Kirtanananda Swami, also known as Swami Bhaktipada, [Within ISKCON he is now known as "Kirtanananda das," as he is regarded as long-fallen from his sannyasa vows of celibacy.] (born
September 6, 1937) was the highly-controversial charismatic ISKCONguru and co-founder of the New Vrindaban Hare Krishnacommunity in Marshall County, West Virginia, where he served as spiritual leader for 26 years (from 1968 until 1994).
Kirtanananda was born Keith Gordon Ham on
September 6, 1937, the son of a Southern Baptistminister. He imbibed his father's missionary spirit and attempted to convert classmates to his family's faith. Despite an acute case of poliomyelitiswhich he contracted around his 17th birthday, he graduated with honors from Peekskill, New York, high school in 1955. In high school and college he excelled at debate.
Ham received a
Bachelor of Artsin History from Maryville Collegein Maryville, Tennesseeon May 20, 1959 and graduated magna cum laude, first in his class of 117. He then received a Woodrow Wilson fellowship to study American history at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he remained for three years. There he met an undergraduate English major from Mobile, Alabama, who became his lifelong friend and lover, Howard Morton Wheeler (1940-1989). [Kirtanananda Swami (Keith Gordon Ham) admitted that he had a homosexualrelationship with Howard Morton Wheeler (Hayagriva) for many years, and this is documented in the film "Holy Cow Swami", a documentary movie by Jacob Young (WVEBA, 1996). There is court testimony shown in that movie where Kirtanananda admits this in a court of law too. Here's a clip of Kirtanananda with the court transcript where he was asked, "Back in the 1950s and early 60s, were you homosexual?" Kirtanananda replies, "Yes." [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oEj5UeFOgIU] He then goes on to say that he was celibate after becoming Swami, but was later caught being "intimate" with a boy during the "Winnebago Incident" of 1993 [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=21X3gmtKDKw] [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNTGHsS3yug] , and on September 10, 2000, ISKCONreleased their Official Decision on the Case of Kirtanananda Das, ISKCON Central Office of Child Protection, and determined that Kirtanananda had molested two boys.] The two resigned from the university on February 3, 1961 and left Chapel Hill after being threatened with an investigation regarding an alleged sex scandal.
Keith and Howard moved to
New York Citywhere they lived as hippies. Keith also promoted LSDuse and became an LSD guru. For some time he worked as a reviewer of unemployment claims. Keith enrolled at Columbia University(1961-64) where he received a Waddell fellowship to study religious history with Whitney Cross, but he quit academic life when he and Howard travelled to Indiaduring October 1965 in search of a guru. Unsuccessful in their quest, they returned to New York after six months. [Hayagriva Das, "The Hare Krishna Explosion" (Palace Press, New Vrindaban WV: 1985)]
Keith becomes Kirtanananda
In June 1966, after returning from India, Keith met the Bengali Gaudiya-Vaishnava guru
A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada(then known simply as "Swamiji" to his disciples), the founder-acharya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness(ISKCON), more popularly known in the west as the Hare Krishnas. After attending " Bhagavad-gita" classes at the modest storefront temple at 26 Second Avenue, Keith decided to accept Swamiji as his spiritual master, receiving initiation as "Kirtanananda das" ("the servant of one who takes pleasure in kirtan") on September 23, 1966. Swamiji sometimes called him "Kitchen-ananda" because of his cooking expertise. [Howard Wheeler was initiated two weeks earlier on September 9, 1966 and received the name "Hayagriva das." See: Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, "Srila Prabhupada-lilamrta, Vol. 2" (Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, Los Angeles: 1980)]
Kirtanananda was among the first of Swamiji's western disciples to shave his head (apart from the
sikha), don robes (traditional Bengali Vaishnava clothing consists of dhotiand kurta), and move into the temple. During March 1967, on the order of Swamiji, Kirtanananda and Janus Dambergs (Janardan das), a French-speaking university student, established the MontrealISKCON temple.
