Apelin

protein
Name = apelin, AGTRL1 ligand
caption =


width =
HGNCid = 16665
Symbol = APLN
AltSymbols = XNPEP2
EntrezGene = 8862
OMIM = 300297
RefSeq = NM_017413
UniProt = Q9ULZ1
PDB =
ECnumber =
Chromosome = X
Arm = q
Band = 25
LocusSupplementaryData = -26.3

Apelin is a recently identified endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled APJ receptor.cite journal | author = Tatemoto K, Hosoya M, Habata Y, Fujii R, Kakegawa T, Zou MX, Kawamata Y, Fukusumi S, Hinuma S, Kitada C, Kurokawa T, Onda H, Fujino M | title = Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor | journal = Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. | volume = 251 | issue = 2 | pages = 471–6 | year = 1998 | pmid = 9792798 | doi = 10.1006/bbrc.1998.9489 | issn = ] cite journal | author = Lee DK, Cheng R, Nguyen T, Fan T, Kariyawasam AP, Liu Y, Osmond DH, George SR, O'Dowd BF | title = Characterization of apelin, the ligand for the APJ receptor | journal = J. Neurochem. | volume = 74 | issue = 1 | pages = 34–41 | year = 2000 | pmid = 10617103 | doi = | issn = ] cite journal | author = Szokodi I, Tavi P, Földes G, Voutilainen-Myllylä S, Ilves M, Tokola H, Pikkarainen S, Piuhola J, Rysä J, Tóth M, Ruskoaho H | title = Apelin, the novel endogenous ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, regulates cardiac contractility | journal = Circ. Res. | volume = 91 | issue = 5 | pages = 434–40 | year = 2002 | pmid = 12215493 | doi = | issn = ] cite journal | author = Kleinz MJ, Davenport AP | title = Emerging roles of apelin in biology and medicine | journal = Pharmacol. Ther. | volume = 107 | issue = 2 | pages = 198–211 | year = 2005 | pmid = 15907343 | doi = 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.04.001 | issn = ] It is widely expressed in various organs such as the heart, lung, kidney, adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, brain, adrenal glands, endothelium, and human plasma.

Functions

Apelin acts as a mediator of the cardiovascular control, including for blood pressure and blood flow. It is one of the most potent stimulators of cardiac contractility yet identified, and plays a role in cardiac tissue remodeling. Apelin levels are increased in left ventricles of patients with chronic heart failure and also in patients with chronic liver disease. cite journal | author = Principe A, Melgar-Lesmes P, Fernández-Varo G, Del Arbol LR, Ros J, Morales-Ruiz M, Bernardi M, Arroyo V, Jiménez W | title = The hepatic apelin system: A new therapeutic target for liver disease | journal = Hepatology | volume = 48 | issue = 4 | pages = 1193-1201 | year = 2008 | pmid = 18816630 ]

It is also an adipocyte endocrine secretion, making adipocytic and circulating levels of apelin higher in obesity. Insulin exerts a positive action on adipocyte apelin production.

In addition, apelin regulates fluid homeostasis. It is important in the hypothalamic regulation of food and water intake, and pituitary hormone release.

Further reading

cite journal | author = Lee DK, George SR, O'Dowd BF | title = Unravelling the roles of the apelin system: prospective therapeutic applications in heart failure and obesity | journal = Trends Pharmacol. Sci. | volume = 27 | issue = 4 | pages = 190–4 | year = 2006 | pmid = 16530855 | doi = 10.1016/j.tips.2006.02.006 | issn = ] cite journal | author = Lee DK, Saldivia VR, Nguyen T, Cheng R, George SR, O'Dowd BF | title = Modification of the terminal residue of apelin-13 antagonizes its hypotensive action | journal = Endocrinology | volume = 146 | issue = 1 | pages = 231–6 | year = 2005 | pmid = 15486224 | doi = 10.1210/en.2004-0359 | issn = ] cite journal | author = Lee DK, Lança AJ, Cheng R, Nguyen T, Ji XD, Gobeil F, Chemtob S, George SR, O'Dowd BF | title = Agonist-independent nuclear localization of the Apelin, angiotensin AT1, and bradykinin B2 receptors | journal = J. Biol. Chem. | volume = 279 | issue = 9 | pages = 7901–8 | year = 2004 | pmid = 14645236 | doi = 10.1074/jbc.M306377200 | issn = ] cite journal | author = O'Dowd BF, Heiber M, Chan A, Heng HH, Tsui LC, Kennedy JL, Shi X, Petronis A, George SR, Nguyen T | title = A human gene that shows identity with the gene encoding the angiotensin receptor is located on chromosome 11 | journal = Gene | volume = 136 | issue = 1-2 | pages = 355–60 | year = 1993 | pmid = 8294032 | doi = | issn = ]

References

External links

*

[http://www.iuphar-db.org/GPCR/ChapterMenuForward?chapterID=1329] International Union of Pharmacology Receptor Database: Apelin


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