Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
The PANSS or the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale is a medical scale used for measuring symptom severity of patients with schizophrenia. It was published in 1987 by Stanley Kay, Lewis Opler, and Abraham Fiszbein. It is widely used in the study of antipsychotic therapy.
The name refers to the two types of symptoms in schizophrenia, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association: positive symptoms, which refer to an excess or distortion of normal functions (e.g., hallucinations and delusions), and negative symptoms, which represent a diminution or loss of normal functions.
To assess a patient using PANSS, an approximately 45-minute clinical interview is conducted. The patient is rated from 1 to 7 on 30 different symptoms based on the interview as well as reports of family members or primary care hospital workers.
- Conceptual disorganization
- Blunted affect
- Emotional withdrawal
- Poor rapport
- Passive/apathetic social withdrawal
- Difficulty in abstract thinking
- Lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation
- Stereotyped thinking
General Psychopathology scale
- Somatic concern
- Guilt feelings
- Mannerisms and posturing
- Motor retardation
- Unusual thought content
- Poor attention
- Lack of judgment and insight
- Disturbance of volition
- Poor impulse control
- Active social avoidance
- Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale
- SAPS (psychiatry) and SANS (psychiatry)
- Diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry
- ^ Stanley Kay, Abraham Fiszbein, Lewis Opler, The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia, http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/13/2/261.
- ^ John Hunsley, Eric J. Mash (2008), A Guide to Assessments that Work, Oxford University Press US, ISBN 0195310640, http://books.google.com/books?id=TUvKyhgOpxQC&lpg=PA395
- ^ Kay, Stanley R. (1991), Positive and Negative Syndromes in Schizophrenia, Routledge Mental Health, pp. 33–36, ISBN 0876306083, http://books.google.com/books?id=onyWf7MLhm4C&pg=PA33&lpg=PA33
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