- Professional wrestling
A professional wrestling match. Two wrestlers grapple in a wrestling ring while a referee (in white, right) looks on.
Ancestor arts Carnival, Catch wrestling, commedia dell'arte, vaudeville, music hall Descendant arts Shoot style wrestling, roller derby Originating culture United States / Canada / Mexico / England / Japan / China / France Originating era 19th-century
Professional wrestling (often shortened pro wrestling, or simply wrestling) is a mode of spectacle, combining athletics and theatrical performance. It takes the form of events, held by touring companies, which mimic a title match combat sport. This unique form of sport portrayed is fundamentally based on classical and "catch" wrestling, with modern additions of striking attacks, strength-based holds and throws, and acrobatic maneuvers; much of these derive from the influence of various international martial arts. An additional aspect of combat with improvised weaponry is sometimes included to varying degrees.
The matches have predetermined outcomes in order to provide entertainment value, and all combative maneuvers are worked in order to lessen the chance of actual injury. These facts were once kept highly secretive but are now a widely accepted open secret. By and large, the true nature of the performance is not discussed by the performing company in order to sustain and promote the willing suspension of disbelief for the audience by maintaining an aura of verisimilitude.
Originating as a sideshow exhibition in North American traveling carnivals and vaudeville halls, professional wrestling grew into a standalone genre of entertainment with many diverse variations in cultures around the globe, and is now considered a multi-million dollar entertainment industry. In North America, it has experienced several different periods of prominence in cultural popularity during its century and a half of existence. The advent of television gave professional wrestling a new outlet, and wrestling (along with boxing) was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery.
- 1 Scope and influence
- 2 Genre conventions
- 3 Rules
- 4 Dramatic elements
- 5 Wrestlers
- 6 Styles and characteristics of professional wrestling in different countries
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Footnotes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Scope and influence
Professional wrestling has become especially prominent in Japan and in Central and North America. In Brazil, there was a very popular wrestling television program from the 1960s to the early 1980s called Telecatch. High-profile figures in the sport have become celebrities or cultural icons in their native or adopted home countries.
Although professional wrestling started out as petty acts in sideshows, traveling circuses and carnivals, today it is a billion-dollar industry. Revenue is drawn from ticket sales, network television broadcasts, pay-per-view broadcasts, branded merchandise and home video. Pro wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Annual shows such as WrestleMania and formerly Starrcade are among the highest-selling pay-per-view programming each year. In modern day, however, . But countering this, internet programming has been utilized by a number of companies to air web shows, internet pay per views (IPPVs) or on-demand content, helping to generate internet-related revenue earnings from the evolving World Wide Web.
Due to its persistent cultural presence and to its novelty within the performing arts, wrestling constitutes a recurring topic in both academia and the media. Several documentaries have been produced looking at professional wrestling, most notably, Beyond the Mat directed by Barry W. Blaustein, and Wrestling with Shadows featuring wrestler Bret Hart and directed by Paul Jay. There have also been many fictional depictions of wrestling; the 2008 film The Wrestler received several Oscar nominations and began a career revival for star Mickey Rourke.
Currently, the largest professional wrestling company worldwide is the United States-based WWE, which bought over many smaller regional companies in the late twentieth century, as well as its primary competitors in early 2001, World Championship Wrestling (WCW) and Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW) though currently the WWE stresses on the fact that it is an Entertainment company rather than a Wrestling company and has family friendly programming.The other prominent professional wrestling company worldwide is Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) which is primarily intended for adult audiences with edgy and adult themed content.There is also a rising wrestling promotion called Ring Of Honor which is said to have a bright future though many still consider it an Independent promotion. In Mexico, the top promotions are Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre and Asistencia Asesoría y Administración. In Brazil, it is BWF (Brazilian Wrestling Federation).In Japan, it is New Japan Pro Wrestling, All Japan Pro Wrestling, and Pro Wrestling NOAH.
When talking about professional wrestling, there are two levels: the "in-show" happenings that are presented through the shows, and happenings which are outside the scope of performance (in other words, are real life) but have implications on the performance, such as performer contracts, legitimate injuries, etc. Because actual events are often co-opted by writers for incorporation into storylines for the performers, the lines are often blurred and become confused.
Special care must be taken when talking about people who perform under their own name. The actions of the character should be considered fictional events, wholly separate from the life of the performer. This is similar to other entertainers who perform with a persona that shares their own name (such as Stephen Colbert and Stephen Colbert (character)).
Historians are unsure at what point wrestling changed from competitive catch wrestling into worked entertainment. Those who participated felt that maintenance of a constant and complete illusion for all who were not involved was necessary to keep audience interest. For decades, wrestlers lived their public lives as though they were their characters.
The practice of keeping the illusion, and the various methods used to do so, came to be known as "kayfabe" within wrestling circles, or "working the marks". An entire lexicon of slang jargon and euphemism developed to allow performers to communicate without outsiders' knowledge of what was being said.
Occasionally a performer will deviate from the intended sequence of events. This is known as a shoot. Sometimes shoot-like elements are included in wrestling stories to blur the line between performance and reality. These are known as "worked-shoots". However, the vast majority of events in professional wrestling are entirely preplanned or improvised within accepted boundaries.
Gradually, the nature of professional wrestling became an open secret, although American promotions' events were still often regulated by state athletic commissions through the 1980s, until World Wrestling Federation owner Vince McMahon publicly admitted that wrestling was entertainment, not competition. This action garnered mixed reactions from the wrestling community, where some consider it ruins the experience to the spectators as does exposure in illusionism.
Aspects of Performing art
Professional wrestling shows can be considered a form of theater in the round, with the ring, ringside area, and entryway comprising a thrust stage. However, there is a much more limited concept of a fourth wall than in most theatric performances. The audience is recognized and acknowledged by the performers as spectators to the sporting event being portrayed, and are encouraged to interact as such. This leads to a high level of audience participation; in fact, their reactions can dictate how the performance unfolds.
There is no governing authority for professional wrestling rules, although there is a general standard which has developed. Each promotion has their own variation, but all are similar enough to avoid confusion most of the time. Any rule described here is simply a standard, and may or may not correspond exactly with any given promotion's ruleset.
Matches are held between two or more sides ("corners"). Each corner may consist of one wrestler, or a team of two or more. Most team matches are governed by tag team rules (see below). Other matches are free-for-alls, with multiple combatants but no teams. In all variants, there can be only one winning team or wrestler.
The standard method of scoring is the "fall", which is accomplished by:
- Pinning the opponent's shoulders to the mat, typically for three seconds (though other times have been used)
- Knocking out or otherwise incapacitating the opponent
- Forcing the opponent to submit
- A forfeit via a disqualified opponent
- Or the opponent remaining outside the ring for too long (countout)
These are each explained in greater detail below. Typically, pinfalls and submissions must occur within the ring area, however there are times where it may be stipulated otherwise.
Most wrestling matches last for a set number of falls, with the first side to achieve the majority number of pinfalls, submissions, or countouts being the winner. Historically, matches were wrestled to 3 falls ("best 2 out of 3") or 5 falls ("best 3 out of 5"). The standard for modern matches is one fall. However, even though it is now standard, many announcers will explicitly state this (e.g. "The following contest is set for one fall with a 20 minute time limit!") These matches are given a time limit; if not enough falls are scored by the end of the time limit, the match is declared a draw. Modern matches are generally given a 10- to 30-minute time limit for standard matches; title matches can go for up to one hour.
An alternative is a match set for a prescribed length of time, with a running tally of falls. The entrant with the most falls at the end of the time limit is declared the winner. This is usually for 20, 30 or 60 minutes, and is commonly called an Iron Man match. This type of match can be modified so that fewer types of falls are allowed.