On August 28, 1967, while travelling with Swamiji in India, Kirtanananda das became Prabhupada's first disciple to be initiated into the
Vaishnavaorder of renunciation ( sannyasa: a lifelong vow of celibacy in mind, word and body), and received the name Kirtanananda Swami. Within weeks, however, Kirtanananda Swami returned to New York City against Prabhupada's wishes and attempted to add exoteric cultural elements of Christianityto Prabhupada's devotional bhaktisystem. Other disciples of Prabhupada saw this as a takeover attempt. In letters from India, Prabhupada soundly chastised him and banned him from preaching in ISKCON temples. ["Letters From Srila Prabhupada, Vol. 1" (The Vaisnava Institute in association with the BBT, Culver City, California: 1987)]
The New Vrindaban Community
Kirtanananda promptly moved in with his friend Howard (now known as Hayagriva das), who had accepted a position teaching English classes at a community college in
Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania. In the San Francisco Oracle(an underground newspaper), Kirtanananda saw a letter from Richard Rose, Jr., who wanted to form an ashramon his land in Marshall County, West Virginia. "The conception is one of a non-profit, non-interfering, non-denominational retreat or refuge, where philosophers might come to work communally together, or independently, where a library and other facilities might be developed." [Richard Rose, "The San Francisco Oracle" (December 1967)]
On a weekend free of classes (March 30-31, 1968), Kirtanananda and Hayagriva visited the two properties owned by Rose. When Hayagriva returned to Wilkes Barre, Kirtanananda stayed on in Rose's backwoods farmhouse. In July 1968, after a few months of Kirtanananda's living in isolation, he and Hayagriva visited Prabhupada in Montreal. Prabhupada “forgave his renegade disciples in Montreal with a garland of roses and a shower of tears.” [Hayagriva Das, “Chant,” "Brijabasi Spirit" (November 1981), 20.]
When the pair returned to West Virginia, Richard Rose, Jr. and his wife Phyllis E. Rose gave Hayagriva a 99-year lease on the 132.77-acre property for $4,000, with an option to purchase for $10 when the lease expired. Hayagriva put down a $1,500 deposit. [Lease available for viewing at Marshall County Courthouse, Moundsville, West Virginia]
Prabhupadaestablished the purpose and guided the development of the community in dozens of letters and four personal visits (1969, 1972, 1974 and 1976). New Vrindabanwould fulfill four major functions for ISKCON:
# establish and promote the simple, agrarian Krishna conscious lifestyle, including cow protection,
# establish a place of pilgrimage in the West by building seven temples on seven hills,
# train up a class of
brahminteachers by training boys at the gurukula(school of the guru), and
# establish a society based on varnashram-dharma.
Kirtanananda eventually established himself as leader and sole authority over the community. In New Vrindaban publications he was honored as "Founder-
Acharya" of New Vrindaban, in imitation of Srila Prabhupada's title of Founder- Acharyaof ISKCON. Over time the community expanded, devotees from other ISKCON centers moved in, and cows and land were acquired until New Vrindaban properties consisted of nearly 5,000 acres. New Vrindaban became a favorite ISKCON place of pilgrimage and many ISKCON devotees attended the annual Krishna Janmashtamifestivals.
For some, Kirtanananda's previous offenses were forgiven. Many devotees admired him for his austere lifestyle (for a time he lived in an abandoned chicken coop), his preaching skills ["Back to Godhead" magazine published three of his poems and 14 articles between 1966 and 1986] and devotion to the presiding deities of New Vrindaban: Sri Sri Radha Vrindaban Chandra. [Kuladri Das, “Vyasa-puja Homage” (Shri Vyasa-puja: September 4, 1978), 6.] For other devotees who had challenged him and thereby encountered his wrath, he was a source of fear.
Palace of Gold
Late in 1972 Kirtanananda and sculptor-architect Bhagavatananda das decided to build a home for Prabhupada. In time, the plans for the house developed into an ornate memorial shrine of
marble, goldand carved teakwood, dedicated posthumously during Labor Day weekend, on Sunday, September 2, 1979. The completion of the Palace of Gold catapulted New Vrindaban into mainstream respectability as tens (and eventually hundreds) of thousands of tourists began visiting the Palace each year.
