Protected areas of India


Protected areas of India

India has the following kinds of Protected areas, in the sense of the word designated by IUCN. As of May 2004, India has 156,700 km² of surface area designated as protected areas, roughly 4.95% of the total surface area.

*National Parks (IUCN Category II): India's first National Park was "Hailey National Park", now Jim Corbett National Park, established in 1935. By 1970, India had 5 National Parks; today it has over 90.See: National parks of India

*Animal Sanctuary (IUCN Category IV): India has over 500 animal sanctuaries, referred to as "Wildlife Sanctuaries". Among these, the 28 Tiger Reserves are governed by Project Tiger, and are of special significance in the conservation of the tiger. Some wildlife sanctuaries are specifically named "Bird Sanctuary", eg. Keoladeo National Park before it attained National Park status. Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. See: Wildlife sanctuaries of India

*Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO designation roughly corresponding to IUCN Category V): The Indian government has also established Biosphere reserves, which protect larger areas of natural habitat, and often include one or more national parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses. See: Biosphere reserves of India

*Reserved Forest and Protected Forest (IUCN Category IV or VI, depending on protection accorded): These are forested lands where logging, hunting, grazing and other activities may be permitted on a sustainable basis to members of certain communities. In reserved forests, explicit permission is required for such activities. In protected forests, such activities are allowed unless explicitly prohibited. Thus, in general reserved forests enjoy a higher degree of protection with respect to protected forests.See: Reserved forests and protected forests of India

*"Conservation Reserve" and "Community Reserve" (IUCN Category V and VI respectively): These are areas adjoining existing PAs, which are of ecological value and can act as migration corridors, or buffer zone. Conservation reserves are designated government owned land from where communities may earn a subsistence, while community reserves are on mixed government/private lands. Community reserves are the only privately held land accorded protection by the Government of India.See:Conservation reserves and community reserves of India

*Village Forest and Panchayat Forest (IUCN Category VI): These are forested lands administered by a village or a panchayat on a sustainable basis, with the habitat, flora and fauna being accorded some degree of protection by the managing community.See: Communal forests of India

*Private protected areas: These are regions which are owned by an individual or an organization / corporation not affiliated to the government or a communal body. Even though Indian legislation does not provide for protection of such areas, some NGOs are using land trusts to help in the conservation effort, and providing limited means of protection.See: Private protected areas of India

*Conservation areas: Conservation areas are large, well-designated geographical entities where landscape conservation is undergoing, and usually contains different kinds of constituent protected areas, as well as privately owned land.See: Conservation areas of India

ee also

* List of Protected areas in India
* List of Zoos in India

External links

* [http://www.wcmc.org.uk/igcmc/parks/un93.html United Nations List of National Parks and Protected Areas: India (1993)]
* [http://www.wii.gov.in/envis/envis_pa_network/index.htm Ministry of Forests and Environment Protected Areas website]
* [http://envfor.nic.in/divisions/ic/wssd/doc2/ch10.html Ministry of Forests and Environment-Report Ch10 Biodiversity]


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