Oreo

Oreo
Type Brand
Industry Food
Founded New York City (1912)
Headquarters East Hanover, New Jersey, United States
Parent Nabisco (Kraft Foods)
Website Oreo.com

Oreo is a trademark for a popular sandwich cookie by the Nabisco Division of Kraft Foods. The current design consists of a sweet, white filling commonly referred to as 'cream' or 'creme', sandwiched between two circular chocolate or golden cookie pieces.

Over 491 billion Oreo cookies have been sold since they were first introduced, making them the best selling cookie of the 20th century.[1] Its most recent packaging slogan is "Milk's Favorite Cookie", which is a slight change from the original, "America's Favorite Cookie" (though some packages in the U.S. still use the original slogan).

Contents

History

Two regular Oreo cookies
The distinctive face of an Oreo cookie

The Oreo cookie was developed and produced by Nabisco in 1912[2][3] at its Chelsea factory in New York City. It was commercialized in order to target the British market, whose biscuits were seen by Nabisco to be too 'ordinary'.[4][unreliable source?] Originally, Oreos were mound-shaped and available in two flavors; lemon meringue and cream. In the United States, they were sold for 25 cents a pound in novelty cans with clear glass tops. A newer design for the cookie was introduced in 1916, and as the cream filling was by far the more popular of the two available flavors, Nabisco discontinued production of the lemon meringue filling during the 1920s. The modern-day Oreo design was developed in 1952, perhaps by William A. Turnier,[4][5] to include the Nabisco logo.

Oreo is very similar to the Hydrox cookie manufactured by Sunshine, which was introduced in 1908, leading to speculation that Nabisco obtained the idea from Sunshine. Having lost market share to Oreo for years, Hydrox cookies were withdrawn in 1999.[6]

The product is distributed in the US under the Nabisco brand name. In Canada, it is marketed under the Christie brand name.

Etymology

The Oreo was originally called the Oreo Biscuit. The name was later changed to the Oreo Sandwich in 1921. In 1948, the name was changed again to the Oreo Creme Sandwich. It was then changed to the Oreo Chocolate Sandwich Cookie in 1974.[7]

Oreo comes from the Greek root for appetizing as in orexin or orexigenic (appetite stimulating) or anorexic (loss of appetite). There are many theories pointing to the origin of the name 'Oreo', including derivations from the French word 'Or', meaning gold (as early packaging was gold), or the Greek word 'Oros', meaning mountain or hill (as the original Oreo was mound shaped) or even the Greek word 'Oreo', meaning beautiful or nice.[7] Other theories are that the 're' from cream was 'sandwiched' between the two Os from cookie, or the word 'just seemed like a nice, melodic combination of sounds'. A TV spot for the Got Milk? campaign showed a false etymology where, when at a board meeting to decide the name of the cookie, one of the members is asked for his opinion; the member, who just ate a cookie and does not have any milk to wash it down responds "I don't know," which is heard by the board member as "Oreo."

Music

In 1990, singer/songwriter/parodist "Weird Al" Yankovic wrote a tribute to the Oreo, titled "The White Stuff", a parody of the New Kids on the Block single "You Got It (The Right Stuff)". The song focuses on the virtues of the creme inside an Oreo. In 1985, songwriter and blues musician Lonnie Mack wrote a song titled "Oreo Cookie Blues" for his album Strike Like Lightning. The song is focused on how much the narrator of the song loves the Oreo cookie.

In 2010, the country singer Abi Lester recorded a song on her She Dreams album written by Bob Carlisle called "Flaming Red" in which the line "I'd take a long bath, turn the radio on, and sing really, really loud to all my favorite songs, eat a whole box of Oreos in my bed" appears.

