- Punjab region
Punjab IPAudio|Punjab.ogg| [ˈpʌnʤɑb] ( _pa. ਪੰਜਾਬ پنجاب, _hi. पंजाब, _ur. پنجاب), also Panjab ( _fa. پنجاب, meaning "Land of the Five Rivers") (c.f. "ap-"), is a region straddling the border between
Indiaand Pakistan. The "Five Rivers" are Beas, Ravi, Sutlej, Chenaband Jhelum; all these are tributaries of the Indus river. Punjab has a long history and rich cultural heritage. The people of the Punjab are called Punjabis and speak a language named Punjabi. The main religions of the Punjab region are Sikhism, Hinduism, Islam.
The area that is now known as the Greater Punjab comprises what were once vast territories of eastern
Pakistanand northern western India. It comprised, in its original sense, regions extending from Swat/ Kabulin the west to Delhiin the east i.e the area including parts of Afghanistanand the plains up to the Ganges[ Aryan and non-Aryan Names in Vedic India, Data for the linguistic situation, c. 1900-500 B.C., p 17; The Home of the Aryans, 2000, p 28, Dr Michael Witzel; Also see: Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan, (Rgvedic, Middle and Late Vedic), p 6, Dr Michael Witzel, Harvard University.] . It was a centre of the prehistoric Indus Valley civilizationand after c. 1500 BCE the site of early Aryan settlements [ "Atlas of World History" Vol 1, P43. Penguin 1974 ] . In ancient times, the area was inhabited by people called Vahikas or Arattas [Scholars say that "Aratta" is a popular ( prakrit) form of Vedic "A-rashtra" -- which means "without king or government". This compares to Avestic "A-sara" -- also meaning" with head/government"--thus the Vedic "Aratta" is said to allude to A-rashtra i.e. kingless, headless or in other words, a republican people/territory ("See refs: The Ancient Geography of India, 1871, p 215, Alexander Cunningham ; Evolution of Heroic Tradition in ancient Panjab, 1971, p 53, Dr Buddha Parkash; The Age of Imperial Unity, History and Culture of Indian People, p 49, Ed Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar; Hindu Civilization, 1923, p 289, Dr Radhakumud Mookerji; The Generalship of Alexander the Great, 2004, p 255, J. F. C. Fuller; The Cambridge Ancient History, 1923, p 406, John Bagnell Bury, Stanley Arthur Cook, Frank Ezra Adcock, Martin Percival Charlesworth, Norman Hepburn Baynes, Charles Theodore Seltman"). Also, the term "Vahika" denoted "those falling outside the pale of Aryandom" or "those who are outside the pale of virtue, and live away from Himavat, Ganga and Sarsvati..." ("See: Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata, 1970, p 113, Ram Chandra Jain; A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic), 1953, p 52, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala, Surya Kanta, Jacob Wackernagel, Arthur Anthony Macdonell, Peggy Melcher; Tribes in Ancient India, 1943, p 71, Dr B. C. Law - Ethnology"). The tribes of the "Aratta" or "Vahika" territories were of wayward nature, committed highway robberies, and had followed autonomous or republic way of life. They were definitely outside the pale of Vedic Aryans. It is on account of these above characteristics of this people that they commonly came to be styled as Arattas or Vahikas etc. Aratta or Vahika, by no means, implies an ethic term.] . The Vahikas or Arattas were divided into many tribes or clanslike the Gandharas, Prasthalas, Khasas, Vasatis, Trigartas, Pauravas, Malavas, Yaudheyas, Saindhavas, and Sauviras. There were also Iranian and transfrontier peoples such as the Kambojasand Pahlavas, as well as Ionians ( Yavanas) and nomadic Scythians ( Shakas). [Buddha Parkash, "Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab", 1971, p 53; Cf also: The History of Indian Literature, 1878, p 178, Albrecht Weber - Sanskrit literature.]
The region, populated by Indo-Aryan speaking peoples, has been ruled by many different empires and ethnic groups, including
Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, ancient Macedonians, Persians, Arabs, Turks, Mughals, Afghans, Balochis, Sikhsand British. In 1947, it was partitioned between British India's successor states with the bulk (4 out of the 5 rivers) going to Pakistanand the remaining river was alloted to India.
