20carried%20on%20in%20the%20surrounding%20country%2C%20and%20silk-weaving%20is%20an%20important%20industry.%20In%201893%20498%20piculs%20of%20silk%20piece-goods%20were%20exported.%20The%20development%20of%20manufacturing%20interests%20in%20Japan%20has%20given%20a%20groat%20impetus%20to%20cotton-culture%2C%20and%20in%201893%20the%20steam%20cotton-ginning%20establishments%20of%20Ningpo%20cleaned%20over%2060%2C000%20piculs%20of%20raw%20cotton&f=false. Retrieved 18th of July, 2011. (Original from Columbia University)
  24. ^ A.J. Johnson Company (1895). Charles Kendall Adams. ed. Johnson's universal cyclopedia: a new edition. Volume 6 of Johnson's Universal Cyclopædia. NEW YORK: D. Appleton, A.J. Johnson. p. 201. http://books.google.com/books?id=VsEXAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA201&dq=The+gold+and+silver+smiths+of+Ningpo+are+noted+for+the+delicacy+and+tastefulness+of+their+work,+and+Ningpo+confectionery+is+celebrated+all+over+China.+The+specialty+of+the+place,+however,+is+its+elegantly+carved+and+inlaid+furniture.+Silk-culture+is+extensively+carried+on+in+the+surrounding+country,+and+silk-weaving+is+an+important+industry.+In+1893+498+piculs+of+silk+piece-goods+were+exported.+The+development+of+manufacturing+interests+in+Japan+has+given+a+groat+impetus+to+cotton-culture,+and+in+1893+the+steam+cotton-ginning+establishments+of+Ningpo+cleaned+over+60,000+piculs+of+raw+cotton&hl=en&ei=G5clTq28Oqn10gGNs4z5Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=The%20gold%20and%20silver%20smiths%20of%20Ningpo%20are%20noted%20for%20the%20delicacy%20and%20tastefulness%20of%20their%20work%2C%20and%20Ningpo%20confectionery%20is%20celebrated%20all%20over%20China.%20The%20specialty%20of%20the%20place%2C%20however%2C%20is%20its%20elegantly%20carved%20and%20inlaid%20furniture.%20Silk-culture%20is%20extensively%20carried%20on%20in%20the%20surrounding%20country%2C%20and%20silk-weaving%20is%20an%20important%20industry.%20In%201893%20498%20piculs%20of%20silk%20piece-goods%20were%20exported.%20The%20development%20of%20manufacturing%20interests%20in%20Japan%20has%20given%20a%20groat%20impetus%20to%20cotton-culture%2C%20and%20in%201893%20the%20steam%20cotton-ginning%20establishments%20of%20Ningpo%20cleaned%20over%2060%2C000%20piculs%20of%20raw%20cotton&f=false. Retrieved 18th of July, 2011. (Original from the University of California)
  25. ^ Charles Kendall Adams (1895). Johnson's universal cyclopaedia, Volume 6. NEW YORK: A.J. Johnson Co.. p. 201. http://books.google.com/books?id=jjFOAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA201&dq=The+gold+and+silver+smiths+of+Ningpo+are+noted+for+the+delicacy+and+tastefulness+of+their+work,+and+Ningpo+confectionery+is+celebrated+all+over+China.+The+specialty+of+the+place,+however,+is+its+elegantly+carved+and+inlaid+furniture.+Silk-culture+is+extensively+carried+on+in+the+surrounding+country,+and+silk-weaving+is+an+important+industry.+In+1893+498+piculs+of+silk+piece-goods+were+exported.+The+development+of+manufacturing+interests+in+Japan+has+given+a+groat+impetus+to+cotton-culture,+and+in+1893+the+steam+cotton-ginning+establishments+of+Ningpo+cleaned+over+60,000+piculs+of+raw+cotton&hl=en&ei=G5clTq28Oqn10gGNs4z5Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=The%20gold%20and%20silver%20smiths%20of%20Ningpo%20are%20noted%20for%20the%20delicacy%20and%20tastefulness%20of%20their%20work%2C%20and%20Ningpo%20confectionery%20is%20celebrated%20all%20over%20China.%20The%20specialty%20of%20the%20place%2C%20however%2C%20is%20its%20elegantly%20carved%20and%20inlaid%20furniture.%20Silk-culture%20is%20extensively%20carried%20on%20in%20the%20surrounding%20country%2C%20and%20silk-weaving%20is%20an%20important%20industry.%20In%201893%20498%20piculs%20of%20silk%20piece-goods%20were%20exported.%20The%20development%20of%20manufacturing%20interests%20in%20Japan%20has%20given%20a%20groat%20impetus%20to%20cotton-culture%2C%20and%20in%201893%20the%20steam%20cotton-ginning%20establishments%20of%20Ningpo%20cleaned%20over%2060%2C000%20piculs%20of%20raw%20cotton&f=false. Retrieved 18th of July, 2011. (Original from Princeton University)