A "Land of Krishna" theme park and a
granite"Temple of Understanding" in classical South Indian style were designed to make New Vrindaban a "Spiritual Disneyland." The ground-breaking ceremony of the proposed temple on May 31, 1985, was attended by dozens of dignitaries, including a United States congressman from West Virginia. One publication called it "the most significant and memorable day in the history of New Vrindaban." ["Government Officials Attend Ceremony," Land of Krishna, vol. 1, no. 5 (July 1985).]
Upon Prabhupada's death on
November 14, 1977, Kirtanananda and ten other high-ranking ISKCON leaders assumed the position of initiating gurus to succeed him. In March 1979, he accepted the honorific title "Bhaktipada," a title which the current ISKCON leadership does not recognize.
Kirtanananda Swami awarded sannyasa initiation to several godbrothers, most notably
Bhakti Tirtha Swami(1979), Bhaktisvarupa Damodar Swami(1980), Radhanath Swami(1982), Vedavyasapriya Swami(1986), Varsana Swami (1986), Chandramauli Swami (1986), Umapati Swami (1987), Tirtha Swami (1987), Hayagriva Swami (1989), and the female sannyasini Malati Swami (c. 1992). [A fairly complete list of Kirtanananda Swami's sannyasa disciples includes: Atmabhu Swami (1978), Bhakti Tirtha Swami (1979), Bhaktisvarupa Damodar Swami (1980), Radhanath Swami (1982), Tapahpunja Swami (1983), Vedavyasapriya Swami(1986), Varsana Swami (1986), Chandramauli Swami (1986), Radha-Vrindaban Chandra (Gopinatha) Swami (1986), Jayamurari Swami (1986), Chandrashekhara Maharaj (1986), Nityodita Swami (1986), Paramahansa Krishna Swami (1986), Umapati Swami (1987), Tirtha Swami (1987), Murti Swami (1987), Chakravarti Swami (1987), Dasarath Pandit Swami (1987), Guruprasad Swami (1988), Bhaktirasa Swami (1988), Bhaktiyoga (Raktak) Swami, Balarama (Bhavisyat) Swami (1988), Devananada (Daivata) Swami, Purity Swami, Adipurusha (Ajeya) Swami, Krishna Balarama Swami, Bhaktivijnana Swami, Bhaktisiddhanta Swami, Hayagriva Swami (1989), Haribhakta Swami, Holy Name (Gadadhara) Swami (1993), and female sannyasinis: Ishvara (Illavati) Swami (1987), Ananta (Adhara) Swami (1987), Vishnushakti (Vishvadika) Swami, Hrishikesh (Hladini) Maharaj (1988), Compassionate (Rasayatra) Maharaj, Eternal Love (Sukhavaha) Swami, Holy Name (Jayashri) Swami, Joy Divine (Draupadi) Swami, Steady (Shalagram) Swami, Supreme Truth (Talaban) Swami, Surrender (Maharani) Swami, and Malati Swami.]
In 1986 Kirtanananda began his so-called
interfaithexperiment and the community became known as the "New Vrindaban City of God." He again attempted to "de-Indianize" Krishna Consciousness to help make it more accessible to westerners, just as he had done previously in 1967.
Franciscan-style robes instead of dhotis and saris; they chanted in English with western instruments such as the pipe organand was practiced silently; and an interfaith community was attempted.
Violent Attack and Expulsion from ISKCON
On October 27, 1985, during a New Vrindaban bricklaying marathon, a crazed and distraught devotee bludgeoned Kirtanananda on the head with a heavy steel tamping tool. [This was Triyogi dasa, who had come to New Vrindaban in September 1985 to attend the much-publicized "Prabhupada Disciple Meetings." After the conference concluded, he decided to stay at New Vrindaban for a time. His services at New Vrindaban were menial; he assisted in the kitchen and picked up litter around the Palace. He appeared to have some prominent personality dysfunctions, he was sometimes observed muttering under his breath to himself, and the New Vrindaban residents who knew him considered him mentally unstable.