China

Oreo cookies were introduced to Chinese consumers in 1996 and sales gradually grew in the fast-growing Chinese biscuit market. In 2006, Oreo became the best-selling cookie in the People's Republic of China, after altering its recipe to have a lower sugar content to suit local tastes.[8] Kraft Foods also introduced smaller size packages of Oreo cookies that became more affordable to the majority of Chinese consumers. Kraft began a grassroots marketing campaign in China to "educate" Chinese consumers about the American tradition of pairing milk with cookies. The company created an Oreo apprentice program at 30 Chinese universities that drew 6,000 student applications. Three hundred of the applicants were trained to become Oreo brand ambassadors, and some students rode around Beijing on bicycles with wheel covers resembling Oreo cookies and handed out cookies to more than 300,000 consumers. Others organized Oreo-themed basketball games to reinforce the idea of dunking cookies in milk. Television commercials depicted children twisting apart Oreo cookies, licking the cream center and dipping the chocolate cookie halves into glasses of milk.[9]

Although sales improved, Kraft still felt the Oreo could do better and decided to reinvent the traditional, round biscuit to a wafer. The new offering was called Oreo Wafer Sticks and consists of four layers of crispy wafer filled with vanilla and chocolate cream, and on the exterior is coated with chocolate. The wafer was also formulated to ensure that the chocolate coating was not too sweet for Chinese consumers and product could be shipped across the country---withstanding the cold climate in the north and the hot, humid weather in the south.[9] The new Oreo was outselling traditional round Oreo cookies in China in 2006, and Kraft has begun selling the wafers elsewhere in Asia, as well as in Australia and Canada. Kraft has also introduced Oreo Wafer Rolls, a tube-shaped wafer lined with cream, in China. The hollow cookie can be used as a straw through which to drink milk.

Over the period of 2006–2007, Kraft doubled its Oreo sales in China, making China the second-largest Oreo market globally behind the United States. With the help of those sales, Oreo revenue topped $1 billion world-wide for the first time in 2007.[9]

Oreo continued to grow strongly and become a favorite snack among Chinese consumers with new flavor varieties being introduced over 2008–2010. Oreo with strawberry creme filling was successfully introduced in 2009 and Oreo Ice Cream flavors were introduced in 2010. Oreo Ice Cream flavors included Vanilla and Green Tea ice cream flavors, with the creme giving a fun cooling sensation in the mouth like the taste of ice cream. Mini Oreo, a smaller version of the original cookie, were introduced to China late in 2010.

Oreo also partnered with Shanghai-born basketball superstar Yao Ming, the tallest player in the National Basketball Association, to act as its Oreo brand ambassador and featured Yao Ming 'dunking' Oreo cookies like a basketball in its 2010 Oreo advertising campaign.

Norway

In 2004, the convenience store chain Deli de Luca started selling Oreo in all of their stores. It was welcomed by consumers, and is the top-selling cookie to young people. Other larger chains in Norway (Ica, Rema 1000, Meny and Ultra) began selling Oreo cookies as well and they can now be found in almost every convenience store in urban/suburban Norway. In 2005, the stores stopped the importation to Norway because Kraft Foods took over.[citation needed]

UK

In May 2008, following stocking of Oreo (called Oreo biscuits in UK[10]) in the supermarket chain Sainsbury's, Kraft decided to fully launch the Oreo across the UK, repackaged in the more familiar British tube design, accompanied with a £4.5M television advertising campaign around the 'twist, lick, dunk' catchphrase.[11] Kraft recently partnered with McDonald's to bring the Oreo McFlurry (already on sale in many countries) to a few McDonald's locations during its yearly Great Tastes of America promotions. The UK Oreo website gives a slightly different ingredients list to that of the US product. Unlike the US version, UK oreos contain whey powder and so are not suitable for people who avoid milk products.[12][13]

Canada

In Canada, Oreo products are manufactured and sold under the Christies brand. However, the Canadian version contains coconut oil, giving it a different taste from its American counterpart.

Poland

In February 2011, Oreo hit Polish supermarkets and shops. It features a huge ad campaign. After becoming a success, Kraft Foods Polska decided to introduce new flavors by the end of 2011. It is also available in local McDonald's restaurants as an addition to McFlurry ice cream.

