# Lists of integrals

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Lists of integrals

See the following pages for lists of integrals:

* List of integrals of rational functions
* List of integrals of irrational functions
* List of integrals of trigonometric functions
* List of integrals of inverse trigonometric functions
* List of integrals of hyperbolic functions
* List of integrals of arc hyperbolic functions
* List of integrals of exponential functions
* List of integrals of logarithmic functions

Tables of integrals

Integration is one of the two basic operations in calculus. While differentiation has easy rules by which the derivative of a complicated function can be found by differentiating its simpler component functions, integration does not, so tables of known integrals are often useful. This page lists some of the most common antiderivatives.

"C" is used for an arbitrary constant of integration that can only be determined if something about the value of the integral at some point is known. Thus each function has an infinite number of antiderivatives.

These formulas only state in another form the assertions in the table of derivatives.

Integrals of simple functions

Irrational functions

:"more integrals: List of integrals of irrational functions":$int \left\{dx over sqrt\left\{a^2-x^2 = sin^\left\{-1\right\} \left\{x over a\right\} + C$:$int \left\{-dx over sqrt\left\{a^2-x^2 = cos^\left\{-1\right\} \left\{x over a\right\} + C$:$int \left\{dx over x sqrt\left\{x^2-a^2 = \left\{1 over a\right\} sec^\left\{-1\right\} + C$:$int sec\left\{x\right\} , dx = ln\left\{left| sec\left\{x\right\} + an\left\{x\right\} ight + C$:$int csc\left\{x\right\} , dx = -ln\left\{left| csc\left\{x\right\} + cot\left\{x\right\} ight + C$:$int sec^2 x , dx = an x + C$:$int csc^2 x , dx = -cot x + C$:$int sec\left\{x\right\} , an\left\{x\right\} , dx = sec\left\{x\right\} + C$:$int csc\left\{x\right\} , cot\left\{x\right\} , dx = -csc\left\{x\right\} + C$:$int sin^2 x , dx = frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{2\right\}\left(x - frac\left\{sin 2x\right\}\left\{2\right\} \right) + C = frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{2\right\}\left(x - sin xcos x \right) + C$:$int cos^2 x , dx = frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{2\right\}\left(x + frac\left\{sin 2x\right\}\left\{2\right\}\right) + C = frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{2\right\}\left(x + sin xcos x \right) + C$:$int sec^3 x , dx = frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{2\right\}sec x an x + frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{2\right\}ln|sec x + an x| + C$:: (see integral of secant cubed):$int sin^n x , dx = - frac\left\{sin^\left\{n-1\right\} \left\{x\right\} cos \left\{x\left\{n\right\} + frac\left\{n-1\right\}\left\{n\right\} int sin^\left\{n-2\right\}\left\{x\right\} , dx$:$int cos^n x , dx = frac\left\{cos^\left\{n-1\right\} \left\{x\right\} sin \left\{x\left\{n\right\} + frac\left\{n-1\right\}\left\{n\right\} int cos^\left\{n-2\right\}\left\{x\right\} , dx$:$int arctan\left\{x\right\} , dx = x , arctan\left\{x\right\} - frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{2\right\} ln\left\{left| 1 + x^2 ight + C$

Hyperbolic functions

:"more integrals: List of integrals of hyperbolic functions":$int sinh x , dx = cosh x + C$:$int cosh x , dx = sinh x + C$:$int anh x , dx = ln| cosh x | + C$:$int mbox\left\{csch\right\},x , dx = lnleft| anh \left\{x over2\right\} ight| + C$:$int mbox\left\{sech\right\},x , dx = arctan\left(sinh x\right) + C$:$int coth x , dx = ln| sinh x | + C$:$int mbox\left\{sech\right\}^2 x, dx = anh x + C$