In matches with multiple competitors, an elimination system may be used. Any wrestler who has a fall scored against them is forced out of the match, and the match continues until only one remains. However, it is much more common when more than two wrestlers are involved to simply go one fall, with the one scoring the fall, regardless of who they scored it against, being the winner. In championship matches, this means that, unlike one-on-one matches (where the champion can simply disqualify himself or get himself counted out to retain the title via the Champion's Advantage), the champion does not have to be pinned or involved in the decision to lose the championship. However, heel champions often find advantages, not in Champion's Advantage, but in the use of weapons and outside interference, as these poly-sided matches tend to involve no holds barred rules.
Many modern specialty matches have been devised, with unique winning conditions. The most common of these is the ladder match. In the basic ladder match, the wrestlers or teams of wrestlers must climb a ladder to obtain a prize that is hoisted above the ring. The key to winning this match is that the wrestler or team of wrestlers must try to incapacitate each other long enough for one wrestler to climb the ladder and secure that prize for their team. As a result, the ladder can be used as a weapon. The prizes include but are not limited to any given championship belt (the traditional prize), a document granting the winner the right to a future title shot, or any document that matters to the wrestlers involved in the match. Another common speciality match is known as the battle royal. In a battle royal, all the wrestlers enter the ring to the point that there are 20-30 wrestlers in the ring at one time. When the match begins, the simple objective is to throw the opponent over the top rope and out of the ring with both feet on the floor in order to eliminate that opponent. The last wrestler standing is declared the winner. A variant on this type of match is the WWE's Royal Rumble where two wrestlers enter the ring to start the match and other wrestlers follow in 90 second intervals (previously 2 minutes) until 30-40 wrestlers have entered the ring. All other rules stay the same. For more match types, see Professional wrestling match types.
Every match must be assigned a rule keeper known as a referee, who is the final arbitrator (In multi-man lucha libre matches, two referees are used, one inside the ring and one outside). Due to the legitimate role that referees play in wrestling of serving as liaison between the bookers backstage and the wrestlers in the ring (the role of being a final arbitrator is merely kayfabe), the referee is present, even in matches that do not at first glance appear to require a referee (such as a ladder match, as it is no holds barred, and the criteria for victory could theoretically be assessed from afar). Although their actions are also frequently scripted for dramatic effect, referees are subject to certain general rules and requirements in order to maintain the theatrical appearance of unbiased authority. The most basic rule is than an action must be seen by a referee to be declared for a fall or disqualification. This allows for heel characters to gain a scripted advantage by distracting or disabling the referee in order to perform some ostensibly illegal maneuver on their opponent. Most referees are unnamed and essentially anonymous, though the WWE has let their officials reveal their names.
Special guest referees may be used from time to time; by virtue of their celebrity status, they are often scripted to dispense with the appearance of neutrality and use their influence to unfairly influence the outcome of the match for added dramatic impact. Face special referees will often fight back against hostile heel wrestlers, particularly if the special referee is either a wrestler himself or a famous martial artist (such as Tito Ortiz at the main event at TNA Hard Justice 2005).
For heel special referees, common ways of assisting the heel wrestler to obtain victory include, but are not limited to, the following:
- Counting fast whenever the face wrestler is being pinned, while counting slow, or even refusing to count at all, when the heel wrestler is being pinned.
- Allowing heel wrestlers to use blatantly illegal tactics that most normal referees would instantly disqualify for, while not extending these relaxed rules to face wrestlers.
- Feigning unconsciousness far longer than they would normally otherwise be out, allowing for greater opportunities for run-ins, while instantly waking up the moment the heel wrestler seems to have an advantage.
- Actually assisting in attacking the face wrestler.
Matches are held within a wrestling ring, an elevated square canvas mat with posts on each corner. A cloth apron hangs over the edges of the ring. Three horizontal ropes or cables surround the ring, suspended with turnbuckles which are connected to the posts. For safety, the ropes are padded at the turnbuckles and cushioned mats surround the floor outside the ring. Guardrails or a similar barrier enclose this area from the audience. Wrestlers are generally expected to stay within the confines of the ring, though matches sometimes end up outside the ring, and even in the audience, to add excitement.
In some team matches, only one entrant from each team may be designated as the "legal" or "active" wrestler at any given moment. Two wrestlers must make physical contact (typically palm-to-palm) in order to transfer this legal status. This is known as a tag, with the participants tagging out and tagging in. Typically the wrestler who is tagging out has a 5-second count to leave the ring, whereas the one tagging in can enter the ring at any time, resulting in heels legally double-teaming a face.
The non-legal wrestlers must remain outside the ring or other legal area at all times (and avoid purposeful contact with the opposing wrestlers) or face reprimand from the referee. In most promotions, the wrestler to be tagged in must be touching the turnbuckle on his corner, or a cloth strap attached to the turnbuckle.
Some multi-wrestler matches allow for a set number of legal wrestlers, and a legal wrestler may tag out to any other wrestler, regardless of team. In these matches, the tag need not be a mutual effort, and this results in active wrestlers being tagged out against their will, or non-legal wrestlers forced to enter the battle.
In a Texas Tornado Tag Team match, all the competitors are legal in the match, and tagging in and out is not necessary. All matches fought under hardcore rules (such as no disqualification, no holds barred, ladder match, etc.) are all contested under de facto Texas Tornado rules, since the lack of ability of a referee to issue a disqualification renders any tagging requirements moot.
Regardless of rules of tagging, you can not pin your own tag team partner, even if it is technically possible from the rules of the match (e.g. Texas Tornado rules, or a thee-way tag team match). This is called the Outlaw Rule because the first team to attempt to use that (in an attempt to unfairly retain their tag team titles) was the New Age Outlaws.
A wrestler may not punch an opponent with a closed fist nor kick an opponent with the toe of their boot. Biting is not allowed, nor is spitting in the eyes. When wrestlers do this, however, they usually get away with it with just an admonishment from the referee.
Wrestlers may lift an opponent and throw them, drop them, or otherwise force them to the mat. Such techniques which land an opponent on the head or neck, such as the piledriver, may be disallowed by some promotions.
A wrestler may jump onto an opponent, whether standing or lying down, in any manner, including with a clenched fist (à la Jerry Lawler's diving fist) or the toe of a boot (à la Randy Orton's punt attack).
Any legal wrestler is open to attack from any direction at any time, including when they are downed, as long as they are within the ring area enclosed by the ring ropes. They may also be subject to attack if they are completely outside the ring, as long as no part of their body is touching, or directly underneath, a ring rope. If any part of either wrestler is in contact with the ropes or has otherwise broken the plane of ropes all grappling contact between the wrestlers must be broken within a five count or else the attacking wrestler may be subject to disqualification. This rule is often used strategically in order to escape from a submission hold, and a wrestler can break the plane of the ropes by placing his foot or other body part on (or under) the ropes to avoid losing by pinfall. This is commonly referred to as a rope break.
In order to score by pinfall, a wrestler must pin both his opponent's shoulders against the mat while the referee slaps the mat three times (referred to as a "three count"). This is the most common form of defeat. If a wrestler's shoulders are down (both shoulders touching the mat) and any part of the opponent's body is lying over the wrestler, it is completely legal to start a three count. This often results in pins that can easily be kicked out of, if the defensive wrestler is even slightly conscious. For example, an attacking wrestler who is half-conscious may simply drape an arm over a prone opponent, or a cocky wrestler may simply place his foot gently on a prone opponent's body, prompting a three-count from the referee.
Illegal pinning methods include using the ropes for leverage and hooking the opponent's clothing, which are therefore popular cheating methods for heels, unless certain stipulations make such an advantage legal. Such pins as these are rarely seen by the referee and are subsequently often used by heels and on occasion by cheating faces to win matches.
Occasionally, there are instances where a pinfall is made where both wrestlers' shoulders were on the mat for the three count. This situation will most likely lead to a draw, and in some cases a continuation of the match or a future match to determine the winner.