Croatia

In February 2011, Oreo initiated a large advertising campaign, and the product is now available in supermarkets and shops. It is also availible in local McDonald's restaurants as an addition to McFlurry ice cream.

India

It was first introduced in India in March 2011 under Cadbury, a major chocolate brand recently acquired by Kraft, with the tag line, it is the world's No. 1 biscuit.[14][15] It is also available in local McDonald's restaurants as an addition to McFlurry ice cream. Before the launch of the brand in India, Britannia Industries launched a similar brand named Treat-o.[16]

Production

According to a statement from Kim McMiller, an Associate Director of Consumer Relations, a two-stage process is used to make Oreo cookies. The base cake dough is formed into the familiar round cookies by a rotary mold at the entrance of a 300-foot-long oven. Much of current Oreo production is done at the Kraft/Nabisco factory in Richmond, Virginia. Oreo cookies for the Asian markets are manufactured in Indonesia, India and China. European Oreo cookies are made in Spain.

Varieties

In addition to their traditional design of two chocolate wafers separated by a cream filling, Oreo cookies have been produced in many different varieties since they were first introduced, and this list is only a guide to some of the more notable and recent types; not all are available in every country. Notable flavors in the US are:[17]

Different sizes of Oreos: mini, regular and Double Stuf
Double Stuf Oreos

Shapes

  • Double Stuf Oreo (introduced in 1975) have about twice the normal amount of white cream filling. Available in peanut butter, original, cool mint or chocolate cream.
  • Big Stuf Oreo (introduced in 1984) were several times the size of a normal Oreo.[18][19] Sold individually, each Big Stuf contained 316 calories (1,320 kJ) and 13 grams of fat.[20] They were discontinued in 1991.
  • Triple Stuf Oreo (introduced in 2006) were limited to certain cities for a one month promotional trial before being permanently discontinued, they had three times the normal amount of white cream filling.[citation needed]
  • Mini Oreo, originally released in 1991,[21] are bite-sized versions of ordinary Oreo cookies. After being discontinued in the late 1990s they were re-released in 2000 along with the redesigned 2001 Dodge Caravan as part of a promotional tie-in with DaimlerChrysler[22] Their 1990s packaging consisted of a "miniaturized" version of the full-size cardboard tray and box used in packaging at the time. Their current packaging consists of an aluminum foil bag.
  • "Triple Double Oreo", for sale in the US in summer 2011, combine three wafers with two layers of creme, one vanilla and one chocolate.[23]

