3rd Division (New Zealand)

3rd New Zealand Division
Soldiers from the New Zealand 3rd Division land on Vella Lavella
Active 1942–1944
Country New Zealand New Zealand
Branch New Zealand Army
Size 17,637 men all ranks[1]
Engagements Second World War
Harold Eric Barrowclough

The 3rd New Zealand Division was a division of the New Zealand Army. Formed in 1942, it saw action against the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean Areas during the Second World War. The division saw action in the Solomon Islands campaign during 1943–44, but was later disbanded in October 1944. The majority of its manpower was returned to civilian employment, although around 4,000 men were sent to Italy to reinforce the 2nd Division.




The 3rd New Zealand Division began forming from New Zealand Army units in Fiji in May 1942 and moved to New Zealand in the middle of the year. Major-General Harold Barrowclough was appointed to command the division on 12 August.[2] In October 1942, 34 Battalion and 36 Battalion were detached from the Division to garrison Tonga and Norfolk Island respectively.[3] 36 Battalion was accompanied by detachments from the division's engineer, artillery and service units and was designated N Force.

After completing its initial training in New Zealand the 3rd NZ Division moved to New Caledonia for garrison duty and further training in December 1942 and January 1943.[4] Initially it only consisted of three brigades with only two battalions each, however, in March 1943 the New Zealand government approved the expansion of the division to 17,637 men all ranks and decided that the two battalions on Norfolk Island and Tonga would be assigned to the division.[1] Almost immediately, however, manpower was an issue and during the early months of 1943 it became clear that the division would not be raised to full strength. Indeed, for a while it seemed that the division might be disbanded before it saw active service, however, its commander, Barrowclough urged the government to allow the division to see active service before any decision was made.[5]

This request was accepted, however, the government announced that the division's third brigade—15 Brigade—would be disbanded along with its heavy artillery and anti-aircraft regiments. Due to Barrowclough's requests, the division retained all three of its engineer companies, however.[5]

Campaign in the Solomon Islands

The 3rd NZ Division moved to Guadalcanal in August 1943.[6] From this base, the division provided the ground component for three campaigns against small island groups in the Northern Solomons (in all operations the United States Navy provided the naval forces while squadrons from the Royal New Zealand Air Force formed only a small part of the US dominated air forces). While the islands were only lightly held by the Japanese and New Zealand casualties were relatively light, the Kiwi ground troops had to overcome challenging terrain and climatic conditions in these operations.

Vella Lavella

3rd NZ Division's operations on Vella Lavella ran from 21 September to 9 October 1943. The Americans had landed on the island in August, establishing a beachhead in the south. The division's 14th Brigade Group, under Brigadier Leslie Potter, landed at the US base a month later as a follow-on force.[7] Upon arrival, they were given the task of clearing the remaining Japanese forces from the north of the island so that it could be used to establish a radar station and a motor torpedo boat base. The New Zealanders were outnumbered by the defenders, nevertheless, they had been well trained and this training ultimately led to their success. 35 and 37 Battalions were dispatched along with supporting elements on two axes of advance: one up the east coast, the other up the west. The tactic proved successful and by early October the Japanese defenders were caught in a small pocket by the two New Zealand forces, having killed between 200 to 300 Japanese. Potter, however, failed to capitalise on the situation and due to overcaution the remaining 589 Japanese were able to escape the island on the night of 6/7 October aboard ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy.[7] Total New Zealand casualties in this operation were 32 killed and 32 wounded.[8]

The main units involved were:

  • 3rd NZ Division Headquarters
  • 14th Brigade Group
    • 30 Battalion
    • 35 Battalion
    • 37 Battalion
    • 17 Field Regiment
    • 207 Light AA Battery
    • 53 Anti-Tank Battery
    • 20 Field Company

