structural engineering, structural design is an iterativeprocess of applying engineering mechanicsand past experience to create a functional, economic, and, most importantly, safe structure for the public to inhabit or to use. Using structural analysistechniques and conforming to design specifications and the local design codes, the structural design engineer works to create a solution that is to everyone's benefit. Several latest Finite Element software packages like ETABS, SAP 2000, SAFE, S-Concrete, STDesign, Grasp, GEAR, etc. are widely used to do the repeatative, lengthy and complicated calculations and structural analysis needed to obtain a safe and economic design for a structure.
"Structural design" as a process has evolved to its modern refinement through hard lessons learned from various
structural failures.Structures are divided into two major categories, reinforced concretestructures, and steel framestructures.Reinforced concrete can be designed by many methods but two of them are important.
Structural design is an expression of an understanding of the flow of forces. The distribution of forces is initially understood diagramatically and mathematically. Based on this scientific understanding, sketches of members and connections are developed. Structural design which is highly expressive of the flow of forces is also associated with modern architectural design.
Structural design includes accommodation for the practicalities of construction, including on site assembly, shop assembled components, accessibility, and maintenance.
Every structure shall be designed to resist the overturning effects caused by the lateral forces specified in this chapter 16, 2006
International Building Code, IBC, Chapter 16. See Section 1609 for wind, Section 1610 for lateral soil loads and Section 1613 through 1623 for earthquake.
The value for snow load, wind load and seismic load importance factors shall be determined in accordance with Table 1604.5, 2006
International Building Code, ACI 2005 for USA or NBC 2005 for Canada.
Now-a-days Boundary layer Wind Tunnel Tests are usually done for very tall and usually shaped (like a parabolic shape) buildings, and for cable suspension or cable stayed bridges to understand the dynamic behaviour and response of the structure for 50 year return period high wind speeds in that particular location. To limit the daily acceleration and deflection at the top of the building, different types of dampers and specially designed rooftop water tanks acting as a damper are used.
For dynamic analysis for earthquakes, usually core shear walls are used to take the earthquake load.
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