Flavors

  • Chocolate Oreo
  • Strawberry Milkshake Oreo, introduced in Canada, and sold for a limited time in the United States, is an Oreo cookie with strawberry flavoring.[24] Presently Strawberry Oreo is sold in Indonesia and Malaysia.
  • Green Tea Oreo, introduced in China and Japan.
  • Lemon Ice Oreo, introduced in Japan.
  • Organic Oreo, introduced in 2006, are plain Oreo cookies made with organic flavor and organic sugar.
  • Blueberry Ice Cream Oreo, introduced in Indonesia and Malaysia in 2010. Also sold in Thailand.
  • Oreo DQ Blizzard Creme, a limited edition Oreo released in April–May 2010, celebrated the 25th anniversary of the Dairy Queen Blizzard.
  • Double Stuf Golden Oreo, introduced in late August 2009. As the name indicates they are Double Stuf Oreos with Golden Oreo wafers instead of normal chocolate Oreo wafers.
  • Oreo Fudgees are rectangular "dipping" shaped Oreos with a chocolate fudge filling (different from the Chocolate Creme Oreo).
  • Oreo Fudge Sundae Creme, a limited edition introduced in 2009, are chocolate ring cookies with traditional white cream filling on half a ring cookie, and fudge cream on the other half.
  • Oreo Fudge Rings are chocolate ring cookies with the traditional white cream filling drizzled over them.
  • Oreo WaferStix are long wafer sticks with a creamy filling and covered by chocolate.
  • Golden Oreo series have vanilla wafers with other fillings like vanilla and chocolate as Uh-Oh Oreo until its rebranding in 2007.
  • Vend Pack Oreo cookies from vending machine 6-packs are smaller diameter Oreo cookies with about 10% less mass than regular Oreos (8.5 g vs. 9.5 g).
  • Double Delight Oreo, introduced in 1987, have chocolate cookies with two fillings, notably peanut butter and chocolate, mint and cream, and coffee and cream flavors. Also orange and mango, raspberry and blueberry in China.
  • Cool Mint Creme Oreo are a Double Stuf Oreo with a slight minty creme filling.
  • Peanut Butter Oreo are a Double Stuf Oreo with a peanut buttery creme filling.
  • Fudge Covered Oreo, White Fudge Oreo and Milk Chocolate Oreo are covered in either a layer of fudge, white fudge or milk chocolate respectively.
  • Pure Milk Chocolate Covered Mint Oreo are similar to Milk Chocolate Oreo but have a mint-flavored filling.
  • Banana Split Creme Oreo with a light yellow banana flavor filling, were available for a limited time in 2008.
  • Berry Burst Ice Cream Oreo were released in April 2011.
  • 100 Calorie Pack Oreo (Oreo Thinsations in Canada) are miniature, thin, hexagonal versions of Oreo with no creme-filling, and come individually portioned into 100 calories (420 kJ) pouches.
  • Sugar Free Oreo, introduced in 2006, cost over twice as much as regular Oreos, and had only trace amounts of sugar, 10 fewer calories per serving, 0.5 grams more fat and 450% more fiber.[25]
  • Reduced Fat Oreo, introduced in 2006, cost the same as regular Oreos, had as much sugar, 10 fewer calories per serving, about 35% less fat and the same amount of fiber.[25]
  • Oreo Cakesters, introduced in 2007, are 2 or 3 chocolate soft snack cakes with vanilla creme in the middle; also available with chocolate creme, or in the "golden" variety (marketed as both Oreo and Nilla Cakesters in the U.S.).
  • During springtime, around Halloween, and Christmas, special edition "Double Stuf Oreo" cookies are produced with colored frosting reflecting the current holiday (blue or yellow, orange, and red or green respectively).
  • Chocolate and Dulce de leche Oreo, sold in Chile and Argentina, has chocolate or Dulce de Leche instead of the usual creme.
  • In 2010, Oreo partnered with the movie How To Train Your Dragon and introduced Oreos with red creme.
  • Oreo Heads or Tails have vanilla creme filling with a chocolate Oreo wafer on one side and a Golden Oreo wafer on the other.

Adaptation into other forms

  • Oreo Handi-Snacks are plastic holders with rectangular Oreo cookies and a little box of icing.
  • Oreo Sippers are Oreo flavored sticks that can be eaten or used as a straw.
  • The fall of 2010 saw Oreo introduce a limited edition Strawberry Milkshake Creme Oreo with a strawberry flavored pink filling.
Oreo Brownie
Oreo Fudge Cremes
  • Dairy Queen's Oreo Blizzard – A vanilla Blizzard with Oreo chunks mixed in.
  • Dairy Queen's Oreo Brownie EarthQuake - Vanilla ice cream, Oreo brownie, hot fudge, marshmallow, and Oreo pieces on top.
  • Jell-O Oreo Pudding – Jell-O brand chocolate pudding at the bottom and on top, with vanilla in the middle.
  • Jell-O Oreo Instant Pudding – also named Cookies n' Cream. The box contains instant vanilla pudding with real cookie pieces.
  • There was a Post cereal called Oreo O's; it was discontinued in 2007.
  • Oreo Ice Cream. Licensed by Breyers, Good Humor, and Klondike in the US, and Nestlé in Canada. Flavors are:
    • Oreo Ice Cream (blended Oreo cookies in vanilla ice cream)
    • Oreo Ice Cream Sandwich (extra large Oreo wafers with vanilla ice cream in the middle)
    • Oreo Ice Cream Bar (vanilla light ice cream mixed with Oreo pieces with a chocolate flavored coating with Oreo bits)
    • Mint Oreo Ice Cream (blended Oreo cookies in mint ice cream)
    • Many notable fast-food restaurants serve Oreo-flavored ice cream desserts and milkshakes
  • Easy-Bake Oreo Mix– two easy-bake chocolate cakes with a marshmallow filling topped with an Oreo cookie topping
  • Oreo Fudge Cremes – Oreos covered in fudge
  • Oreo Chocolate Candy Bar- A chocolate candy bar with a rectangular Oreo cookie and Oreo cream filling covered in milk chocolate.
  • Oreo Pie Crust, a pie crust made of crushed Oreos, sold around the U.S.
  • Oreo Madness at T.G.I. Fridays
  • Banana Split Oreo, introduced in Canada, an Oreo cookie with banana flavoring.[24]
  • Oreo Milkshake[26] is a Kraft Foods recipe consisting of Oreo cookies, milk, vanilla ice-cream and chocolate syrup.
  • Oreo Cookie Cheesecake, manufactured by The Cheesecake Factory.
  • Oreo SpongeBob Squarepants Edition
  • Oreo Upin Ipin Edition (Malaysia Only)