Inverse hyperbolic functions

: $int operatorname\left\{arcsinh\right\}, x , dx = x, operatorname\left\{arcsinh\right\}, x - sqrt\left\{x^2+1\right\} + C$: $int operatorname\left\{arccosh\right\}, x , dx = x, operatorname\left\{arccosh\right\}, x - sqrt\left\{x^2-1\right\} + C$: $int operatorname\left\{arctanh\right\}, x , dx = x, operatorname\left\{arctanh\right\}, x + frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{2\right\}log\left\{\left(1-x^2\right)\right\} + C$: $int operatorname\left\{arccsch\right\},x , dx = x, operatorname\left\{arccsch\right\}, x+ log\left\{left \left[xleft\left(sqrt\left\{1+frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{x^2 + 1 ight\right) ight\right] \right\} + C$: $int operatorname\left\{arcsech\right\},x , dx = x, operatorname\left\{arcsech\right\}, x- arctan\left\{left\left(frac\left\{x\right\}\left\{x-1\right\}sqrt\left\{frac\left\{1-x\right\}\left\{1+x ight\right)\right\} + C$: $int operatorname\left\{arccoth\right\},x , dx = x, operatorname\left\{arccoth\right\}, x+ frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{2\right\}log\left\{\left(x^2-1\right)\right\} + C$

Definite integrals lacking closed-form antiderivatives

There are some functions whose antiderivatives "cannot" be expressed in closed form. However, the values of the definite integrals of some of these functions over some common intervals can be calculated. A few useful integrals are given below.

:$int_0^infty\left\{sqrt\left\{x\right\},e^\left\{-x\right\},dx\right\} = frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{2\right\}sqrt pi$ (see also Gamma function)

:$int_0^infty\left\{e^\left\{-x^2\right\},dx\right\} = frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{2\right\}sqrt pi$ (the Gaussian integral)

:$int_0^infty\left\{frac\left\{x\right\}\left\{e^x-1\right\},dx\right\} = frac\left\{pi^2\right\}\left\{6\right\}$ (see also Bernoulli number)

:$int_0^infty\left\{frac\left\{x^3\right\}\left\{e^x-1\right\},dx\right\} = frac\left\{pi^4\right\}\left\{15\right\}$

:$int_0^inftyfrac\left\{sin\left(x\right)\right\}\left\{x\right\},dx=frac\left\{pi\right\}\left\{2\right\}$

:$int_0^frac\left\{pi\right\}\left\{2\right\}sin^n\left\{x\right\},dx=int_0^frac\left\{pi\right\}\left\{2\right\}cos^n\left\{x\right\},dx=frac\left\{1 cdot 3 cdot 5 cdot cdots cdot \left(n-1\right)\right\}\left\{2 cdot 4 cdot 6 cdot cdots cdot n\right\}frac\left\{pi\right\}\left\{2\right\}$ (if "n" is an even integer and $scriptstyle\left\{n ge 2\right\}$)

:$int_0^frac\left\{pi\right\}\left\{2\right\}sin^n\left\{x\right\},dx=int_0^frac\left\{pi\right\}\left\{2\right\}cos^n\left\{x\right\},dx=frac\left\{2 cdot 4 cdot 6 cdot cdots cdot \left(n-1\right)\right\}\left\{3 cdot 5 cdot 7 cdot cdots cdot n\right\}$ (if $scriptstyle\left\{n\right\}$ is an odd integer and $scriptstyle\left\{n ge 3\right\}$)

:$int_0^inftyfrac\left\{sin^2\left\{x\left\{x^2\right\},dx=frac\left\{pi\right\}\left\{2\right\}$

:$int_0^infty x^\left\{z-1\right\},e^\left\{-x\right\},dx = Gamma\left(z\right)$ (where $Gamma\left(z\right)$ is the Gamma function)

:$int_\left\{-infty\right\}^infty e^\left\{-\left(ax^2+bx+c\right)\right\},dx=sqrt\left\{frac\left\{pi\right\}\left\{aexpleft \left[frac\left\{b^2-4ac\right\}\left\{4a\right\} ight\right]$ (where $exp \left[u\right]$ is the exponential function $e^u$, and $a>0$)

:$int_\left\{0\right\}^\left\{2 pi\right\} e^\left\{x cos heta\right\} d heta = 2 pi I_\left\{0\right\}\left(x\right)$ (where $I_\left\{0\right\}\left(x\right)$ is the modified Bessel function of the first kind)