The Pakistani Punjab now comprises the majority of the region together with the Hazara region of the
North-West Frontier Provinceand Azad Kashmir. The Indian Punjab has been further sub-divided into the modern Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradeshand Delhi. The Pakistani part of the region West Punjab covers an area of 205,344 square kilometers (79,284 square miles), whereas the Indian State of Punjab is 50,362 square kilometers (19,445 square miles). Besides the Indian Punjab, the region also includes the areas of Jammuregion and Himachaland Haryanastates of India that were created out of East Punjabin 1966. The populations of the region are similarly divided as 86,084,000 (2005) in West Punjab (Pakistan) and 24,289,296 (2000) in the present-day State of (East) Punjab (India) and a further 30 million in the rest of the region. Punjabi is spoken by (approximately) 65% of population in Pakistani Punjab (another 25% speak Punjabi variants) and 92.2% in Indian Punjab. [ [http://www.censusindia.gov.in/ Indian Census] ] The capital city of undivided Punjab was Lahore, which now sits close to the partition line as the capital of West Punjab. Indian Punjab has as its capital the city of Chandigarh. Indian Punjab uses the Gurmukhior Devanagariscripts, while Pakistani Punjab uses the Shahmukhiscript.
The name Punjab means "the land of five rivers", and literally translates from Persian into the words "Panj" (پنج), cognate with
Sanskrit"Pāñca", meaning "five", and "Āb" (آب), cognate with the Sanskrit "Āp", meaning "water" respectively. The rivers, tributaries of the Indus River, are the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas. The five rivers, now divided between Pakistan(4/5) and India(1/5), merge to form the Panjnad in south central Pakistan, which joins the Indus.
The Punjabi Language
The language of the region is Punjabi. The official written script of Punjabi in the state of Punjab in India is holy and called
Gurmukhi"(from the Mouth of the Guru)". All holy sacred Sikh texts are written in the Punjabi Script. [ "Gurmukhi Lipi." Khoj Patrika. p.110, vol.36, Professor Pritam Singh, 1992. Patiala: Punjabi University.]
Most of the Punjab is an
alluvialplain, bounded by mountains to the North. Despite its dry conditions, it is a rich agricultural area due to the extensive irrigation made possible by the great river system traversing it. Punjab region temperature range from -2° to 40°C (MIN/MAX), but can reach 47°C (117°F) in summer and can touch down to -5°C in winter. Punjab has five rivers flowing through it which leads to various land formations such as doabs etc. Doab is the land between two rivers. Ambala is a doab. Another example of a doab is Mesopotamia which is between the rivers Tigris and Ufiris.
As a result of numerous invasions, many ethnic groups and religions make up the cultural heritage of the Punjab.
In prehistoric times, one of the earliest known cultures of
South Asia, the Harappacivilization, was located in the Punjab.
The Vedic and Epic period was socially and culturally prolific in the Punjab. During this period, the Hindu scriptures, the
Rig Vedaand the Upanishads, were composed in the Punjab. Tradition maintains that the sage Valmikicomposed the Ramayananear the present location of Amritsar. In legend, Krishnadelivered the divine message of the Bhagavad Gitaat Kurukshetra. Eighteen principal Puranas were written in the region. The authors of Vishnu Puranaand the Shiva Puranabelonged to Central Punjab.
The epic battles described in the
Mahabharatawere fought in the Punjab. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas ( Bactriansettlers of Punjab), Yaudheyas and others sided with the Kauravasin the great battle fought at Kurukshetra. [Buddha Parkash, "Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab", p 36.] According to Dr Fauja Singh and Dr L. M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab" [See: History of Panjab, Vol I, p 4, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh.] .
326 BCE, Alexander the Greatinvaded the Punjab from the north and incorporated it into his empire. His armies entered the region via the Hindu Kushin north west Pakistan and his rule extended up to the city of Sagala(modern day Sialkot) in north east Pakistan.
At all times during the establishment and consolidation of Mughal rule, there was conflict, chaos, and political upheaval in the Punjab. However, with the Mughals prosperity, growth and relative peace was established, particularly under the reign of
Jahangir. The period was also notable for the emergence of Guru Nanak(1469-1539), the founder of a powerful popular movement which has left a lasting impression on the history and culture of Punjab. Born in the district of Sheikhupura, he rejected the division of mankind into rigid compartments of orthodox religions and castes and preached the oneness of humanity, and oneness of God, thus aiming at creating a new order which embraced the all pervasive spirit in man. This new philosophy would serve as the foundation for the Sikhfaith.
1713, Banda Bahadurwanted to establish a Sikh state in the Punjab. For this he fought relentlessly with the Mughals. His state lasted just under a year before its collapse. A number of years afterward, he was captured and executed.