While serving as a color commentator for WWE Smackdown, John Layfield pointed out that sometimes wrestlers will make pin attempts early in the match, despite knowing that he has not damages his opponent enough to win, because sometimes, the point is not to get a pin, but rather, to force the opponent to expend energy for later in the match. He most often pointed this out in Finlay's matches, where Finlay could often be seen placing his knee over his opponent's face, forcing his opponent to also scrape his face in order to stay in the match.
Because a pinfall only requires a three-count from the referee, as opposed to a ten-count from a boxing referee to score a technical knockout, this rule gave birth to the saying "It only takes three seconds to beat your opponent." Indeed, many a seemingly invincible juggernauts have been instantly defeated with a single school boy pin.
To score by submission, the wrestler must make his opponent give up, usually, but not necessarily, by putting him in a submission hold (e.g. figure four leg-lock, arm-lock, sleeper-hold).
Passing out in a submission hold constitutes a loss by knockout. To determine if a wrestler has passed out in WWE, the referee usually picks up and drops his hand. If it drops three consecutive times without the wrestler having the strength to stop it from falling, the wrestler is considered to have passed out. At one point this was largely ignored. However, the rule is now much more commonly observed for safety reasons. If the wrestler has passed out, the opponent then scores by submission.
Also, a wrestler can win by knockout if he does not resort to submission holds, but stills pummels his opponent to the point that he is completely out cold. To check for a knockout in this manner, a referee will wave his hand in front of the wrestlers' face; if the wrestler does not react in any way, the referee will award the victory to the other wrestler. This method of winning is usually awarded to wrestlers with "psycho" gimmicks, such as Umaga, who care nothing for pinfalls and victories, and desire only to inflict pain onto others.
It should be noted that, despite the "champion's advantage", which states that a championship can only change hands by pinfall or submission, a knockout victory will also award them the championship, as it is still considered a decisive victory.
A wrestler may voluntarily submit by verbally informing the referee (usually used in moves such as the Mexican Surfboard, where all four limbs are incapacitated, making tapping impossible). Also, a wrestler can indicate a voluntary submission by "tapping out", that is, tapping a free hand against the mat or against an opponent. Occasionally, a wrestler will reach for a rope (see rope breaks below), only to put his hand back on the mat so he can crawl towards the rope some more; this is NOT a submission, and the referee decides what his intent is. Submission was initially a large factor in professional wrestling, but following the decline of the submission-oriented catch-as-catch-can style from mainstream professional wrestling, the submission largely faded. Despite this, some wrestlers, such as Chris Jericho, Ric Flair, Bret Hart, Kurt Angle, Ken Shamrock, The Undertaker, Dean Malenko, and Chris Benoit, became famous for winning matches via submission. A wrestler with a signature submission technique is portrayed as better at applying the hold, making it more painful or more difficult to get out of than others who use it. More recently John Cena, Daniel Bryan and Alberto Del Rio are among the modern stars who are bringing back the use of submission in the WWE, with their STF, Crossface and Rolling Cross Armbar respectively.
Since all contact between the wrestlers must cease if any part of the body is touching, or underneath, the ropes, many wrestlers will attempt to break submission holds by deliberately grabbing the bottom ropes. This is called a rope break, and it is one of the most common ways to break a submission hold. Most holds leave an arm or leg free, so that the person can tap out if he wants. Instead, he uses these free limbs to either grab one of the ring ropes (the bottom one is the most common, as it is nearest the wrestlers) or drape his foot across, or underneath one. Once this has been accomplished, and the accomplishment is witnessed by the referee, the referee will demand that the offending wrestler break the hold, and start counting to five if the wrestler does not. If the referee reaches the count of five, and the wrestler still does not break the hold, he is disqualified.
If a manager decides that his client wrestler should tap out, but cannot convince the wrestler himself to do so, he may throw in the towel (literally taking a gym towel and hurling it into the referee's line of sight); this is the same as a submission, as the manager is, in kayfabe, considered the wrestlers agent, and therefore, authorized to make formal decisions (such as forfeiting a match) on the client's behalf. One of the most infamous examples of this happened in 1983 when the Iron Sheik had Bob Backlund in a camel clutch, and Backlund's manager, Arnold Skaaland, threw in the towel to save Backlund's career.
A countout (alternatively "count-out" or "count out") happens when a wrestler is out of the ring long enough for the referee to count to ten and thus disqualified. The count is broken and re-started when a wrestler in the ring exits the ring. Playing into this, some wrestlers will "milk" the count by sliding in the ring, and immediately sliding back out. As he was technically inside the ring for a split second before exiting again, it is sufficient to restart the count. Heels often use this tactic in order to buy themselves more time to catch their breath, or to attempt to frustrate their babyface opponents.
If all the active wrestlers in a match are down inside the ring at the same time, the referee will begin a count (usually ten seconds). If nobody rises to their feet by the end of the count, the match is ruled a draw. Any participant who stands up in time will end the count for everyone else.
If a wrestler has secured a rope break from a submission hold, and the offending wrestler does not break the hold on the count of five, causing the offending wrestler to loose automatically, it is still considered a disqualification (which is kept distinct from countouts in most major promotions), even though the automatic loss was procured through counting.
In some promotions (and most major modern ones), Championships cannot change hands via a countout, unless the on-screen authority declares it for at least one match, although in others, championships may change hands via countout.
Disqualification (sometimes abbreviated as "DQ") occurs when a wrestler violates the match's rules, thus loosing automatically. Although a countout can technically be considered a disqualification (as it is, for all intents and purposes, an automatic loss suffered as a result of violating a match rule), the two concepts are often distinct in wrestling. A no disqualification match can still end by countout (although this is rare); typically, a match must be declared a "no holds barred" match, a "street fight" or some other term, in order for both DQs and countouts to be waived.
Disqualification from a match is called for a number of reasons:
- Performing any illegal holds or maneuvers, such as refusing to break a hold when an opponent is in the ropes, hair-pulling, choking or biting an opponent, or repeatedly punching with a closed fist. These violations are usually subject to a referee-administered five count and will result in disqualification if not released before.
- Attacking an opponent's eye, such as raking it, poking it, gouging it, punching it or other severe attacks to the eye.
- Any outside interference involving a person not involved in the match striking or holding a wrestler. Sometimes (depending on the promotion and uniqueness of the situation), if a heel attempts to interfere but is ejected from the ring by a wrestler or referee before this occurs, there may not be a disqualification. In this disqualification method, the wrestler being attacked by the foreign member is awarded the win. Sometimes, however, this can work in heels' favor. In February 2009, Shawn Michaels, who was under the kayfabe employment of John "Bradshaw" Layfield, interfered in a match and super kicked JBL in front of the referee in order to get his employer the win via "outside interference".
- Striking an opponent with a foreign object (unless the rules of the match specifically allow this; see hardcore wrestling).
- A direct low blow to the groin (unless the rules of the match specifically allow this).
- Intentionally laying hands on the referee or to an extreme case, often in special referee matches, touching the referee with any body parts.
- Pulling an opponent's wrestling trunks for a pinfall during a match (although this usually only results in nullification of the pinfall).
- Pulling an opponent's mask off during a match (this is illegal in Mexico, and sometimes in Japan).
- In a Royal Rumble, it is illegal to enter the ring before your due entrance.