:$int_\left\{0\right\}^\left\{2 pi\right\} e^\left\{x cos heta + y sin heta\right\} d heta = 2 pi I_\left\{0\right\} left\left(sqrt\left\{x^2 + y^2\right\} ight\right)$

:$int_\left\{-infty\right\}^\left\{infty\right\}\left\{\left(1 + x^2/ u\right)^\left\{-\left( u + 1\right)/2\right\}dx\right\} = frac \left\{ sqrt\left\{ u pi\right\} Gamma\left( u/2\right)\right\} \left\{Gamma\left(\left( u + 1\right)/2\right)\right)\right\},$, $u > 0,$, this is related to the probability density function of the Student's t-distribution)

The method of exhaustion provides a formula for the general case when no antiderivative exists:

:$int_a^b\left\{f\left(x\right),dx\right\} = \left(b - a\right) sumlimits_\left\{n = 1\right\}^infty \left\{sumlimits_\left\{m = 1\right\}^\left\{2^n - 1\right\} \left\{left\left( \left\{ - 1\right\} ight\right)^\left\{m + 1\right\} \right\} \right\} 2^\left\{ - n\right\} f\left(a + mleft\left( \left\{b - a\right\} ight\right)2^\left\{-n\right\} \right).$

The "sophomore's dream"

:

attributed to Johann Bernoulli; see sophomore's dream

Historical development of integrals

A compilation of a list of integrals (Integraltafeln) and techniques of integral calculuswas published by the German mathematician Meyer Hirsch in 1810. These tables were republished in the United Kingdom in 1823. More extensive tables were compiled in 1858 by the Dutch mathematician David de Bierens de Haan. A new edition was published in 1862. These tables, which contain mainly integrals of elementary functions, remained in use until the middle ofthe 20th century. They were then replaced by the much more extensive tables of Gradshteyn and Ryzhik.In Gradshteyn and Ryzhik, integrals originating from the book by de Bierens are denoted by BI.Since 1968 there is the Risch algorithm for determining indefinite integrals.

Other lists of integrals

Gradshteyn and Ryzhik contains a large collection of results. Other useful resources include the "CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulae" and Abramowitz and Stegun. A&S contains many identities concerning specific integrals, which are organized with the most relevant topic instead of being collected into a separate table. There are several web sites which have tables of integrals and integrals on demand.

References

* Besavilla: Engineering Review Center, "Engineering Mathematics (Formulas)", Mini Booklet

* Milton Abramowitz and Irene A. Stegun, eds. "Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables".

* I.S. Gradshteyn (И.С. Градштейн), I.M. Ryzhik (И.М. Рыжик); Alan Jeffrey, Daniel Zwillinger, editors. "Table of Integrals, Series, and Products", seventh edition. Academic Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-12-373637-6. [http://www.mathtable.com/gr Errata.] "(Several previous editions as well.)"

* Daniel Zwillinger. "CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulae", 31st edition. Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58488-291-3. "(Many earlier editions as well.)"

* List of mathematical series

Tables of integrals

* [http://www.sosmath.com/tables/tables.html S.O.S. Mathematics: Tables and Formulas]
* [http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/pdf/Common_Derivatives_Integrals.pdf Paul's Online Math Notes]

Historical

* Meyer Hirsch, [http://books.google.com/books?id=Cdg2AAAAMAAJ Integraltafeln, oder, Sammlung von Integralformeln] (Duncker un Humblot, Berlin, 1810)
* Meyer Hirsch, [http://books.google.com/books?id=NsI2AAAAMAAJ Integral Tables, Or, A Collection of Integral Formulae] (Baynes and son, London, 1823) [English translation of "Integraltafeln"]
* David de Bierens de Haan, [http://www.archive.org/details/nouvetaintegral00haanrich Nouvelles Tables d'Intégrales définies] (Engels, Leiden, 1862)
* Benjamin O. Pierce [http://books.google.com/books?id=pYMRAAAAYAAJ A short table of integrals - revised edition] (Ginn & co., Boston, 1899)

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