1756, the Marathasunder Raghunath Raodefeated the Afghan Ahmed Shah Abdalion his first attempt at conquering India. The Marathaschased the retreating Afghans back to Attock. The Sikhs and Khatris (the dominant groups of Punjab) were co-operative to the Marathas for having successfully removed the Muslims from their land and signed formal treaties of friendship. However, the Marathas failed to enlist the support of the Rajputs, and they were defeated by the Abdali at the Third Battle of Panipatin 1761.
Abdali's Indian invasion weakened the Maratha influence, but left the smaller rulers like Sikhs less affected. At the formation of the
Dal Khalsain 1748at Amritsar, the Punjab had been divided into 36 areas and 12 separate Sikh principalities. From this point onwards the beginnings of a Punjabi Sikh Empire emerged. Out of the 36 areas, 22 were united by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The other 14 accepted British sovereignty. Ten years after Maharaja Ranjit Singh's death, the empire broke up and the British seized the Punjab.
The British raj had political, cultural, philosophical and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including
Lajpat Rai, Ajit Singh Sindhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Bhai Parmanand, Muhammad Iqbal, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, Kartar singh sarabha and Ilam Din Shaheed.
The Punjabis also play a prominent role in the mutiny against the British of
1857. The cities like Jhelum and Ludhianaserved as center of rebellion against the British government.
At the time of partition in
1947, the province was split in to East and West Punjab. East Punjab became part of India, while West Punjab became part of Pakistan. The Punjab bore the brunt of the civil unrest following the end of the British Raj, with casualties estimated in the hundreds of thousands or even higher.
Ethnic ancestries of modern Punjabis include Indo-Aryan, and some
Indo-Scythianand Indo-Parthiansettlers of the region, including Indo-GreekFact|date=June 2007. Punjabi people are generally believed to be the descendants of these people Fact|date=June 2007. With the advent of Islam, settlers from Persia, Afghanistanand Central Asiahave also integrated into Punjabi society from whom many Pakistani Panjabi's claim decent from. The vast majority of Pakistani Panjabi's inhabiting the fertile regions of four out of the five major rivers are Muslim's by faith, but also include numerous minority faiths such as Christians, Buddhists, Zorastrianism, Ahmadi Muslimsand Sikh's. Sikhism, a reformist religion of the late 15th century, is the main religion practiced in Indian Punjab - it arose in the Punjab itself. 59.9% of the population are Sikh, 36.9% is Hindu, and the rest are Jains, Christians, Muslims or Buddhists. However, due to large scale migration from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Bengal and Orissa demographics of Punjab have become more skewed than reported earlier. Indian Punjab contains the holy Sikhcity of Amritsar. The states of Haryanaand Himachal Pradesh, formerly constituents of the British province of Punjab, are mostly Hindu-majority. Indian Punjabis speak Punjabi languagewritten in Gurmukhiscript. Islamis the religion of more than 98% of the population of the Punjab in Pakistan. There are small Sikh, Christian, Buddhist, Zorastrian and Hindu minorities among others. Pakistan uses the Shahmukhiscript, that is closer to Persian script and has considerable Persian loan words. In total, Pakistan has 70 million Punjabis, and India has 39 million Punjabis.
The historical region of Punjab is considered to be one of the most fertile regions on Earth. Both east and west Punjab produce a relatively high proportion of
Indiaand Pakistan's food output, respectively. The agriculturaloutput of the Punjab region in Pakistan contributes significantly to Pakistan's GDP. The region is important for wheatgrowing. In addition, rice, cotton, sugar cane, fruitand vegetablesare also major crops. Both Indian and Pakistani Punjab are considered to have the best infrastructure of their respective countries. [ [http://punjabgovt.nic.in/ECONOMY/Transport.htm Welcome to Official Web site of Punjab, India ] ] The Indian Punjab has been estimated to be the second richest state in India (the richest being Maharashtra. Haryanais the fourth. [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/605728.cms "Punjab second richest state in country: CII"] , "Times of India", 8 April 2004.] The Pakistani Punjab produces 68% of Pakistan's food grain production. [ [http://www.infopak.gov.pk/punjab.aspx Pakistani government statistics] , retrieved 14 April 2007.]
