Correlative-based fallacies


Correlative-based fallacies

In logic, correlative-based fallacies, also known as fallacies of distraction, are logical fallacies based on correlative conjunctions.

Contents

Correlative conjunctions

A correlative conjunction is a relationship between two statements where one must be false and the other true. In formal logic this is known as the exclusive or relationship; traditionally, terms between which this relationship exists have been called contradictories.

Examples

In the following example, statement b explicitly negates statement a:

  1. Fido is a dog.
  2. Fido is not a dog.

Statements can also be mutually exclusive, without explicitly negating each other as in the following example:

  1. Object one is larger than object two.
  2. Object one is smaller or the same size as object two.

Fallacies

Fallacies based on correlatives include:

False dilemma or false correlative.
Here something which is not a correlative is treated as a correlative, excluding some other possibility.
Denying the correlative
where an attempt is made to introduce another option into a true correlative.
Suppressed correlative
where the definitions of a correlative are changed so that one of the options includes the other, making one option impossible.

See also



Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • List of fallacies — For specific popular misconceptions, see List of common misconceptions. A fallacy is incorrect argumentation in logic and rhetoric resulting in a lack of validity, or more generally, a lack of soundness. Contents 1 Formal fallacies 1.1… …   Wikipedia

  • Denying the correlative — The logical fallacy of denying the correlative is an attempt made at introducing alternatives where there are none. In a way, it is the opposite of the false dilemma, which is denying other alternatives. For example: Policeman: .. either you… …   Wikipedia

  • Suppressed correlative — The logical fallacy of suppressed correlative is a type of argument which tries to redefine a correlative (two mutually exclusive options) so that one alternative encompasses the other, i.e. making one alternative impossible.Examples::Actor 1:… …   Wikipedia

  • Questionable cause — Fallacies of questionable cause, also known as causal fallacies, non causa pro causa ( non cause for cause in Latin) or false cause, are informal fallacies where a cause is incorrectly identified. These include: Correlation implies causation (cum …   Wikipedia

  • Fallacy — In logic and rhetoric, a fallacy is usually incorrect argumentation in reasoning resulting in a misconception or presumption. By accident or design, fallacies may exploit emotional triggers in the listener or interlocutor (appeal to emotion), or… …   Wikipedia

  • Ambiguity — Sir John Tenniel s illustration of the Caterpillar for Lewis Carroll s Alice s Adventures in Wonderland is noted for its ambiguous central figure, whose head can be viewed as being a human male s face with a pointed nose and pointy chin or being… …   Wikipedia

  • Hasty generalization — is a logical fallacy of faulty generalization by reaching an inductive generalization based on insufficient evidence  essentially making a hasty conclusion without considering all of the variables. In statistics, it may involve basing broad… …   Wikipedia

  • False dilemma — A false dilemma (also called false dichotomy, the either or fallacy, fallacy of false choice, black and white thinking, or the fallacy of exhaustive hypotheses) is a type of logical fallacy that involves a situation in which only two alternatives …   Wikipedia

  • Cherry picking (fallacy) — For the strategy in basketball, see cherry picking (basketball). For the device for raising a person to allow working at a height, see cherry picker. Cherry picking, suppressing evidence, or the fallacy of incomplete evidence is the act of… …   Wikipedia

  • Correlation does not imply causation — (related to ignoring a common cause and questionable cause) is a phrase used in science and statistics to emphasize that correlation between two variables does not automatically imply that one causes the other (though correlation is necessary for …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.