Pope Innocent VII
Innocent VII Papacy began October 17, 1404 Papacy ended November 6, 1406 Predecessor Boniface IX Successor Gregory XII Orders Consecration 5 December, 1387 Created Cardinal 18 December, 1389 Personal details Birth name Cosimo de' Migliorati Born 1339
Sulmona, Kingdom of Naples
Died November 6, 1406
Rome, Papal States
Other Popes named Innocent Papal styles of
Pope Innocent VII
Reference style His Holiness Spoken style Your Holiness Religious style Holy Father Posthumous style None
Pope Innocent VII (born probably in 1339 – died on November 6, 1406), born Cosimo de' Migliorati, was briefly Pope at Rome, from 1404 to his death, during the Western Schism (1378–1417) while there was a rival Pope, antipope Benedict XIII (1394–1423), at Avignon.
Migliorati was born to a simple family of Sulmona in the Abruzzi. He distinguished himself by his learning in both civil and Canon Law, which he taught for a time at Perugia and Padua. His teacher Giovanni da Legnano sponsored him at Rome, where Pope Urban VI (1378–89) took him into the Curia, sent him for ten years as papal collector to England, made him bishop of Bologna in 1386, at a time of strife in that city, and archbishop of Ravenna in 1387.
Pope Boniface IX (1389–1404) made him cardinal-priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (1389) and employed him as legate in several delicate and important missions. When Boniface IX died, there were present in Rome delegates from the rival Pope at Avignon, Benedict XIII. The Roman cardinals asked these delegates if their master would abdicate, if the cardinals refrained from holding an election. When they were bluntly told that Benedict XIII would never abdicate (indeed he never did), the cardinals proceeded to an election. First, however, they all undertook a solemn oath to leave nothing undone, and, if need be, to lay down the tiara, to end the schism.
Migliorati was unanimously chosen – by eight cardinals – (October 17, 1404) and took the name of Innocent VII. There was a general riot by the Ghibelline party in Rome when news of his election got out, but peace was maintained by the aid of King Ladislaus of Naples (1399–1414), who hastened to Rome with a band of soldiers to assist the Pope in suppressing the insurrection. For his services the King extorted various concessions from Innocent VII, among them the promise that he would not reach any accommodation with the rival Pope in Avignon that would compromise Ladislas' claims to Naples, which had been challenged until very recently by Louis II of Anjou. That suited Innocent VII, who had no intention of reaching an agreement with Avignon that would compromise his claims to the Papal States, either. Thus Innocent VII was laid under embarrassing obligations, from which he freed himself.
Innocent VII had made the great mistake of elevating his highly unsuitable nephew, Ludovico Migliorati – a colorful condottiere formerly in the pay of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan, most of whose violent career as a soldier of fortune lay ahead of him – to the cardinalate, an act of nepotism that cost him dearly. In August 1405, the cardinal waylaid eleven members of the obstreperous Roman partisans on their return from a conference with the Pope, and had them assassinated in his own house and their bodies thrown from the windows of the hospital of Santo Spirito into the street. There was an uproar. Pope, court and cardinals, with the Migliorati faction, fled towards Viterbo. Ludovico took the occasion of driving off cattle that were grazing outside the walls, and the Papal party were pursued by furious Romans, losing thirty members, whose bodies were abandoned in the flight, including the Abbot of Perugia, struck down under the eyes of the Pope.
His protector Ladislaus sent a squad of troops to quell the riots, and by January 1406 the Romans again acknowledged Papal temporal authority, and Innocent VII felt able to return. (In March, Innocent VII made Ludovico a marchese and conte di Fermo.) But Ladislas, not content with the former concessions, desired to extend his authority in Rome and the Papal States. To attain his end he aided the Ghibelline faction in Rome in their revolutionary attempts in 1405. But a squad of troops which King Ladislaus had sent to the aid of the Colonna faction was still occupying the Castle of Sant' Angelo, ostensibly protecting the Vatican but making frequent sorties upon Rome and the neighbouring territory. Only after Ladislaus was excommunicated did he yield to the demands of the Pope and withdraw his troops.
Shortly after his accession in 1404 Innocent VII took steps to keep his oath by proclaiming a council. These troubles furnished him with a pretext, of which he was not unwilling to avail himself, for postponing the meeting, which was being urged by Charles VI of France (1380–1422), theologians at the University of Paris, like Pierre d'Ailly and Jean Gerson, who were developing the theory that popes were subject to councils, and Rupert III (1400–10), King of the Germans, as the only means of healing the Schism which had prevailed so long. Under the current circumstances, Innocent VII could not guarantee safe passage to Benedict XIII in the event he came to the council in Rome. His rival, antipope Benedict XIII, made it appear that the only obstacle to the termination of the Western Schism was the unwillingness of Innocent VII. It is hardly necessary to say that he showed no favour to the proposal that he as well as Benedict XIII should resign in the interests of peace.
It is said that Innocent VII planned the restoration of the Roman University, but his death brought an end to such talk.
He died so suddenly at Rome, November 6, 1406, that there were rumors of foul play, which have been denied ever since: there is no evidence for the truth of the allegation that his death was not due to natural causes. His successor was Pope Gregory XII (1406–15).
- ^ The single contemporary source that refers to his age (chronicle of Dietrich von Nieheim) says that he became Pope at the age of 65. A. Kneer: Zur Vorgeschichte Papst Innozenz VII., Historisches Jahrbuch, 1891, p. 347-348. Several modern sources (incl. The Catholic Encyclopedia or Encyclopedia Britannica) put his birth ca. 1336
- ^ There he is considered one of the connections through whom Chaucer came to know of "Lynyan", one of the "worthy clerks" mentioned in the Clerk's prologue in Canterbury Tales. (A.S. Cook, "Chauceriana II: Chaucer's 'Linian'", Romanic Review 8 (1917:375f).