In practice, the rules of the fight are often violated without disqualification due to the referee being distracted and not seeing the offense, or the referee seeing the offense but allowing the match to continue. Usually, the only offenses that the referee will see and immediately disqualify the match on (as opposed to having multiple offenses) are low blows, weapon usage, interference, or assaulting the referee. In WWE, a referee must see the violation with his own eyes to rule that the match end in a disqualification (simply watching the video tape is not usually enough) and the referee's ruling is almost always final, although dusty finishes (named after, and made famous by, Dusty Rhodes) will often result in the referee's decision being overturned. It is not uncommon for the referees themselves to get knocked out during a match, which is commonly referred to by the term "ref bump". While the referee remains "unconscious", rules are often violated at will. In some cases, a referee might disqualify a person under the presumption that it was that wrestler who knocked him out; most referee knockouts are arranged to allow a wrestler, usually a heel, to gain an advantage. For example, a wrestler may get whipped into a referee at a slower speed, knocking the ref down for short amount of time; during that interim period, one wrestler may pin his opponent for a three-count and would have won the match but for the referee being down (sometimes, another referee will sprint to the ring from backstage to attempt to make the count, but by then, the other wrestler has had enough time to kick out on his own accord).
If all participants in a match continue to breach the referee's instructions, the match may end in a double disqualification, where both wrestlers or teams (in a tag team match) have been disqualified. The match is essentially nullified, and called a draw or in some cases a restart or the same match being held at a pay-per-view or next night's show.
In most wrestling promotions, a championship cannot change hands as a result of a disqualification, unless the on-screen authority figure declares that the championship via disqualification which is good for only at least one match, often referred to as the "champion's advantage". Playing into this, some heel wrestlers will attempt to "get themselves disqualified" to "protect" their championships, although whenever a "rematch clause" is put in play, the said advantage is often ruled out by the general manager to give the challenger a fair shot. While in the case of some promotions,the champion may lose his championship if he gets disqualified.
A relatively recent trend in wrestling has been the development of the no-disqualification (or Hardcore) match. This type of match became increasingly prominent during the 1990s, and was a particular feature of the Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW) promotion. When WWE (then WWF) unveiled its new "Attitude" era in 1997, the no-disqualification match was used as a centerpiece for this new design of wrestling, and a Hardcore Title was offered between 1998 and 2002. Completely new matches developed from the Hardcore/no-DQ match, including:
- Tables, Ladders, and Chairs (a ladder match where all three items may be used as a weapon against an opponent).
- Hardcore match (a no-disqualification match where falls count anywhere, even out of the venue).
- 24/7 On the Line title, where the hardcore title is always available wherever and whenever a referee is available to judge a fall.
A professional wrestling match can end in a draw. A draw occurs if both opponents are simultaneously disqualified (as via countout), neither opponent is able to answer a ten-count, or both opponents simultaneously win the match. The latter can occur if, for example, one opponent's shoulders touch the mat while maintaining a submission hold against another opponent. If the opponent in the hold begins to tap out at the same time a referee counts to three for pinning the opponent delivering the hold, both opponents have legally achieved scoring conditions simultaneously. Traditionally, a championship may not change hands in the event of a draw, though some promotions such as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling have endorsed rules where the champion may lose a title by disqualification. A variant of the draw is the time-limit draw, where the match does not have a winner by a specified time period (a one-hour draw, which was once common, is known in wrestling circles as a "Broadway").
A wrestling match may be declared a no contest if the winning conditions are unable to occur. This can be due to excessive interference, loss of referee's control over the match, one or more participants sustaining debilitating injury not caused by the opponent, or the inability of a scheduled match to even begin. A no contest is a state separate and distinct from a draw — a draw indicates winning conditions were met. Although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably in practice, this usage is technically incorrect.
While each wrestling match is ostensibly a competition of athletics and strategy, the goal of each match from a business standpoint is to excite and entertain the audience. Although the competition is staged, dramatic emphasis can be utilized to draw out the most intense reaction from the audience. Heightened interest results in higher attendance rates, increased ticket sales, higher ratings on television broadcasts (which result in greater ad revenue), higher pay-per-view buyrates, and sales of branded merchandise and recorded video footage. All of these contribute to the profit of the promotion company.
In Latin America and English-speaking countries, most wrestlers (and other on-stage performers) portray character roles, sometimes with personalities wildly different from their own. These personalities are a gimmick intended to heighten interest in a wrestler without regard to athletic ability. Some can be unrealistic and cartoon-like (such as Doink the Clown), while others carry more verisimilitude (such as Chris Jericho, The Rock, Stone Cold Steve Austin, and CM Punk). In lucha libre, many characters wear masks, adopting a secret identity akin to a superhero, a near-sacred tradition.
An individual wrestler may keep one ring name for his entire career (cases in point include Chris Jericho, Shawn Michaels, CM Punk, Randy Orton and Ricky Steamboat), or may change from time to time to better suit the demands of the audience or company. Sometimes a character is owned and trademarked by the company, forcing the wrestler to find a new one when he leaves (although a simple typeset change, such as changing Rhyno to Rhino, can usually get around this), and sometimes a character is owned by the wrestler. Sometimes, a wrestler may change his legal name in order to obtain ownership of his ring name (examples include Andrew Martin and Warrior). Many wrestlers (such as The Rock and The Undertaker) are strongly identified with their character, even responding to the name in public or between friends. It's actually considered proper decorum for fellow wrestlers to refer to each other by their stage names/characters rather than their birth/legal names, unless otherwise introduced. A professional wrestling character's popularity can grow to the point that it makes appearances in other media (see Hulk Hogan and El Santo) or even give the performer enough visibility to enter politics (Antonio Inoki and Jesse Ventura, among others).
Typically, matches are staged between a protagonist (historically an audience favorite, known as a babyface, or "the good guy") and an antagonist (historically a villain with arrogance, a tendency to break rules, or other unlikable qualities, called a heel). In recent years, however, antiheroes have also become prominent in professional wrestling. There is also a less common role of a "tweener", who is neither fully face nor fully heel yet able to play either role effectively (case in point, Samoa Joe during his first run in TNA Wrestling from June 2005 to November 2006).
At times a character may "turn", altering their face/heel alignment. This may be an abrupt, surprising event, or it may slowly build up over time. It almost always is accomplished with a markable change in behavior on the part of the character. Some turns become defining points in a wrestler's career, as was the case when Hulk Hogan turned heel after being a top face for over a decade. Others may have no noticeable effect on the character's status. If a character repeatedly switches between being a face and heel, this lessens the effect of such turns, and may result in apathy from the audience. Vince McMahon is a good example of having more heel and face turns than anyone in WWE history.
As with personas in general, a character's face or heel alignment may change with time, or remain constant over its lifetime (the most famous example of the latter is Ricky Steamboat, a WWE Hall of Famer who remained a babyface throughout his entire career).
While true exhibition matches are not uncommon, most matches tell a story analogous to a scene in a play or film, or an episode of a serial drama: The face will sometimes win (triumph) or sometimes lose (tragedy). Longer story arcs can result from multiple matches over the course of time. Since most promotions have a championship title, competition for the championship is a common impetus for stories. Also, anything from a character's own hair to his job with the promotion can be wagered in a match.
Some matches are designed to further a story of only one participant. It could be intended to portray him or her as a strong unstoppable force, a lucky underdog, a sore loser, or any other characterization. Sometimes non-wrestling vignettes are shown in order to enhance a character's image without the need for matches.
Other stories result from a natural rivalry between two or more characters. Outside of performance, these are referred to as feuds. A feud can exist between any number of participants and can last for a few days up to multiple decades. The feud between Ric Flair and Ricky Steamboat lasted from the late 1970s into early 1990s and allegedly spanned over two thousand matches (although most of those matches were mere dark matches). The career-spanning history between characters Mike Awesome and Masato Tanaka is another example of a long-running feud, as is the case of Stone Cold Steve Austin vs. Vince McMahon, one of the most lucrative feuds in the World Wrestling Federation during 1998 and 1999.
In theory, the longer a feud is built up, the more audience interest (aka heat) will exist. The main event of a wrestling show is generally the one with the most heat behind it. Commonly, a heel will hold the upper hand over a face until a final showdown, heightening dramatic tension as the face's fans desire to see him win.