Trans fat content and lawsuit

On May 13, 2003, attorney Stephen Joseph filed a lawsuit charging Nabisco with using hydrogenated (or partially hydrogenated) oils (trans fats) to make the cookies. The suit was dropped as Nabisco considered replacing the hydrogenated oils with alternative oils. Joseph admitted he filed the lawsuit to call attention to the matter, and he considered his motion successful. As of January 2006, classic Oreo cookies are no longer manufactured with hydrogenated oils, and instead use non-hydrogenated vegetable oil.[27] Other varieties may not have eliminated hydrogenated oils completely.

The trans fats had been added to the Oreo recipe to replace its original fat, lard.[28] Earlier outcry regarding these types of saturated fats is what prompted the change to use more unsaturated fats in the first place.[29][30]

Product promotions

In April 2011, Oreo announced its special edition Oreo cookies with blue cream in promotion of the 2011 3D computer animated film Rio. The promotion included stickers inside each package of cookies. Two types of contests were also announced: first, by completing an album of stickers, consumers could win three movie passes and medium snack bar combos; second, by finding winning stickers in packages with prizes, including a trip to Rio de Janeiro, backpacks, cinema passes for a year, and 3D glasses. The promotion ended May 30, 2011,[31] and was available in Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia.[32]

See also

References

  1. ^ Toops, Diane: Top 10 power brands, Retrieved on June 7, 2007
  2. ^ "Oreo". Kraftfoodscompany.com. 2011-01-03. http://www.kraftfoodscompany.com/Brands/largest-brands/brands-O/oreo.aspx. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  3. ^ "The Food Timeline: history notes--cookies, crackers & biscuits". http://www.foodtimeline.org/foodcookies.html#oreos. Retrieved 2010-03-03. 
  4. ^ a b Health food junkies beware: it's National Cookie Month!
  5. ^ Greenbaum, Hilary (June 6, 2011). "Who Made That Oreo Emboss?". New York Times Magazine Blog. http://6thfloor.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/06/06/who-made-that-oreo-emboss/. 
  6. ^ Lukas, Paul. "Oreos to Hydrox: Resistance is Futile." Business 2.0 March 1999. A reformulated version called Droxies was also later withdrawn.
  7. ^ a b Feldman, David (1987). Why do clocks run clockwise? and other Imponderables. New York, New York: Harper & Row Publishers. pp. 173–174. ISBN 0-06-095463-9. 
  8. ^ Jargon, Julie (2008-05-01). "Kraft Reformulates Oreo, Scores in China". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB120958152962857053.html. Retrieved 2008-05-06. 
  9. ^ a b c Jargon, Julie (2008-05-01). "Kraft Reformulates Oreo, Scores in China". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120958152962857053.html?mod=yhoofront. 
  10. ^ "Oreo - Homepage". http://www.oreo.eu/oreo/page?siteid=oreo-prd&locale=uken1&PagecRef=1. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  11. ^ BBC News Magazine Can Oreo win over British biscuit lovers?, 2 May 2008