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed (1913). "Pope Innocent VII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
Popes of the Western Schism Catholic Church titles Preceded by
Catholic ChurchOrganizations, Papacy, Teachings and Liturgical Traditions History Hierarchy Theology Sacraments Mariology Doctors of
the ChurchAlbertus Magnus · Ambrose · Anselm of Canterbury · Anthony of Padua · Thomas Aquinas · Athanasius of Alexandria · Augustine of Hippo · Basil of Caesarea · Bede · Robert Bellarmine · Bernard of Clairvaux · Bonaventure · Petrus Canisius · Catherine of Siena · Peter Chrysologus · John Chrysostom · Cyril of Alexandria · Cyril of Jerusalem · Peter Damian · Ephrem the Syrian · Francis de Sales · Gregory of Nazianzus · Gregory the Great · Hilary of Poitiers · Isidore of Seville · Jerome · John of Damascus · John of the Cross · Lawrence of Brindisi · Leo the Great · Alphonsus Maria de Liguori · Teresa of Ávila · Thérèse of Lisieux
Pope Benedict XVI Preceding Popes Orders and
Vatican II Particular Churches
Liturgical TraditionsAlexandrian · Coptic · Ethiopic · Antiochian · Maronite · Syriac · Syro-Malankara · Armenian · Armenian · Byzantine · Albanian · Belarusian · Bulgarian · Croatian · Greek · Hungarian · Italo-Albanian · Macedonian · Melkite · Romanian · Russian · Ruthenian · Slovak · Ukrainian · East Syrian · Chaldean · Syro-Malabar · Latin · Roman · Anglican Use · Sarum · Ambrosian · Mozarabic
History of the Catholic Church General
History of the Catholic Church · History of the Papacy · History of the Roman Curia · Catholic Ecumenical Councils · Timeline of the Catholic Church · History of Christianity · Role of the Catholic Church in Western civilization · Art in Roman Catholicism · Catholic religious order · Christian monasticism · Papal States
Church beginnings Constantine the Great to
Pope Gregory I
Constantine the Great and Christianity · Arianism · Basilica of St. John Lateran · First Council of Nicaea · Pope Sylvester I · First Council of Constantinople · Biblical canon · Jerome · Vulgate · First Council of Ephesus · Council of Chalcedon · Benedict of Nursia · Second Council of Constantinople · Pope Gregory I · Gregorian chant
Early Middle Ages High Middle Ages
Pope Urban II · Investiture Controversy · Crusades · First Council of the Lateran · Second Council of the Lateran · Third Council of the Lateran · Pope Innocent III · Latin Empire · Francis of Assisi · Fourth Council of the Lateran · Inquisition · First Council of Lyon · Second Council of Lyon · Bernard of Clairvaux · Thomas Aquinas
Late Middle Ages Protestant Reformation/
Baroque Period to the
19th century 20th century
Pope Pius X · Our Lady of Fátima · Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII · Pope Pius XII · Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary · Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary · Pope John XXIII · Second Vatican Council · Pope Paul VI · Pope John Paul I · Pope John Paul II
21st century By country or region
Brazil · Cuba · France · Germany · Hispano-America · Ireland · Japan · Mexico · Spain · United States · Venezuela
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pope Innocent VII — Pope Innocent VII † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent VII (Cosimo de Migliorati) Born of humble parents at Sulmona, in the Abruzzi, about 1336; died 6 November, 1406. He studied at Perugia, Padua, and finally at Bologna, where … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Alexander VII — Pope Alexander VII † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Alexander VII Fabio Chigi, born at Sienna, 13 February, 1599; elected 7 April, 1655; died at Rome, 22 May, 1667. The Chigi of Sienna were among the most illustrious and powerful of… … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Clement VII — For the antipope (1378–1394), see Antipope Clement VII. Clement VII Portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo, c. 1531 Metropolis Florence … Wikipedia
Pope Pius VII — Pius VII Portrait by Jacques Louis David Papacy began 14 March 1800 Papacy ended 20 August 1823 ( 10000000000000023000000 … Wikipedia
Pope Alexander VII — Infobox Pope|English name=Alexander VII [Note on numbering: Pope Alexander V is now considered an anti pope. At the time however, this fact was not recognized and so the fifth true Pope Alexander took the official number VI. This caused the true… … Wikipedia
Pope Gregory VII — Infobox Pope English name=Gregory VII birth name=Ildebrando di Soana term start=April 22, 1073 term end=May 25, 1085 predecessor=Alexander II successor=Victor III birth date=c. 1020 birthplace=Sovana, Italy dead=dead|death date=death… … Wikipedia
Innocent VII — Pope Innocent VII † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent VII (Cosimo de Migliorati) Born of humble parents at Sulmona, in the Abruzzi, about 1336; died 6 November, 1406. He studied at Perugia, Padua, and finally at Bologna, where … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Innocent — There have been thirteen popes named Innocent.# Pope Innocent I, saint (401 417) # Pope Innocent II (1130 1143) # Pope Innocent III (1198 1216) #* Antipope Innocent III # Pope Innocent IV (1243 1254) # Pope Innocent V (1276) # Pope Innocent VI… … Wikipedia
Pope Innocent XIII — Innocent XIII Papacy began 8 May 1721 Papacy ended 7 March 1724 ( 100000000000000020000002 years, 10000000000000304000000304 days) … Wikipedia
Pope Innocent II — Pope Innocent II † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent II (Gregorio Papereschi) Elected 14 Feb., 1130; died 24 Sept., 1143. He was a native of Rome and belonged to the ancient family of the Guidoni. His father s name is given as … Catholic encyclopedia