Since the advent of television, many other elements have been utilized to tell story within a professional wrestling setting: pre- and post-match interviews, "backstage" skits, positions of authority, division rankings (typically the #1-contendership spot), contracts, lotteries, and even news stories on promotion websites.
Also, anything that can be used as an element of drama can exist in professional wrestling stories: romantic relationships (including love triangles and marriage), racism, classism, nepotism, favoritism, corporate corruption, family bonds, personal histories, grudges, theft, cheating, assault, betrayal, bribery, seduction, stalking, confidence tricks, extortion, blackmail, substance abuse, self-doubt, self-sacrifice; even kidnapping, sexual fetishism, necrophilia, misogyny, rape and death have been portrayed in wrestling. Some promotions have included supernatural elements such as magic, curses, the undead and Satanic imagery (most notably the Undertaker and his Ministry of Darkness, a stable that regularly performed evil rituals and human sacrifice in Satanic-like worship of a hidden power figure). Celebrities would also be involved in storylines.
Commentators have become important in communicating the relevance of the characters' actions to the story at hand, filling in past details and pointing out subtle actions that may otherwise go unnoticed.
A main part of the story-telling part of wrestling is a promo, or promotional interview. Promos are performed, or "cut", in wrestling jargon, for a variety of reasons, including to heighten interest in a wrestler, or to hype an upcoming match.
Since the crowd is often too loud for promos to be heard, naturally, wrestlers will use microphones, unless they are in the back. These microphones are not hidden in the wrestlers' clothing, like with most hollywood acting, but are held in the wrestlers' hands, and physically held up against their mouth, like a field reporter.
Professional wrestling mimics the structure of title match combat sports. Participants compete for a championship, and must defend it after winning it. These titles are represented physically by a belt that can be worn by the champion. In the case of team wrestling, there is a belt for each member of the team.
Almost all professional wrestling promotions have one major title, and some have more. Championships are designated by divisions of weight, height, gender, wrestling style and other qualifications.
Typically, each promotion only recognizes the "legitimacy" of their own titles, although cross-promotion does happen. When one promotion absorbs or purchases another, the titles from the defunct promotion may continue to be defended in the new promotion or be decommissioned.
Behind the scenes, the bookers in a company will place the title on the most accomplished performer, or those the bookers believe will generate fan interest in terms of event attendance and television viewership. Lower ranked titles may also be used on the performers who show potential, thus allowing them greater exposure to the audience. However other circumstances may also determine the use of a championship. A combination of a championship's lineage, the caliber of performers as champion, and the frequency and manner of title changes, dictates the audience's perception of the title's quality, significance and reputation.
A wrestler's championship accomplishments can be central to their career, becoming a measure of their performance ability and drawing power. In general, a wrestler with multiple title reigns or an extended title reign is indicative of a wrestler's ability to maintain audience interest and/or a wrestler's ability to perform in the ring. As such, the most accomplished or decorated wrestlers tend to be revered as legends despite the predetermined nature of title reigns. American wrestler Ric Flair has had multiple world heavyweight championship reigns spanning over three decades. Japanese wrestler Último Dragón once held and defended a record 10 titles simultaneously.
Often a match will take place under additional rules, usually serving as a special attraction or a climactic point in a feud or storyline. Sometimes this will be the culmination of an entire feud, ending it for the immediate future (known as a blowoff match).
Perhaps the most well-known non-standard match is the cage match, in which the ring is surrounded by a fence or similar metal structure, with the express intention of preventing escape or outside interference—and with the added bonus of the cage being a potentially brutal weapon or platform for launching attacks. The WWE has another provision where a standard cage match can end with one wrestler or wrestling team escaping the cage through the door or over the top.
Another example is the WWE's Royal Rumble match, which involves thirty participants in a random and unknown order (increased to forty participants in 2011). The Rumble match is itself a spectacle in that it is a once-yearly event with multiple participants, including individuals who might not interact otherwise. But it also serves as a catalyst for the company's ongoing feuds, as well as a springboard for new storylines—most importantly determining the main event at the following WrestleMania.
While the wrestling matches themselves are the primary focus of professional wrestling, a key dramatic element of the business can be entrances of the wrestlers to the arena and ring. It is typical for a wrestler to get their biggest crowd reaction (or "pop") for their ring entrance, rather than for anything they do in the wrestling match itself.
All notable wrestlers now enter the ring accompanied by music, and regularly add other elements to their entrance. The music played during the ring entrance will usually mirror the wrestler's personality. Many wrestlers, particularly in America, have music and lyrics specially written for their ring entrance. While invented long before, the practice of including music with the entrance gained rapid popularity during the 1980s, largely as a result of the huge success of Hulk Hogan and the WWF, and their Rock 'n' Wrestling Connection. With the introduction of the Titantron entrance screen in 1997, WWF/WWE wrestlers also had entrance videos made that would play along with the their entrance music.
Other dramatic elements of a ring entrance can include:
- a distinct sound or opening note in the music (used to elicit a Pavlovian response from the crowd). For example, the glass shattering in Steve Austin's entrance theme, The Undertaker's signature bell toll, or the sound of Bells with a sound of a cow's moo in JBL's Theme
- darkening of the arena, often accompanied by mood lighting or strobe lighting, such as in The Undertaker's, Triple H's, or Sting's entrances
- entering in a manner in keeping with their character traits, such as a fast, highly energetic entrance, or a slow, stoic entrance. For example, The Ultimate Warrior would run at high speed down the entrance ramp and into the ring while Randy Orton would slowly and darkly walk to the ring. The Undertaker has adopted one of the most notable entrances, taking around 4 to 5 minutes, darkening the whole arena, and performing a slow, intimidating walk.
- driving a motor vehicle into the arena. For example, Eddie Guerrero would arrive into the arena in a lowrider, The Undertaker (in his "American Bad Ass" biker gimmick), Chuck Palumbo, Tara, and the Disciples of Apocalypse on motorcycles, The Mexicools on riding lawn mowers, JBL in his limousine, Alberto Del Rio arriving into the arena in various luxury cars.
- acting out a trademark behavior, such as posing to display their muscularity, mounting the ring ropes, or sitting in the corner.
- talking to the crowd using a distinctive patter
- Many heels with narcissistic gimmicks (Lex Luger, Shawn Michaels, Cody Rhodes, Paul Orndorff, etc.) would admire themselves with a mirror on their way to the ring.
- coming through the audience, such as The Sandman's beer drinking and can smashing entrance, or Diamond Dallas Page's exit through the crowd.
- accompaniment by a ringside crew or personal security, such as by Goldberg
- entering the arena by a lift in the stage, such as Kurt Angle, Gangrel and Rey Mysterio
Another method of entry involves descending from the ceiling with a Zip-line or rappel line and stunt harness. This has been done by Shawn Michaels at WrestleMania XII, by Sting many times in WCW and TNA, and has gained major controversy over its role in the death of wrestler Owen Hart at Over the Edge.
Some of the bigger stars in the industry, such as Shawn Michaels, Triple H, The Undertaker, and The Sandman, can perform ring entrances lasting up to three minutes or more. It is not uncommon for ring entrances to sometimes last longer than the match itself, especially in obvious mismatches.
Special ring entrances are also developed for big occasions, most notably the WrestleMania event. For example, WrestleMania III and VI both saw all wrestlers enter the arena on motorized miniature wrestling rings. Live bands are sometimes hired to perform live entrance music at special events.
Unlike most sports, the essence of professional wrestling's roots can still be seen all over the United States. Independent circuits can be found in almost any community in the United States, with some cities having numerous leagues using many of the same wrestlers as other nearby leagues. Many promotions have events at National Guard Armories, Recreation Centers, secondary schools, flea markets, churches, bars, and shopping center parking lots. Production values are almost always low, promotion is done by word of mouth, flyers, Public-access television, and the internet. Wrestlers on the independent wrestling scene take a role more closely defined as independent contractors, working for multiple wrestling promotions and are generally paid per appearance. The majority of mainstream wrestlers begin on the independent circuit.
