Regulatory sequence

A regulatory sequence (also called a "regulatory region" or a "regulatory area") is a segment of DNA where regulatory proteins such as transcription factors bind preferentially. These regulatory proteins bind to short stretches of DNA called regulatory regions, which are appropriately positioned in the genome, usually a short distance 'upstream' of the gene being regulated. By doing so, these regulatory proteins can either recruit another protein complex, called the RNA polymerase. In this way, they control gene expression and thus protein expression.

Regulatory sequences can also be found in messenger RNA, but they are generally not as well studied as those in DNA.Fact|date=February 2008 They may be bound by RNA-binding proteins or RNAs (eg miRNAs)

Research to find all regulatory regions in the genomes of all sorts of organisms is under way.Fact|date=February 2008

Examples

* CAAT box
* CCAAT box
* Operator (biology)
* Pribnow box
* TATA box
* SECIS element, mRNA
* Polyadenylation signals, mRNA
* A-box
* Z-box
* C-box
* E-box
* G-box

For the insulin gene

Regulatory sequences for the insulin gene are: [Melloul et al., Diabetologica, 45, 309-326, year 2002. Regulation of insulin gene transcription]
*A5
*Z
*negative regulatory element (NRE) [ [http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006291X06025575 Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ...] ]
*C2
*E2
*A3
*cAMP response element
*A2
*CAAT enhancer binding (CEB)
*C1
*E1
*G1

ee also

* Regulation of gene expression
* Cis-acting element
* Gene regulatory network
* Operon
* Promoter
* Trans-acting factor
* ORegAnno

References

External links

* [http://www.oreganno.org ORegAnno - Open Regulatory Annotation Database]


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