  26. ^ Charles Kendall Adams, Rossiter Johnson (1902). Universal cyclopaedia and atlas, Volume 8. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and Company. p. 489. http://books.google.com/books?id=ntdTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA489&dq=The+gold+and+silver+smiths+of+Ningpo+are+noted+for+the+delicacy+and+tastefulness+of+their+work,+and+Ningpo+confectionery+is+celebrated+all+over+China.+The+specialty+of+the+place,+however,+is+its+elegantly+carved+and+inlaid+furniture.+Silk-culture+is+extensively+carried+on+in+the+surrounding+country,+and+silk-weaving+is+an+important+industry.+In+1893+498+piculs+of+silk+piece-goods+were+exported.+The+development+of+manufacturing+interests+in+Japan+has+given+a+groat+impetus+to+cotton-culture,+and+in+1893+the+steam+cotton-ginning+establishments+of+Ningpo+cleaned+over+60,000+piculs+of+raw+cotton&hl=en&ei=G5clTq28Oqn10gGNs4z5Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=The%20gold%20and%20silver%20smiths%20of%20Ningpo%20are%20noted%20for%20the%20delicacy%20and%20tastefulness%20of%20their%20work%2C%20and%20Ningpo%20confectionery%20is%20celebrated%20all%20over%20China.%20The%20specialty%20of%20the%20place%2C%20however%2C%20is%20its%20elegantly%20carved%20and%20inlaid%20furniture.%20Silk-culture%20is%20extensively%20carried%20on%20in%20the%20surrounding%20country%2C%20and%20silk-weaving%20is%20an%20important%20industry.%20In%201893%20498%20piculs%20of%20silk%20piece-goods%20were%20exported.%20The%20development%20of%20manufacturing%20interests%20in%20Japan%20has%20given%20a%20groat%20impetus%20to%20cotton-culture%2C%20and%20in%201893%20the%20steam%20cotton-ginning%20establishments%20of%20Ningpo%20cleaned%20over%2060%2C000%20piculs%20of%20raw%20cotton&f=false. Retrieved 18th of July, 2011. (Original from the New York Public Library)
  27. ^ Samuel Wells Williams (1848). The Middle kingdom: a survey of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ... (3 ed.). NEW YORK: Wiley & Putnam. p. 321. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=Pk0UAAAAYAAJ&q=min+degraded++class#v=onepage&q=ningpo%20min%20degraded%20%20class%20descendants%20kin&f=false. Retrieved 8th of May, 2011. (Original from Harvard University)
  28. ^ Samuel Wells Williams (1882). The Middle Kingdom: a survey of the geography, government, literature, social life, arts, and history of the Chinese empire and its inhabitants, Volume 1 (revised ed.). NEW YORK: C. Scribner's Sons. p. 412. http://books.google.com/books?id=5qUMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA412&dq=At+Ningpo+there+is+a+degraded+set+called+the+Min,+amounting+to+nearly+three+thousand+persons,+with+whom+the+people&hl=en&ei=X-DRTe7KNsrB0AHvvuXQCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=At%20Ningpo%20there%20is%20a%20degraded%20set%20called%20the%20Min%2C%20amounting%20to%20nearly%20three%20thousand%20persons%2C%20with%20whom%20the%20people&f=false. Retrieved 8th of May, 2011. (Original from Harvard University)
  29. ^ Samuel Wells Williams (1883). The middle kingdom; a survey of the Chinese empire and its inhabitants (revised ed.). p. 412. http://books.google.com/books?id=uiYAAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA412&dq=At+Ningpo+there+is+a+degraded+set+called+the+Min,+amounting+to+nearly+three+thousand+persons,+with+whom+the+people&hl=en&ei=QuXRTYebNuO_0AGFqqn-Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=At%20Ningpo%20there%20is%20a%20degraded%20set%20called%20the%20Min%2C%20amounting%20to%20nearly%20three%20thousand%20persons%2C%20with%20whom%20the%20people&f=false. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  30. ^ China monthly review, Volume 8. Millard Publishing Co., inc.. 1919. p. 264. http://books.google.com/books?ei=ieXRTbWCMMru0gG17ejpCw&ct=result&id=cDA-AAAAMAAJ&dq=At+Ningpo+there+is+a+degraded+set+called+the+Min%2C+amounting+to+nearly+three+thousand+persons%2C+with+whom+the+people&q=ningpo+degraded. Retrieved 8th of May, 2011. (Original from the University of Michigan)