The vast majority of professional wrestlers are men, especially in the North American WWE & TNA, where they are usually large in size, often to extremes. Notable examples include André the Giant, Hulk Hogan, Paul "Big Show" Wight, The Undertaker, Yokozuna, Giant Gonzales, The Great Khali and Kane. Usually, competitions or divisions are set up for men of similar wrestling styles, such as technical, brawling, high flying, lucha, submission or hardcore. However, matches involving different weight divisions are often created and are never referred to as unusual or against any rules, despite large differences in height, weight or strength. On very rare occasions, men and women will wrestle each other.
The women’s division of professional wrestling has maintained a recognized world champion since 1937, when Mildred Burke won the original World Women's title. She then formed the World Women's Wrestling Association in the early 1950s and recognized herself as the first champion, although the championship would be vacated upon her retirement in 1956. The NWA however, ceased to acknowledge Burke as their Women's World champion in 1954, and instead acknowledged June Byers as champion after a controversial finish to a high-profile match between Burke and Byers that year. Upon Byers' retirement in 1964, The Fabulous Moolah, who won a junior heavyweight version of the NWA World Women's Championship (the predecessor to the WWE Women's Championship) in a tournament back in 1958, was recognized by most NWA promoters as champion by default.
For most of its history, women and men would rarely compete against each other in professional wrestling, as it was deemed to be unfair and unchivalrous. Andy Kaufman used this to gain notoriety when he created an Intergender Championship and declared it open to any female challenger. This led to a long feud with Jerry Lawler.
In the 1980s, mixed tag team matches began to take place, with a male and female on each team and a rule that stated only the males and females could attack each other. If a tag was made, the other team had to automatically switch their legal wrestler too. Despite these restrictions, many mixed tag matches do feature some physical interaction between participants of different genders. For example, a heel may take a cheapshot at the female wrestler of the opposing team to draw a negative crowd reaction.
Intergender singles bouts were first fought on a national level in the 1990s. This began with Luna Vachon, who faced men (and usually defeated them) in both ECW and WWF. Later, Chyna became the first female to hold a belt that was not exclusive to women when she won the WWF Intercontinental Championship.
Midget wrestling can be traced to professional wrestling's carnival and vaudeville origins. In recent years, the popularity and prevalence of midgets in wrestling has greatly decreased due to wrestling companies depriving midget divisions of storyline and/or feud. However, WWE's has made a few attempts to enter this market with their "mini's" in the 1990s and the "junior's league" as recent as 2006. It is still a popular form of entertainment in Mexican wrestling, mostly as a "sideshow".
Some wrestlers may have their own specific "mini me", like Mascarita Sagrada, Alebrije has Quije, etc. There are also cases in which midgets can become valets for a wrestler, and even get physically involved in matches, like Alushe, who often accompanies Tinieblas, or Kemonito, who is portrayed as Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre's mascot and is also a valet for Mistico. WWE's Dave Finlay was often aided in his matches by a midget known mainly as Hornswoggle, who hid under the ring and gave a shillelagh to Finlay to use on his opponent. Finlay also occasionally threw him at his opponent(s). Hornswoggle has also been given a run with the Cruiserweight Championship and feuded with D-X in 2009.
Styles and characteristics of professional wrestling in different countries
The U.S., Japan and Mexico are three countries where there is a huge market and high popularity for professional wrestling. But the styles of professional wrestling are different, given their independent development for a long period.
The professional wrestling in the U.S. tends to have heavy focus on story building and characters establishment. There is a story for each match, and even a longer story for successive matches. The stories usually contain characters like faces and heels, and less often antiheroes and tweeners. It is a "triumph" if the face wins, while it is a "tragedy" if the heel wins. The characters usually have strong and sharp personalities, with examples like Doink the Clown, whose personality is regarded as unrealistic.[by whom?] The opposition between faces and heels is very intense in the story, and the heels may even attack the faces during TV interviews. The relationship between different characters can also be very complex.
Although professional wrestling in Mexico (Lucha libre) also has stories and characters, they are less emphasized. Wrestlers in Mexico are traditionally more agile and perform more aerial maneuvers than professional wrestlers in the U.S. who, more often, rely on power moves and strikes to subdue their opponents. The difference in styles is due to the independent evolution of the sport in Mexico beginning in the 1930s and the fact that wrestlers in the cruiserweight division (peso semicompleto) are often the most popular wrestlers in Mexican lucha libre. Wrestlers often execute high flying moves characteristic of lucha libre by utilizing the wrestling ring's ropes to catapult themselves towards their opponents, using intricate combinations in rapid-fire succession, and applying complex submission holds. Lucha libre is also known for its tag team wrestling matches, in which the teams are often made up of three members, instead of two as is common in the U.S.
The style of Japanese professional wrestling (Puroresu) is again different. With its origins in traditional American style of wrestling and still being under the same genre, it has become an entity in itself. Despite the similarity to its American counterpart in that the outcome of the matches remains predetermined, the phenomena are different in the form of the psychology and presentation of the sport; it is treated as a full contact combat sport as it mixes hard hitting martial arts strikes with shoot style submission holds, while in the U.S. it is rather more regarded as an entertainment show. Wrestlers incorporate kicks and strikes from martial arts disciplines, and a strong emphasis is placed on submission wrestling,and unlike the use of involved storylines in the U.S.,they are not as intricate in Japan, more emphasis is placed on the concept of Fighting Spirit,meaning the Wrestlers display of physical and mental stamina are valued a lot more than theatrics. Many of Japan's wrestlers including top stars such as Shinya Hashimoto, Riki Choshu and Keiji Mutoh came from a legitimate martial arts background and many Japanese Pro Wrestlers in the 90's began to pursue careers in Mixed Martial Arts Organizations such as Pancrase and Shooto which at the time retained the original look of Puroresu but did not have predetermined outcomes to the matches,.
Professional wrestling has developed its own cultures, both internal and external.
Those involved in producing professional wrestling have developed a kind of global fraternity, with familial bonds, shared language and passed-down traditions. New performers are expected to "pay their dues" for a few years by working in lower-profile promotions and working as ring crew before working their way upward. The permanent rosters of most promotions develop a backstage pecking order, with veterans mediating conflicts and mentoring younger wrestlers. For many decades (and still to a lesser extent today) performers were expected to keep the illusions of wrestling's legitimacy alive even while not performing, essentially acting in character any time they were in public. Some veterans speak of a "sickness" among wrestling performers, an inexplicable pull to remain active in the wrestling world despite the devastating effects the job can have on one's life and health.
Fans of professional wrestling have their own subculture, comparable to those of science fiction, video games, or comic books. Those who are interested in the backstage occurrences, future storylines and reasonings behind company decisions read newsletters written by journalists with inside ties to the wrestling industry. These "rags" or "dirt sheets" have expanded into the internet, where their information can be dispensed on an up-to-the-minute basis. Some have expanded into radio shows.
Some fans enjoy a pastime of collecting tapes of wrestling shows from specific companies, of certain wrestlers, or of specific genres. The internet has given fans exposure to worldwide variations of wrestling they would be unable to see otherwise. Since the 1990s, many companies have been founded which deal primarily in wrestling footage.
Like some other sports, fantasy leagues have developed around professional wrestling. Some take this concept further by creating E-feds (electronic federations), where a user can create their own fictional wrestling character, and roleplaying storylines with other users, leading to scheduled "shows" where match results are determined by the organizers, usually based on a combination of the characters' statistics and the players' roleplaying aptitude, sometimes with audience voting.
Every year, there are growing numbers of regional, national and international wrestling fan conventions, where fans can meet and converse with wrestlers and each other. These often coincide with a wrestling show featuring an all-star card filled with legends.