Triyogi had asked Kirtanananda to initiate him into the order of sannyas. Kirtanananda said that he must first "prove himself" as a preacher: "I told him I didn’t feel I could do it. I didn’t know him well enough. I told him to stay here at New Vrindaban for six months to a year first, and he became disturbed about that." (Kirtanananda Swami, quoted by Eric Harrison in "Violence is Focus of Krishna Inquiry," "The Philadelphia Inquirer" (August 21, 1986), 16-A.)
Triyogi was visibly upset and confided in another New Vrindaban devotee that "he felt he had to either kill himself, kill Bhaktipada, or leave." Later he told that same devotee that he would not kill anyone; he would simply leave. (Tulsi das quoting Triyogi, cited by Terry Smith in "Krishnas May Investigate New Disciples," "The Wheeling Intelligencer" (October 31, 1985), 1,6.)] He was critically injured and remained in a coma for ten days. Gradually he recovered most of his faculties, though devotees who knew him well said that his personality had changed. Some close associates began leaving the community.
On March 16, 1987, during their annual meeting at
Mayapur, India, the ISKCON Governing Body Commissionexpelled Kirtanananda from the society for "moral and theological deviations." [See http://www.dandavats.com/wp-content/uploads/GBCresolutions/GBCRES87.htm] They claimed he had defied ISKCON policies and had claimed to be the sole spiritual heir to Prabhupada’s movement. Thirteen members voted for the resolution, two abstained, and one member, Bhakti Tirtha Swami, voted against the resolution. [ [http://www.iskcon.com/icj/5_1/5_1perils.html The Perils of Succession: Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna Movement - "Tamal Krishna Goswami"] ]
Kirtanananda then established his own organization — "The Eternal Order of the League of Devotees Worldwide" — and took several properties with him, [By 1988, New Vrindaban had 13 satellite centers in the United States and Canada: in Athens, Cincinnati, Columbus, and Cleveland, Ohio; Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Washington, D.C.; New York City, New York; East Bridgewater, Massachusetts; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Tucson, Arizona; Montreal, Quebec; and Toronto, Ontario.] including New Vrindaban. New Vrindaban was excommunicated from ISKCON the following year in 1988.
Criminal conviction and imprisonment
In 1990 the
US federal governmentindicted Kirtanananda on five counts of racketeering, six counts of mail fraud, and conspiracy to murder two of his opponents in the Hare Krishna movement (Chakradhari and Sulochan). The government claimed that he had illegally amassed a profit of more than $10.5 million over four years. It also charged that he ordered the killings because the victims had threatened to reveal his sexual abuseof minors."Holy Cow Swami", a documentary movie by Jacob Young (WVEBA, 1996)]
March 29, 1991, Kirtanananda was convicted on nine of the 11 charges (the jury failed to reach a verdict on the murder charges), but the Court of Appeals, convinced by the expert arguments of defense attorney Alan Morton Dershowitz(a criminal lawprofessor at Harvard Universitywho represented such celebrated and wealthy clients as Claus von Bülow, Mike Tysonand O. J. Simpson), threw out the convictions, saying that child molestationevidence had unfairly prejudiced the juryagainst Kirtanananda, who was not charged with those crimes. On August 16, 1993, he was released from house arrestin a rented apartment in the Warwood neighborhood of Wheeling, where he had lived for nearly two years, and returned triumphantly to New Vrindaban.
However, Kirtanananda lost his iron grip on the community after the September 1993 "Winnebago Incident" during which he was accidentally observed in a compromising position with a young male Malaysian disciple in the back of a Winnebago van, and the community split into two camps: those who still supported Kirtanananda and those who challenged his leadership. During this time he retired to his rural retreat at "Silent Mountain" near
Littleton, West Virginia. The challengers eventually ousted Kirtanananda and his supporters completely, and ended the "interfaith era" in July 1994 by returning the temple worship services to the standard Indian style advocated by Swami Prabhupada and practiced throughout ISKCON. Most of Kirtanananda's followers left New Vrindaban and moved to the Radha Muralidhar Temple in New York City, which remained under Kirtanananda's control. New Vrindaban returned to ISKCON in 1998.