  31. ^ The Chinese repository, Volume 13. VICTORIA HONGKONG: Printed for the proprietors. 1844. p. 31. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=6wEMAAAAYAAJ&q=mohammedan#v=onepage&q=mohammedan%20temple%20arabic&f=false. Retrieved 8th of May, 2011. (Original from Harvard University)
  32. ^ Walter Lowrie, ed (1850). Memoirs of the Rev. Walter M. Lowrie: missionary to China. Harvard University: R. Carter & brothers. p. 302. http://books.google.com/books?id=b8qSYFct8joC&pg=PA302&dq=mosque+ningpo&hl=en&ei=aQfcTfHNN4Ho0QHFqLDqDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=mosque%20ningpo&f=false. Retrieved 17th of July, 2011. 
  33. ^ Samuel Wells Williams, John William Orr (1848). The middle kingdom: a survey of the geography, government, education, social life, arts, religion, etc. of the Chinese empire and its inhabitants, Volume 2. Oxford University: Wiley and Putnam. p. 285. http://books.google.com/books?id=Z0AEAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA285&dq=mosque+ningpo&hl=en&ei=aQfcTfHNN4Ho0QHFqLDqDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=mosque%20ningpo&f=false. 
  34. ^ American Bible Society (1876). Bible Society record, Volumes 21-22. the New York Public Library. p. 35. http://books.google.com/books?id=a6dVAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA35&dq=mosque+ningpo&hl=en&ei=vAjcTdHDLcXq0gGVn7HxDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwADgU#v=onepage&q=mosque%20ningpo&f=false. Retrieved 17th of July, 2011. 
  35. ^ J. CROSSETT. (April 6th, 1889). The Chinese times, Volume 3. TIENTSIN: Printed and Published for the Proprietors by THE TIENTSIN PRINTING CO.. p. 213. http://books.google.com/books?id=HiE-AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA213&dq=mosque+ningpo&hl=en&ei=aQfcTfHNN4Ho0QHFqLDqDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=mosque%20ningpo&f=false. Retrieved 17th of July, 2011. 
  36. ^ Chinese and Japanese repository of facts and events in science, history and art, relating to Eastern Asia, Volume 1. s.n.. 1863. p. 18. http://books.google.com/books?id=04kdAAAAMAAJ&q=mohammedan#v=snippet&q=mohammedan%20roll%20law%20purchase&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. (the University of Michigan)
  37. ^ Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau History and Society (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 67. ISBN 9888028545. http://books.google.com/books?id=LP9q1dzVRYQC&pg=PA67&dq=they+were+destroyed+in+Ningbo+by+a+fleet+of+Chinese+pirates+with+the+support+of+the+local+Chinese+government+and+other+Europeans.&hl=en&ei=hom5TqiXGsGysAL-ieTCCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=they%20were%20destroyed%20in%20Ningbo%20by%20a%20fleet%20of%20Chinese%20pirates%20with%20the%20support%20of%20the%20local%20Chinese%20government%20and%20other%20Europeans.&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "There was indeed a group of Portuguese who became pirates, called "Macau ruffians," or policemen who turned bad, along with "Manila-men" from the Philippines and escaped African slaves. Their fleet attacked “the Cantonese ships when they could get them at an advantage, and murdered their crews with circumstances of great atrocity.”55 They were destroyed in Ningbo by a fleet of Chinese pirates with the support of the local Chinese government and other Europeans." 