  12. ^ "Oreo - Oreo Classic Ingredients". Oreo.eu. http://www.oreo.eu/oreo/page?siteid=oreo-prd&locale=uken1&PagecRef=616. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  13. ^ "NabiscoWorld". NabiscoWorld. 2006-01-01. http://www.nabiscoworld.com/Brands/ProductInformation.aspx?BrandKey=oreo&Site=1&Product=4400000820. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  14. ^ "Cadbury India's webpage for Oreo". http://www.cadburyindia.com/in/en/Brands/Biscuits/Oreo.aspx. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  15. ^ "Parle-G world's No 1 selling biscuit: Nielsen". Economic Times. http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-03-03/news/28650799_1_parle-products-parle-g-glucose-biscuit. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  16. ^ "Challenger brands upset global stars' launch plans". Economic Times. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/news-by-industry/services/advertising/challenger-brands-upset-global-stars-launch-plans/articleshow/8830836.cms. Retrieved 13 June 2011. 
  17. ^ http://www.kraft.com/100/innovations/oreoprod.html[dead link]
  18. ^ "Oreo Madness". http://www.x-entertainment.com/articles/0819/. 
  19. ^ Friedman, Marty (November 1989). "Sizing up — and down — new product opportunities". Prepared Foods. 
  20. ^ "Oreo Sandwiches Big Stuf". http://www.nutri-it.com/n-it-bin/productview.cgi?product_id_2=22115&product_id_1=. 
  21. ^ Foltz, Kim (1991-10-24). "RJR Nabisco Reports Neet Of $123 Million in 3d Quarter". Nytimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/1991/10/24/business/rjr-nabisco-reports-neet-of-123-million-in-3d-quarter.html?scp=11&sq=mini%20oreos&st=Search. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  22. ^ "New Mini Oreos Debut in New Mini Van". PR Newswire. 2000-08-10. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-28159731_ITM. 
  23. ^ Goldwert, Lindsay (May 13, 2011). "Triple Double Oreos to hit shelves; Oreo cookie has double chocolate and vanilla filling". Daily News. http://www.nydailynews.com/lifestyle/food/2011/05/13/2011-05-13_triple_double_oreos_to_hit_shelves_oreo_cookie_has_double_chocolate_and_vanilla_.html. Retrieved May 15, 2011. 
  24. ^ a b New Products[dead link]
  25. ^ a b "Sugar-free Oreos are still a no-no". Consumer Reports. http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/food/food-shopping/snacks-sweets/sugar-free-oreos/sugarfree-oreos-606/overview/. 
  26. ^ "OREO Milk Shake recipe". Kraftfoods.com. http://www.kraftfoods.com/kf/recipes/oreo-milk-shake-53860.aspx. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  27. ^ Ban Trans Fats: The Campaign to Ban Partially Hydrogenated Oils
  28. ^ Alexander, Delroy; Manier, Jeremy; Callahan, Patricia. "For every fad, another cookie". Chicago Tribune. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/specials/chi-oreo-3,1,7734403.story. 
  29. ^ Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. "Trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease". http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/reviews/transfats.html. Retrieved 2006-09-14. 
  30. ^ Mary G. Enig, PhD. "The Tragic Legacy of Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI)". http://www.westonaprice.org/knowyourfats/cspi.html. Retrieved 2006-05-02. 
  31. ^ Promo Gana - Peru: Concurso Promo Oreo, gana paquetes de cine, viaje a Rio, mochiles y mas, April 8, 2011 Retrieved April 8, 2011 (Spanish)
  32. ^ Official "Rio" Promotion Site Retrieved April 8, 2011

External links



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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Oreo — Biscuits Oreo. Oreo Cookies ou Oreo est la marque déposée d un biscuit en sandwich américain, produit par la marque américaine Nabisco et très populaire en Amérique du Nord et désormais en Europe[réf. nécessaire] …   Wikipédia en Français

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