List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names

List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names

The following is a partial list of adjectival forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of the places.

Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of "-ese" endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending "-men" has feminine equivalent "-women" (e.g. "an Irishman and a Scotswoman"). The French terminations "-ois" / "ais" serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' ("-oise" / "aise") makes them singular feminine; 'es' ("-oises" / "aises") makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the "-o" and adding "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as" respectively.

Adjectives ending "-ish" can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. "the English, the Cornish"). So can those ending in "-ch" / "-tch" (e.g. "the French", "the Dutch") provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g. the adjective "Czech" does not qualify).

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name. (Reference: [ Ethnologue, Languages of the World] )

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)


Countries and nations


Australian states and territories

Canadian provinces and territories

Mexican states

New Zealand regions

U.S. states

ubcontinental regions

Former nations and regions

Ancient civilizations, former colonies, renamed countries and regions, annexations, secessions, etc.


Fictional regions


ee also

* List of ethnic slurs
* Lists of people by nationality
* List of British regional nicknames
* -onym, especially ethnonym and Exonym and endonym
* [ Alphabetical list of world demonyms]
* [ Demonyms of the World]

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