Called "The Granary of India" or "The Bread Basket of India", Indian Punjab produces 1% of the world's rice, 2% of its wheat, and 2% of its cotton. [ [http://punjabgovt.nic.in/punjabataglance/LeadingbyExample.htm Welcome to Official Web site of Punjab, India ] ] In 2001, it was recorded that farmers made up 39% of Indian Punjab's workforce. [ [http://punjabgovt.nic.in/ECONOMY/AGRICULTURE_ALLIED.HTM Punjabi government statistics] , retrieved
14 April 2007.]
*3300 - 1500 BCE: Harappan civilization
*1500 - 1000 BCE: Early Aryan (Rigvedic)
*1000 - 500 BCE: Middle and late Vedic Period
*599 BCE: Birth of
*567 - 487 BCE: Time of
*550 BCE - 600 CE:
*550 - 515 BCE:
AchaemenidInvasion to west of Indus River
*326 BCE: Alexander's Invasion of Panjab (part which is now in Pakistan)
*322 - 298 BCE:
Chandragupta I, Mauryaperiod
*273 - 232 BCE: Reign of
*125 - 160 BCE: Rise of the
*2 BCE: Beginning of Rule of the Sakas.
*45 - 180 : Rule of the
*320 - 550 :
*500 : Hunnic Invasion
*510 - 650 : Vardhana's Era
*647 - 1192 :
*713 - 1300 : Muslim invaders (Turks and Arabs) famous invaders like Mohammed of
Ghorand Mahmud of Ghazni
*8th Century : Arabs capture Sind and Multan (currently in Pakistani Panjab) and join area to Abbasid Caliphate based in Iraq
*1450 - 1700 : Mughal rule
*1469 - 1539 : Guru
NanakDev Ji (1st Sikh Guru)
*1518 - 1565 :
Mir Chakar Khan Rind
*1539 - 1675 : Period of 8 Sikh Gurus from
Guru Angad DevJi to Guru Tegh BahadurJi
*1675 - 1708 :
Guru Gobind SinghJi (10th Sikh Guru)
*1699 : Birth of the
*1708 - 1713 : Conquests of
*1714 - 1759 : Sikh warriors (
Sardars) struggle and perform warfare against Afghans & Mughal Governors
*1739 : Invasion of
Nadir Shahand warfare with Sikh Armies
*1756 - 1759 : Sikh and Maratha cooperation in the Punjab
*1761 : Defeat of Maratha army at Panipat
*1762 : 2nd Holocaust (Ghalughara) from Ahmed Shah's 2nd invasion
*1761 - 1849 : Punjabi Sikh Empire
*1761 - 1801 : Rule of the Sikh
*1801 - 1839 : Rule by Maharaja
*1849 : Annexation of Punjab
*1849 - 1947: British rule
*1947 : Partition of British India thus Punjab into 2 parts the Eastern part (or one river) became the Indian Punjab and the Western majority part(4 rivers) the Pakistani province of Panjab
*1966 : Punjab in India divided into 3 parts on linguistic basis (
Haryana, Himachal Pradeshand the present Punjab)
Operation Blue Starbegun against Sikh's demanding an independent Khalistanand its aftermath
*1990 : Large migration of non-panjabi's into the state of Indian Panjab (from other parts of India) and mass exodus of Punjabis abroad further altering the demographics of Indian Panjab.
Music of Punjab
History of the Punjab
Hinduism in Punjab
* [Quraishee 73] Punjabi Adab De Kahani, Abdul Hafeez Quaraihee, Azeez Book Depot, Lahore, 1973.
* [Chopra 77] The Punjab as a sovereign state, Gulshan Lal Chopra, Al-Biruni , Lahore, 1977.
*Patwant Singh. 1999. "The Sikhs". New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50206-0.
*The evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, 1971, Buddha Parkash.
*Social and Political Movements in ancient Panjab, Delhi, 1962, Buddha Parkash.
*History of Porus, Patiala, Buddha Parkash.
*History of the Panjab, Patiala, 1976, Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi (Ed).
*Indian Punjab Government Website: http://punjabgovt.nic.in
*Punjabi News Website from Punjab: [http://www.chardhikala.com Chardhikala]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1w8CDGj3560 Video about Punjab and Punjabi music] from the Horniman Museum
*Helpline for blood donors and seekers from Punjab: http://www.punjabblooddonors.com
*Punjabi, Hindi, English translations at http://www.punjabtranslators.com
*Pakistani Punjab Government Website: http://www.punjab.gov.pk
* [http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v72n2/024476/024476.web.pdf The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations]
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