Professional wrestling in mainstream culture
From the first established world championship, the top professional wrestlers have garnered fame within mainstream society. Each successive generation has produced a number of wrestlers who extend their careers into the realms of music, acting, writing, business, politics or public speaking, and are known to those who are unfamiliar with wrestling in general.
Conversely, celebrities from other sports or general pop culture also become involved with wrestling for brief periods of time. A prime example of this is The Rock 'n' Wrestling Connection of the 1980s, which combined wrestling with MTV.
Some terminology originating in professional wrestling has found its way into the common vernacular. Concepts such as "calling someone out", "body slam", "sleeper hold" and "tag team" are used even by those who do not watch professional wrestling. The term "smackdown", which originated in the late 90s in the World Wrestling Federation, is now listed in Webster's Dictionary as of 2007.
Many television shows and films have been produced which portray in-character professional wrestlers as protagonists, such as Ready to Rumble, ¡Mucha Lucha!, Nacho Libre, and the Santo film series. At least two stage plays set in the world of pro wrestling have been produced: The Baron is a comedy that retells the life of an actual performer known as Baron von Raschke. From Parts Unknown... is an award-nominated Canadian drama about the rise and fall of a fictional wrestler. In 2009 a South Park episode played on the soap operatic elements of professional wrestling. The 2008 film The Wrestler, about a washed-up professional wrestler, garnered several Oscar nominations.
Study and analysis of professional wrestling
With its growing popularity, professional wrestling has attracted attention as a subject of serious academic study and journalistic criticism. Many courses, theses, essays and dissertations have analyzed wrestling's conventions, content, and its role in modern society. It is often included as part of studies on theatre, sociology, performance, and media. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a course of study on the cultural significance of professional wrestling.
But this was not always the case; in the early 20th century, once it became apparent that the "sport" was worked, pro wrestling was looked down on as a cheap entertainment for the uneducated working class—an attitude that still exists to varying degrees today. The French theorist Roland Barthes was among the first to propose that wrestling was worthy of deeper analysis, in his essay "The World of Wrestling" from his book Mythologies, first published in 1957. Barthes argued that it should be looked at not as a scamming of the ignorant, but as spectacle; a mode of theatric performance for a willing, if bloodthirsty, audience. Wrestling is described as performed art which demands an immediate reading of the juxtaposed meanings. The logical conclusion is given least importance over the theatrical performers of the wrestlers and the referee. According to Barthes the function of a wrestler is not to win: it is to go exactly through the motions which are expected of him and to give the audience a theatrical spectacle. This work is considered a foundation of all later study.
While pro wrestling is often described simplistically as a "soap opera for males", it has also been cited as filling the role of past forms of literature and theatre; a synthesis of classical heroics, commedia dell'arte, revenge tragedies, morality plays, and burlesque. The characters and storylines portrayed by a successful promotion are seen to reflect the current mood, attitudes, and concerns of that promotion's society (and can, in turn, influence those same things). Wrestling's high levels of violence and masculinity make it a vicarious outlet for aggression during peacetime.
Documentary filmmakers have studied the lives of wrestlers and the effects the profession has on them and their families. The 1999 theatrical documentary Beyond the Mat focused on Terry Funk, a wrestler nearing retirement; Mick Foley, a wrestler within his prime; Jake Roberts, a former star fallen from grace; and a school of wrestling student trying to break into the business. The 2005 release Lipstick and Dynamite, Piss and Vinegar: The First Ladies of Wrestling chronicled the development of women's wrestling throughout the twentieth century. Pro wrestling has been featured several times on HBO's Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel. MTV's documentary series True Life featured two episodes titled "I'm a Professional Wrestler" and "I Want to Be a Professional Wrestler". Other documentaries have been produced by The Learning Channel (The Secret World of Professional Wrestling) and A&E Network (Hitman Hart: Wrestling with Shadows). Bloodstained Memoirs explored the careers of several pro wrestlers, including Chris Jericho, Rob Van Dam and Roddy Piper.
Injury and fatality
Although professional wrestling is worked, there is a high chance of injury, and even death. Strikes are often stiff especially in Japan and in independent wrestling promotions such as Ring of Honor and Pro Wrestling Guerilla. The ring is often made out of 2 by 8 timber planks. There have been many brutal accidents, hits and injuries. Due to the physicality and the toughness of the sport, professional wrestlers sometimes train harder than other pro athletes in order to withstand more punishment. Many of the injuries that occur in pro wrestling are shoulders, knee, back, neck, and rib injuries.
- History of professional wrestling
- Professional wrestling promotion
- Semiotics of wrestling characters
- Foreign objects (e.g. folding chair)
- Professional wrestling aerial techniques (e.g. Shooting star press, Moonsault)
- Professional wrestling attacks (e.g. Leg drop, Superkick)
- Professional wrestling throws (e.g. Backbreaker, Brainbuster, Chokeslam, Cutter, DDT, Facebuster, Neckbreaker, Piledriver, Powerbomb, Powerslam, Stunner, Suplex)
- Professional wrestling holds (e.g. Boston crab, Mandible claw, Pinfall, Sharpshooter, Camel clutch)
- Professional wrestling double-team maneuvers (e.g. Doomsday Device)
- Professional wrestling match types
- Professional wrestling tag team match types
- Professional wrestling tournament
- List of professional wrestling terms
Professional wrestling worldwide
- Professional wrestling in Australia
- Professional wrestling in Japan
- Professional wrestling in Mexico
- Professional wrestling in New Zealand
- Professional wrestling in the United Kingdom
- Professional wrestling in the United States
Lists of wrestlers
- List of professional wrestlers
- List of family relations in professional wrestling
Types of professional wrestling
Fantasy professional wrestling
- List of wrestling-based comic books
- ^ Roland Barthes, "The World of Wrestling", Mythologies, 1957
- ^ How Pro Wrestling Works
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- ^ Billboard Recreational Sports Weekly Top 10 -- Billboard Sports Weekly DVD Sales
- ^ a b Barthes, Roland (1957). "The World Of Wrestling". Mythologies. http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~ikalmar/illustex/Barthes-wrestling.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- ^ Rules of professional wrestling
- ^ CANOE - SLAM! Sports - Wrestling - Lucha Libre 101
- ^ 8.6. Lucha Libre confuses me, what are the rules?
- ^ "Open Directory category description". Open Directory. 1995. http://www.dmoz.org/Sports/Wrestling/Professional/Puroresu/desc.html. Retrieved 2009-07-15.
- ^ "Puroresu Dojo Introduction". Puroresu.com. 1995. http://www.puroresu.com/intro.html. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- ^ Grabianowski, Ed. "Wrestling School". How Professional Wrestling Works. HowStuffWorks.com. http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/pro-wrestling5.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- ^ Ryan, Derek (2007-08-11). "Discovery: Accidental Perfection". The Wrestling Oratory. http://oratory.rajah.com/index.php?archive=3281. ""Dragon Gate is a unique promotion as they still follow many of wrestling’s biggest traditions, one being that veterans get theirs first because rookies need to “pay their dues” like they did.""
- ^ Gadd, Mitchell (2006-07-13). "Unions". Reading Between the Ropes. WrestleZone.com. http://www.wrestlezone.com/column.php?articleid=154797119. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- ^ a b c d Kreit, Alex (1998). "Professional Wrestling and Its Fans: A Sociological Study of the Sport of Pro-Wrestling". Solie's Vintage Wrestling. Jump City Productions. http://www.solie.org/articles/pwandfans.html. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
- ^ Kamchen, Richard (2008-02-05). "Retro review: Piper's tale scrappy as he is". SLAM! Wrestling. SLAM! Sports. http://slam.canoe.ca/Slam/Wrestling/2008/02/05/4862052.html. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- ^ a b c Lipscomb, William (May 2005). "The Operational Aesthetic in the Performance of Professional Wrestling" (pdf). Department of Communications Studies, Louisiana State University. http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-01252005-152153/unrestricted/Lipscomb__III_dis.pdf.