Treasury Islands

3rd NZ Division's operations in the Treasury Islands ran from 25 October to 26 November 1943. The 8th Brigade Group, under the command of Brigadier Robert Row, landed on the islands on 27 October in New Zealand's first opposed amphibious operation since Gallipoli in 1915.[9] The initial landing took place on Mono Island, the largest in the group, and after the landing the New Zealanders encountered only scattered opposition from the Japanese defenders, who withdrew to the northern coast of the island. On the night of 1/2 November the Japanese attempted a counterattack, launching a determined attack on the Allied line at Soanotalu. The attack was unsuccessful, however, as reinforcements had just arrived and the Japanese assault was beaten back.[9] The last organised Japanese units were defeated on the night of 2/3 November. New Zealand casualties were 40 killed and 145 wounded.[10]

The main units involved were:

  • 8th Brigade Group
    • 29 Battalion
    • 34 Battalion
    • 36 Battalion
    • 38 Field Regiment
    • 29 Light AA Regiment
    • 54 Anti-Tank Battery
    • 23 Field Company

Green Islands

3rd NZ Division's operations in the Green Islands ran from 15 February to 27 February 1944. Like the operation in the Treasury Islands, the heavily reinforced 14th Brigade made an opposed landing on Nissan Island against light Japanese resistance on 15 February.[11] The small Japanese garrison resisted the invasion strongly but was overwhelmed by the much larger New Zealand force, with organised resistance coming to an end on 23 February. New Zealand casualties were 10 killed and 21 wounded.[12]

The main units involved were:

  • 3rd NZ Division Headquarters
  • Divisional Signals Regiment
  • 3rd NZ Division Tank Squadron (Valentine tanks)
  • Divisional Artillery
    • 17 Field Regiment
    • 29 Light AA Regiment
    • 144 Independent Battery
    • 53 Anti-Tank Battery
  • Divisional Engineers
    • 20 Field Company
    • 26 Field Company
  • 14th Infantry Brigade
    • 30 Battalion
    • 35 Battalion
    • 37 Battalion


In early 1944 the New Zealand Government faced a manpower crisis caused by the demands of maintaining two divisions overseas while simultaneously maintaining agricultural and industrial production to meet the needs of the Allied countries.[13] In order to cope with this crisis the NZ Government saw no option other than to disband one the country's two infantry divisions.[14] The decision to disband the 3rd NZ Division was made after consulting with the British and United States governments, who were of the view that 2nd NZ Division's contribution to the campaign in Italy was of greater importance than 3rd NZ Division's contribution in the Pacific.[1]

3rd NZ Division was withdrawn to New Caledonia in June 1944 and returned to New Zealand in August.[14] The division was rapidly downsized and was formally disbanded on 20 October 1944.[15] About 4,000 veterans of 3rd NZ Division were dispatched to Italy to reinforce 2nd NZ Division with the remaining men of the division returning to civilian employment.[14][16]

Order of battle

In October 1942 the main elements of the 3rd NZ Division were:[17]

  • Divisional Headquarters
  • 8 Infantry Brigade
    • 29 Battalion
    • 34 Battalion
    • 36 Battalion
  • 14 Infantry Brigade
    • 30 Battalion
    • 35 Battalion
    • 37 Battalion
  • Divisional Artillery
    • 17 Field Regiment
    • 33 Heavy Coast Regiment
    • 28 Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment
    • 144 Independent Battery
    • 53 Anti-Tank Battery
    • 54 Anti-Tank Battery
  • Divisional Engineers
    • 20 Field Company
    • 23 Field Company
    • 37 Field Park
  • No. 1 Signals Company
  • Army Service Corps
    • 4 ASC Company
    • 16 ASC Company
    • 10 Reserve Mechanical Transport Company
  • Medical
    • 7 Field Ambulance
    • 22 Field Ambulance
    • 4 General Hospital

This organisation was altered for the campaign in the Solomon Islands. Most notably, an armoured regiment was added to the division in December 1942 (this unit was reduced to a squadron in June 1943)[18] and the heavy coast artillery regiment was replaced by a field artillery regiment.[19]