In 1996, before Kirtanananda's retrial was completed, he pleaded guilty to one count of racketeering (mail fraud). He was sentenced to 20 years in prison but was released on June 16, 2004. [ [http://www.bop.gov/iloc2/InmateFinderServlet?Transaction=NameSearch&needingMoreList=false&LastName=ham&Middle=&FirstName=keith&Race=U&Sex=U&Age=&x=0&y=0 Federal Bureau of Prisons record of release] ] .
On September 10, 2000, the ISKCON Child Protection Office concluded a 17-month investigation and determined that Kirtanananda had molested two boys. He was prohibited from visiting any ISKCON properties for five years and offered conditions for reinstatement within ISKCON: [Official Decision on the Case of Kirtanananda Das, ISKCON Central Office of Child Protection (September 10, 2000)]
- (1) He must contribute at least $10,000 to an organization dedicated to serving Vaishnava youth, such as Children of Krishna, the Association for the Protection of Vaishnava Children, or a gurukula approved by the APVC.
(2) He must write apology letters to all the victims described in this letter. In these letters he must fully acknowledge his transgressions of child abuse, and he must take full responsibility for those actions. Also, he must express appropriate remorse, and offer to make amends to the victims. These letters should be sent to the APVC, not directly to the victims.
(3) He must undergo a
psychological evaluationby a mental health professional pre-approved by the APVC, and he must comply with recommendations for ongoing therapy described in the evaluation report and by the APVC.
(4) Kirtanananda Das must fully comply with all governmental investigations into misconduct on his part.
Kirtanananda never satisfied any of these conditions. [The four conditions for reinstatement into ISKCON formulated by the ISKCON Child Protection Office were in response to particular crimes against two boys. However, these conditions do not take into account the March 1987 GBC resolution which excommunicated Kirtanananda from ISKCON for other offenses. Therefore, even if the conditions imposed by the Child Protection Office were satisfied in full, Kirtanananda would still be unwelcome in ISKCON.]
For four years after his release from prison, Kirtanananda (now confined to a wheelchair) resided at the Radha Murlidhara Temple at 25 First Avenue in New York City. This temple was purchased in 1990 [The installation of Sri Sri Radha Murlidhara was reported in "The City of God Examiner" (issue no. 48, January 2, 1991).] for $500,000 and is maintained by a small number of disciples and followers, although the temple board attempted to evict him. [Tien-Shun Lee: "Hare Krishnas clash as eviction effort divides First Ave. building," "The Villager" (New York:July 18, 2007). http://www.rickross.com/reference/krishna/krishna96.html.]
On March 7, 2008, Kirtanananda left the United States for India, where he says he expects to remain for the rest of his life. “There is no sense in staying where I’m not wanted,” he explained, referring to the desertions through the years by most of his American disciples and to the attempts to evict him from the building. Kirtanananda still has a significant number of loyal disciples in India and Pakistan, who worship him as "guru" and publish his latest books. [Kirtanananda Swami, cited by Henry Doktorski in "Kirtanananda Swami Leaves US, Moves To India Permanently" ("Brijabasi Spirit", March 7, 2008). See http://www.brijabasispirit.com/2008/03/07/kirtanananda-swami-leaves-us-moves-to-india-permanently.]
Kirtanananda said he intends to continue preaching a message of interfaith: that the God of the Christians, Jews, Muslims, and Vaishnavas is the same; and that men of faith from each religion should recognize and appreciate the faith of men of other paths. "Fundamentalism is one of the most dangerous belief-systems in the world today. Fundamentalism doesn’t promote unity; it causes separatism. It creates enmity between people of faith. Look at the Muslims; Mohammed never intended that his followers should spread their religion by the sword. It is more important today than at any other time to preach about the unity of all religions." [ Ibid.]
Kirtanananda Swami authored two dozen published books, some of which were translated and published in Gujarati, German, French and Spanish editions. Some books attributed to him and published in his name were actually written by volunteer
ghostwriters. [Sri Galim wrote "The Illustrated Ramayana" (1987), Rukmini devi dasi wrote "Joy of No Sex" (1988), and "True Peace" wrote "Heart of the Gita: Always Think of Me" (1990).]