- ^ a b Bollom, Brandon W. (2004-05-07). "Professional Wrestling Migration: Puroresu in America" (pdf). http://www.burninghammer.com/academic/puroresu.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-20.
- ^ Ernesto Cruz, Caceres (2005). "Monday Night Identity Wars: The Evolution of Performance Conventions in Professional Wrestling". 2005 Popular Culture Association/American Culture Association National Conference Program. http://www.popularculture.org/2005%20PAGES/2005%20Program.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
- ^ Ledford, Brian. "Grappling with Masculinity: Representation and Reception of Televised Professional Wrestling Imagery". 2005 Spring Colloquium: Thinking About Masculinity: SIUE College of Arts and Sciences. http://www.siue.edu/CAS/COLLOQUIA/MasculProgramFINAL.pdf.
- ^ Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Comparative Media Studies course on Professional Wrestling -- Official Course weblog
- ^ Lagorio, Christine (2005-01-04). "Wrestling With The Margins". Education Supplement 2005. The Village Voice. http://www.villagevoice.com/arts/0502,lagorio,59937,12.html. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- ^ Plank, Dr. William. "The Athlete as Buffoon: Cultural and Philosophical Considerations on Professional Wrestling". Montana State University-Billings. http://www.msubillings.edu/CASFaculty/Plank/THE%20ATHELETE%20AS%20BUFFOON.htm.
- ^ Adams, Jonathan (2006-11-09). "Foreign Objects Included". The Scope magazine. http://thescope.ca/?p=576. Retrieved 2008-03-19. "There is a sense in which wrestling resembles nothing if not a kind of postmodern commedia dell’arte"
- ^ a b Mazer, Sharon (1998). Professional Wrestling: Sport and Spectacle. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.
- ^ Garvin, Diana (2005). "Et tu, Steve Austin?". The Harvard Crimson. Harvard University. http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=508906. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
- ^ "Merchants of Cool". Frontline. 2001-02-27.
- ^ Farley, Frank. "CZW: Blood, Philadelphia and Fun". Rat Blood Soup magazine. http://ratbloodsoup.com/czw.html.
- ^ "Under the Edge 1999 results". Hoffco. http://www.hoffco-inc.com/wwe/ppv/ppv/ote99.html. Retrieved 2008-01-05.
- Catch: The Hold Not Taken (DVD). 2005.
- Pro-Wrestling List of real names
- Official TWNN homepage
- Midwest Independents
- Pro-Wrestling Title Histories
- House of Deception Golden Age 1911-1979: bibliography, photos, etc.
- OnlineWorldofWrestling.com - The Online World of Wrestling
- Official TNA homepage
- Official WWE homepage
- Official Ring of Honor homepage
- The Wrestling Forum: Pro Wrestling discussion group
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- World Wrestling Association (Korea)
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- Professional Live Action
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Professional wrestling in JapanActive Major promotions Independent promotionsMen: 666 · Big Japan Pro Wrestling · Dramatic Dream Team · FREEDOMS · HUSTLE · Inoki Genome Federation · Kaientai Dojo · Kensuke Office · Michinoku Pro Wrestling · Osaka Pro Wrestling · Real Japan Pro Wrestling · SMASH · Tenryu Project
Women: JWP Project · LLPW · Ice Ribbon · Oz Academy · Sendai Girls' Pro Wrestling · Pro Wrestling WAVE · REINA
Governing bodies and interpromotional alliancesDefunct promotions National promotions Independent promotionsMen: Battlarts · Big Mouth Loud · Fighting Network Rings · Social Pro Wrestling Federation · Super World of Sports · Tokyo Pro Wrestling · Universal Wrestling Federation · UWF International · Universal Lucha Libre · WAR · El Dorado Wrestling · Fighting World of Japan Pro Wrestling · International Wrestling Association of Japan · Kingdom · Pioneer Senshi · Pro Wrestling Fujiwara Gumi · W*ING
Women: Japan Women's Pro Wrestling · ARSION · AtoZ · IBUKI · JDStar · NEO · Pro Wrestling SUN
Professional wrestling in Mexico Major promotions Independent promotions Defunct promotions Lucha Libre culture Professional wrestling in the United KingdomActive promotions National promotionsAll Star Wrestling · LDN Wrestling Notable independent promotions3 Count Wrestling · Britannia Wrestling Promotions · XWA · 4 Front Wrestling · · Basix Wrestling · British Championship Wrestling · British Wrestling Evolution · Celtic Wrestling · Dropkixx · East Anglia Wrestling · Future Championship Wrestling · Garage Pro Wrestling · Frontier Wrestling Alliance · International Pro Wrestling: United Kingdom · Live Pro Wrestling · Norton British Wrestling · One Pro Wrestling · Power Trip Wrestling · Premier British Wrestling · Premier Promotions · Real Deal Wrestling · Runcorn Wrestling Academy · Scottish Wrestling Alliance · Triple X Wrestling · Varsity Pro Wrestling · Dragon Gate UK · World Association of Wrestling · Other promotions Governing bodies and interpromotional alliancesJoint Promotions · British Wrestling Council Defunct Notable PromotionsBritish Wrestling Association · British Wrestling Federation (1960s version) · British Wrestling Federation (Orig Williams version) · Joint Promotions · Revolution British Wrestling · The Wrestling Alliance
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Professional Wrestling — Typischer Wrestling Ring Wrestling (engl. Ringen), im deutschen Sprachraum auch als Catchen bezeichnet (letztere Bezeichnung lehnt sich an den älteren Begriff Catch Wrestling an), ist eine populäre Schaukampf Sportart, die besonders in Japan, den … Deutsch Wikipedia
Professional wrestling — Typischer Wrestling Ring Wrestling (engl. Ringen), im deutschen Sprachraum auch als Catchen bezeichnet (letztere Bezeichnung lehnt sich an den älteren Begriff Catch Wrestling an), ist eine populäre Schaukampf Sportart, die besonders in Japan, den … Deutsch Wikipedia
professional wrestling — noun a) An entertainment business characterized by the performance of choreographed wrestling matches with predetermined outcomes. b) A theatrical presentation of a choreographed wrestling match as part of the professional wrestling business … Wiktionary
professional wrestling — noun wrestling for money • Hypernyms: ↑wrestling, ↑rassling, ↑grappling, ↑sport * * * professional wrestling UK US noun [uncountable] a type of entertainment in which people pretend to wrestle in a way that looks very violent … Useful english dictionary
professional wrestling — pro.fessional wrestling n [U] a form of entertainment in which people, usually men, fight each other in a way that has been planned before the event >professional wrestler n … Dictionary of contemporary English
professional wrestling — pro,fessional wrestling noun uncount a type of entertainment in which people pretend to WRESTLE in a way that looks very violent … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
professional wrestling — UK / US noun [uncountable] a type of entertainment in which people pretend to wrestle in a way that looks very violent … English dictionary
Professional wrestling in Japan — is commonly referred to as nihongo|puroresu|プロレス in Japanese, short for professional wrestling ( purofesshonaru resuringu ). The word puroresu was made popular by Hisaharu Tanabe among the English speaking fans in the early 1990s through Usenet… … Wikipedia
Professional wrestling in the United Kingdom — spans over 100 years but became popular when the television show World of Sport was launched in the mid 1960s, making household names of the likes of Mick McManus, Count Bartelli (the dominant wrestler in Britain during the 1940s), Giant… … Wikipedia
Professional wrestling in Australia — makes up a small but growing part of Australian culture. Unlike the North American or Japanese products which have large, globally renowned organisations such as World Wrestling Entertainment or New Japan Pro Wrestling with several hundred… … Wikipedia