  1. ^ a b c Crawford 2000, p. 147.
  2. ^ Crawford 2000, p. 142.
  3. ^ Crawford 2000, p. 144.
  4. ^ Crawford 2000, p. 145.
  5. ^ a b Crawford 2000, p. 148.
  6. ^ Crawford 2000, p. 149.
  7. ^ a b Crawford 2000, p. 150.
  8. ^ Gillespie 1952, p. 142.
  9. ^ a b Crawford 2000, p. 153.
  10. ^ Gillespie 1952, p. 158.
  11. ^ Crawford 2000, p. 156.
  12. ^ Gillespie 1952, p. 188.
  13. ^ Gillespie 1952, p. 196.
  14. ^ a b c Crawford 2000, p. 157.
  15. ^ Gillespie 1952, p. 327.
  16. ^ Gillespie 1952, 203.
  17. ^ Gillespie 1952, pp. 80–82.
  18. ^ Whitford, Lance. "History of the 3rd NZ Division Tank Squadron". Kiwis in Amour. http://kiwisinarmour.hobbyvista.com/tsindex.htm. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  19. ^ "NZ Artillery of World War 2 in the Pacific". Royal New Zealand Artillery Old Comrades' Association. http://riv.co.nz/rnza/rf/2nzefip/. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 


  • Gillespie, Oliver (1952). The Pacific. Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939–45. Wellington: War History Branch, Department Of Internal Affairs. http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2Paci.html. 
  • Crawford, John (2000). "A Campaign on Two Fronts: Barrowclough in the Pacific". In Crawford, John. Kia Kaha: New Zealand in the Second World War. Auckland: Oxford University Press. pp. 140–162. 

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • 2nd Division (New Zealand) — Active 1939–1945 Country  New Zealand Allegiance …   Wikipedia

  • New Zealand and Australian Division — The New Zealand and Australian Division was formed at the start of the Battle of Gallipoli as a composite division under the command of New Zealand general Alexander Godley. At the start of World War I New Zealand had mustered insufficient… …   Wikipedia

  • New Zealand Division — Auckland Battalion landing at Gallipoli, 25 April 1915 The New Zealand Division was a World War I infantry division formed in Egypt in January 1916 following the evacuation of Gallipoli. At the outbreak of war the …   Wikipedia

  • New Zealand Expeditionary Force — New Zealand Army …   Wikipedia

  • New Zealand Army — Ngāti Tumatauenga Active 1845 – present Country …   Wikipedia

  • New Zealand national football team — For other uses, see New Zealand national football team (disambiguation). New Zealand Nickname(s) All Whites Association New Zealand Football (NZF) Confe …   Wikipedia

  • New Zealand general election, 1890 — 1890 general election 1887 ← members 27 November (Māori) 5 December (general) 1890 → 1893 …   Wikipedia

  • Robert Graham (New Zealand) — Robert Graham (1820 1885) was a New Zealand politician. He represented the Southern Division electorate (containing Waikato, Coromandel, the Bay of Plenty, and East Cape) in the 2nd New Zealand Parliament from 1855 to 1860, and then represented… …   Wikipedia

  • Thomas Henderson (New Zealand) — Thomas Henderson (1810 1886) was a New Zealand politician. He represented the Northern Division electorate (containing Waikato, Coromandel, the Bay of Plenty, and East Cape) in the 2nd Parliament, the 3rd Parliament, and the 4th Parliament from… …   Wikipedia

  • Military history of New Zealand during World War II — A 1940 poster, signed by Michael Joseph Savage, calling on New Zealanders to support the war effort. New Zealand entered the Second World War by declaring war on Nazi Germany with Britain. The state of war with Germany was officially held to have …   Wikipedia

  • List of aircraft of the Royal New Zealand Air Force and Royal New Zealand Navy — This is a list of aircraft of the Royal New Zealand Air Force and Royal New Zealand Navy. List of aircraft alphabetically by manufacturer(manufacturer, number owned or operated by New Zealand forces, model name, any airframes surviving, serial… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.