Provirus


Provirus

A provirus is a virus genome that has integrated itself into the DNA of a host cell. One kind of virus that can become a provirus is a retrovirus. When a retrovirus invades a cell, the RNA of the retrovirus is transcribed into DNA by reverse transcriptase, then inserted into the host genome by an integrase.

A provirus does not directly make new DNA copies of itself while integrated into a host genome in this way. Instead, it is passively replicated along with the host genome and passed on to the original cell's offspring; all descendants of the infected cell will also bear proviruses in their genomes. Integration can result in a latent infection or a productive infection. In a productive infection, the provirus is transcribed into messenger RNA which directly produces new virus, which in turn will infect other cells. A latent infection results when the provirus is transcriptionally silent rather than active. A latent infection may become productive in response to changes in the host's environmental conditions or health, the provirus may be activated and begin transcription of its viral genome. This can result in the destruction of its host cell because the cell's protein synthesis machinery is hijacked to produce more viruses.

Examples in humans include HIV and HTLV.

A provirus not only refers to a retrovirus but is also used to describe other viruses that can integrate into the host chromosomes, another example being adeno-associated virus.

ee also

*Prophage
*Phage
*Retrotransposon
*Germline
*Horizontal gene transfer
*Endogenous retrovirus
*Adeno-Associated Virus


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Provirus — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Los provirus, descubiertos en 1951 por Barbara McClintock en el maíz, son fragmentos de ADN móviles, que constituyen genes y pueden pasar de una célula a otra; no producen enfermedades, sino solamente inducen… …   Wikipedia Español

  • provirus — ● provirus nom masculin État particulier d un virus lorsqu il est intégré dans un chromosome de l hôte et se transmet avec celui ci de cellule mère à cellule fille. Copie en A.D.N. de l A.R.N. d un virus oncogène, obtenue par l enzyme appelée… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • provirus — PROVÍRUS s. n. stare a unor virusuri care cresc cu aceeaşi viteză ca celula parazitată, fără a o distruge. (< fr. provirus) Trimis de raduborza, 15.09.2007. Sursa: MDN …   Dicționar Român

  • provirus — provirus. См. провирус. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • provirus — Fase de la replicación vírica en la que la información genética del virus se ha integrado en el genoma de la célula del huésped. Diccionario Mosby Medicina, Enfermería y Ciencias de la Salud, Ediciones Hancourt, S.A. 1999 …   Diccionario médico

  • provirus — [prō vī′rəs] n. the genetic material of a virus, that is merged with the chromosomes of a host cell and can be transmitted to the next generation of cells without causing the destruction of the original host cell proviral [prō vīrəl] adj …   English World dictionary

  • Provirus — Übergeordnet Chromosom Gene Ontology …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • provirus — {{#}}{{LM P43907}}{{〓}} {{[}}provirus{{]}} ‹pro·vi·rus› {{◆}}(pl. provirus){{◇}} {{《}}▍ s.m.{{》}} Virus que está integrado en el ácido desoxirribonucleico de la célula en la que se encuentra: • El provirus hace que la infección persista durante… …   Diccionario de uso del español actual con sinónimos y antónimos

  • Provirus — Un provirus est un rétrovirus qui s est infiltré dans l ADN d une cellule hôte. Pour ce faire, son ARN subit une transcription inverse (ou rétrotranscription) grâce à la transcriptase inverse qui le retranscrit en ADN. Cet ADN est ensuite… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • provirus — The genome of a virus when it is integrated into the host cell DNA. In the case of the retroviruses, their RNA genome has first to be transcribed to DNA by reverse transcriptase. The genes of the provirus may be transcribed and expressed, or the… …   Dictionary of molecular biology


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