Books by Kirtanananda Swami Bhaktipada:
* "The Song of God: A Summary Study of
Bhagavad-gita As It Is" (1984)
* "Christ and Krishna: The Path of Pure Devotion" (1985)
* "L'amour de Dieu: Le Christianisme et La Tradition Bhakti" (1985) French edition
* "Eternal Love: Conversations with the Lord in the Heart" (1986), based on
Thomas à Kempis’ " Imitation of Christ"
* "The Song of God: A Summary Study of Bhagavad-gita As It Is" (c. 1986) Gujarati edition
*"On His Order" (1987)
* "The Illustrated
* "Lila in the Land of Illusion" (1987), based on
Lewis Carroll’s " Alice in Wonderland"
* "Bhaktipada Bullets" (1988), compiled by
* " A Devotee’s Journey to the City of God" (1988), based on
John Bunyan’s " Pilgrim’s Progress"
* "Joy of No Sex" (1988)
* "Excerpts from The Bhaktipada Psalms" (1988)
* "Le pur amour de Dieu: Christ & Krishna" (1988), French edition
* "One God: The Essence of All Religions" (1989), Indian publication
* "Heart of the Gita: Always Think of Me" (1990)
* "How To Say No To Drugs" (1990)
* "Spiritual Warfare: How to Gain Victory in the Struggle for Spiritual Perfection" (1990), a sequel to "Eternal Love"
* "How to Love God" (1992), based on
Saint Francis de Sales’ "Treatise on the Love of God"
* "Sense Grataholics Anonymous: A Twelve Step Meeting Suggested Sharing Format" (c. 1995)
* "On Becoming Servant of The Servant" (undated), Indian publication
* "Divine Conversation" (2004), Indian publication
* "The Answer to Every Problem: Krishna Consciousness" (2004), Indian publication
* "A Devotee's Handbook for Pure Devotion" (2004), Indian publication [See http://www.kirtananandaswami.org/HandbookforPureDevotion.pdf]
* "Humbler than a Blade of Grass" (2008), Indian publication
Articles and poems by, and interviews with Kirtanananda Swami published in
Back to Godheadmagazine:
* 1966, Vol 01, No 01, (untitled poem, no. 1)
* 1966, Vol 01, No 01, (untitled poem, no. 2)
* 1966, Vol 01, No 01, (untitled poem, no. 3)
* 1966, Vol 01, No 02, (untitled poem, no. 4)
* 1969, Vol 01, No 29, “Man’s Link to God”
* 1969, Vol 01, No 31, “Krishna’s Light vs. Maya’s Night”
* 1970, Vol 01, No 32, “Prasadam: Food for the Body, Food for the Soul and Food for God”
* 1970, Vol 01, No 33, “Observing the Armies on the Battlefield of Kuruksetra, Part 1”
* 1970, Vol 01, No 34, “Contents of the Gita Summarized”
* 1970, Vol 01, No 35, “Karma-yoga—Perfection through Action, Part 3: Sankirtana”
* 1970, Vol 01, No 37, “Transcendental Knowledge, Part 4: He Is Transcendental”
* 1970, Vol 01, No 38, “Karma-yoga—Action in Krishna Consciousness, Part 5: Work in Devotion”
* 1970-1973, Vol 01, No 40, “Sankhya-yoga: Absorption in the Supreme”
* 1970-1973, Vol 01, No 41, “Knowledge of the Absolute: It Is Not a Cheap Thing”
* 1970-1973, Vol 01, No 42, “Attaining the Supreme: What Is Brahman?”
* 1974, Vol 01, No 66, “Turning Our Love Toward Krishna”
* 1977, Vol 12, No 12, “The Things Christ Had to Keep Secret”
* 1986, Vol 21, No 07, “The Heart’s Desire: How can we find happiness that is not purchased with our pain?”
* [http://www.kirtananandaswami.org/ Website of Kirtanananda]
* [http://newvrindaban.com/ Website of New Vrindaban Community]
* [http://www.palaceofgold.com/ Website of Palace of Gold]
* [http://henrydoktorski.com/newvrindaban.shtml New Vrindaban: The Black Sheep of ISKCON]
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