  38. ^ George Wingrove Cooke (1858). China: being "The Times" special correspondence from China in the years 1857-58 (reprint ed.). G. Routledge. p. 131. http://books.google.com/books?id=odJGAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA131&dq=The+Cantonese+do+not+look+upon+the+Portuguese+as+Europeans.+They+have+not+the+same+fear+of+them.+They+can+fight+them+man+to+man.+Macao+would+have+been+taken+by+the+Chinese+long+since,+had+they+not+dreaded+the+interference+of+the+other&hl=en&ei=Bo65Tsq4JK6CsAKCrrTKCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20Cantonese%20do%20not%20look%20upon%20the%20Portuguese%20as%20Europeans.%20They%20have%20not%20the%20same%20fear%20of%20them.%20They%20can%20fight%20them%20man%20to%20man.%20Macao%20would%20have%20been%20taken%20by%20the%20Chinese%20long%20since%2C%20had%20they%20not%20dreaded%20the%20interference%20of%20the%20other&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. (the University of California)
  39. ^ George Wingrove Cooke (1861). China and lower Bengal: being "The Times" correspondence from China in the years 1857-58 (5 ed.). Routledge, Warne, & Routledge. p. 131. http://books.google.com/books?id=RCILAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA131&dq=The+Cantonese+do+not+look+upon+the+Portuguese+as+Europeans.+They+have+not+the+same+fear+of+them.+They+can+fight+them+man+to+man.+Macao+would+have+been+taken+by+the+Chinese+long+since,+had+they+not+dreaded+the+interference+of+the+other&hl=en&ei=Vo-5TqvSDOrosQLl5uHDCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=The%20Cantonese%20do%20not%20look%20upon%20the%20Portuguese%20as%20Europeans.%20They%20have%20not%20the%20same%20fear%20of%20them.%20They%20can%20fight%20them%20man%20to%20man.%20Macao%20would%20have%20been%20taken%20by%20the%20Chinese%20long%20since%2C%20had%20they%20not%20dreaded%20the%20interference%20of%20the%20other&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. (the New York Public Library)
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  41. ^ Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague upon Humanity, 2004, p.32.
  42. ^ Worchester, G R G (1971). The Junks and Sampans of the Yangtze. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. p. 174. ISBN 9780870213359. OCLC 216526. 
  43. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Ningbo, China". Weatherbase. 2010. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=26585&refer=&units=metric. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  44. ^ Ningbo Climate Studies. Weather Publishing House, China. 6 2001. ISBN 7-5029-3175-9. 
  45. ^ Ningbo Foreign Affairs Office[dead link]
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  48. ^ Economic profile for Ningbo at HKTDC
  49. ^ Chiang, Langi (2007-07-09). "Bridge to Shanghai should give Ningbo's economy a lift". International Herald Tribune (Paris: The New York Times Company). http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/07/09/business/bridge.php. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  50. ^ "Ningbo Economic & Technological Development Zone". RightSite.asia. http://rightsite.asia/en/industrial-zone/ningbo-economic-development-zone/. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 
  51. ^ "Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone". RightSite.asia. http://rightsite.asia/en/industrial-zone/ningbo-hi-tech-industrial-development-zone/. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 
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External links

Coordinates: 29°52′N 121°33′E / 29.867°N 121.55°E / 29.867; 121.55


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Ningbo — (chino simplificado: 宁波, chino tradicional: 寧波, pinyin: Níngbō) es la segunda ciudad en importancia de la provincia de Zhejiang en la República Popular China. Es, además, el principal puerto de la provincia. Tiene una población aproximada de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

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  • Ningbo — [niŋ′bō′] city in Zhejiang province, E China: pop. 1,070,000: also sp. Ningpo …   English World dictionary

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  • Ningbo — /ning baw /, n. Pinyin. a seaport in E Zhejiang province, in E China. 350,000. Also, Wade Giles, Ningpo /ning baw /. Formerly, Yinxian. * * * ▪ China Introduction Wade Giles romanization  Ning po        city, northeastern Zhejiang (Chekiang)… …   Universalium

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