Paphlagonia was an ancient area on the
Black Seacoast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithyniato the west and Pontusto the east, and separated from Phrygia(later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. According to Strabo, the river Parthenius formed the western limit of the region, and it was bounded on the east by the Halysriver.
The greater part of Paphlagonia is a rugged mountainous country, but it contains fertile valleys and produces a great abundance of hazelnuts and fruit – particularly plums, cherries and pears. The mountains are clothed with dense forests, conspicuous for the quantity of boxwood that they furnish. Hence, its coasts were occupied by Greeks from an early period. Among these, the flourishing city of Sinope, founded from
Miletusabout 630 BC, stood pre-eminent. Amastris, a few miles east of the Parthenius river, became important under the rule of the Macedonian monarchs; while Amisus, a colony of Sinope situated a short distance east of the Halys river (and therefore not strictly in Paphlagonia as defined by Strabo), grew to become almost a rival of its parent city. The most considerable towns of the interior were Gangra– in ancient times the capital of the Paphlagonian kings, afterwards called Germanicopolis, situated near the frontier of Galatia – and Pompeiopolis, in the valley of the Amniasriver, near extensive mines of the mineral called by Strabo "sandarake" (red arsenic or arsenic sulfide), largely exported from Sinope.
Although the Paphlagonians play scarcely any part in history, they were one of the most ancient nations of
Anatolia("Iliad", ii. 851—857).
In the time of the
Hittites, Paphlagonia was inhabited by the Kashka people, whose exact ethnic relation to the Paphlagonians is uncertain. It seems perhaps that they were related to the people of the adjoining country, Cappadocia,clarifyme who were speakers of one of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European languages. Their language would appear, from Strabo's testimony, to have been distinctive.
Paphlagonians were mentioned by
Herodotusamong the peoples conquered by Croesus, and they sent an important contingent to the army of Xerxes in 480 BC. Xenophonspeaks of them as being governed by a prince of their own, without any reference to the neighboring satraps, a freedom perhaps due to the nature of their country, with its lofty mountain ranges and difficult passes. All these rulers appear to have borne the name "Pylaimenes" as a sign that they claimed descent from the chieftain of that name who figures in the Iliadas leader of the Paphlagonians.
Under the Kingdom of Pontus
At a later period, Paphlagonia passed under the control of the Macedonian kings, and after the death of
Alexander the Great, it was assigned, together with Cappadociaand Mysia, to Eumenes. However, it continued to be governed by native princes until it was absorbed by the encroaching power of Pontus. The rulers of that dynasty became masters of the greater part of Paphlagonia as early as the reign of Mithridates Ctistes (302– 266 BC), but it was not until 183 BCthat Pharnaces reduced the Greek city of Sinope under their control. From that time, the whole province was incorporated into the kingdom of Pontusuntil the fall of Mithridates ( 65 BC).
Pompeyunited the coastal districts of Paphlagonia, along with the greater part of Pontus, with the Roman province of Bithynia, but left the interior of the country under the native princes, until the dynasty became extinct and the whole country was incorporated into the Roman Empire. The name was still retained by geographers, though its boundaries are not distinctly defined by the geographer Claudius Ptolemy. Paphlagonia reappeared as a separate province in the 5th century AD(Hierocles, " Synecdemus" c. 33).
9th century) wife of the Byzantine emperor Theophilus
John Mauropous( 11th century) Greek poet and author
* [http://www.karalahana.com/english/archive/westtrabzon10.html Paphlagonia]
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PAPHLAGONIA — vulgo Roni Castaldo, Bolli aliis, regio Asiae minoris ad Pontum Euxinum, Galatiae pars Borealis Ptolemaeo inter Bithyniam ad Occidentem et Cappadociam ad Ortum Galatiâ ad Austrum cohaerente. Baudrando est, inter Pontum Euxinum ad boream et… … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
Paphlagonĭa — Paphlagonĭa, Landschaft Kleinasiens, grenzte in Norden an das Schwarze Meer, in Westen an Bithynien, durch den Parthenios getrennt, in Süden an Galatien, durch das Gebirg Orminion geschieden, in Osten an Pontos, von welchem es der Halys trennte;… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Paphlagonia — [paf΄lə gō′nē ə] ancient region of N Asia Minor, on the Black Sea … English World dictionary
Paphlagonia — /paf leuh goh nee euh, gohn yeuh/, n. an ancient country and Roman province in N Asia Minor, on the S coast of the Black Sea. * * * Ancient district, northern Anatolia, on the Black Sea. A mountainous country, one of the oldest in Anatolia, it… … Universalium
Paphlagonia — Region of north Asia Minor (q.v.) situated between Bithynia and Pontos (qq.v.), consisting of the south shore of the Black Sea (q.v.) and inland territory. The chief cities included Amastris and its metropolis Gangra (qq.v.). It belonged to… … Historical dictionary of Byzantium
Paphlagonia — geographical name ancient country & Roman province N Asia Minor bordering on Black Sea • Paphlagonian adjective or noun … New Collegiate Dictionary
Paphlagonia — noun A historical region in the north of Asia Minor, on the shore of the Black Sea, between Bithynia and Pontus … Wiktionary
Paphlagonia — Paph•la•go•ni•a [[t]ˌpæf ləˈgoʊ ni ə, ˈgoʊn yə[/t]] n. geg an ancient country and Roman province in N Asia Minor, on the S coast of the Black Sea … From formal English to slang
Paphlagonia — /pæfləˈgoʊniə/ (say pafluh gohneeuh) noun the historical name of a region in northern Turkey, on the southern coast of the Black Sea; an ancient country and Roman province in Asia Minor … Australian English dictionary
Paphlagonia — /paf leuh goh nee euh, gohn yeuh/, n. an ancient country and Roman province in N Asia Minor, on the S coast of the Black Sea … Useful english dictionary