- International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry nomenclature
nomenclatureis a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistryin general. It is developed and kept up to date under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC).The rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the "Blue Book" [cite book |coauthors= The COmmission on the Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry |title= Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry |origyear= 1958 (A: Hydrocarbons, and B: Fundamental Heterocyclic Systems), 1965 (C: Characteristic Groups) | year=1971 (3rd edition combined) |accessdate= 2008-03-26 |edition= 3 |publisher= Butterworths |location= London |language= English |isbn= 0408701447] "Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry", Oxford:Pergamon Press, 1979; "A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds, Recommendations 1993", Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993. (ISBN 3-540-41138-0)] and the "Red Book"cite book |author=Connelly NG, McCleverty JA |title=Nomenclature of inorganic chemistry II: recommendations 2000 |publisher=Royal Society of Chemistry |location=Cambridge |year=2001 |pages= |isbn=0-85404-487-6] respectively. A third publication, known as the "Green Book","Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry (3rd Edn.)", Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications. (2007)] describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the " Gold Book","Compendium of Chemical Terminology, IUPAC Recommendations (2nd Edn.)", Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications. (1997)] contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry"Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents", London:Portland Press, 1992.] (in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry"Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature, Definitive Rules 1997 (3rd Edn.)", Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1998.] and macromolecular chemistry"Compendium of Macromolecular Nomenclature", Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1991.] . These books are supplemented by shorter recommendations for specific circumstances which are published from time to time in the journal " Pure and Applied Chemistry".
Aims of chemical nomenclature
The primary function of chemical nomenclature is to ensure that the person who hears or reads a chemical name is under no ambiguity as to which chemical compound it refers: each name should refer to a single substance. It is considered less important to ensure that each substance should have a single name, although the number of acceptable names is limited.
It is also preferable that the name convey some information about the structure or chemistry of a compound.
CAS numbers form an extreme example of names which do not perform this function: each refers to a single compound but none contain information about the structure.
The form of nomenclature which should be used depends on the public to which it is addressed: as such there is no single "correct" form, but rather different forms which are more or less appropriate in different circumstances.
A common name will often suffice to identify a chemical compound in a particular set of circumstances. To be more generally applicable, the name should indicate at least the
chemical formula. To be more specific still, the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms may need to be specified.
In a few specific circumstances (such as the construction of large indices), it becomes necessary to ensure that each compound has a unique name: this requires the addition of extra rules to the standard IUPAC system (the CAS system is the most commonly used in this context), at the expense of having names which are longer and less familiar to most readers. Another system gaining popularity is the
International Chemical Identifier—while InChI symbols are not human readable, they contain complete information about substance structure. That makes them more general than CAS numbers.
The IUPAC system is often criticized for the above failures when they become relevant (for example in differing reactivity of sulfur
allotropeswhich IUPAC doesn't distinguish). While IUPAC has a human-readable advantage over CAS numbering, it would be difficult to claim that the IUPAC names for some larger, relevant molecules (such as rapamycin) are human-readable, and so most researchers simply use the informal names.
The history of chemical nomenclature is unclear.
The nomenclature of
alchemyis rich in description, but does not effectively meet the aims outlined above. Opinions differ whether this was deliberate on the part of the early practitioners of alchemy or whether it was a consequence of the particular (and often esoteric) theoretical framework in which they worked.
While both explanations are probably valid to some extent, it is remarkable that the first "modern" system of chemical nomenclature appeared at the same time as the distinction (by Lavoisier) between elements and compounds, in the late eighteenth century.
The French chemist
Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveaupublished his recommendationsGuyton de Morveau, L. B. (1782). "J. Phys. '19, 310.] in 1782, hoping that his "constant method of denomination" would "help the intelligence and relieve the memory". The system was refined in collaboration with Berthollet, de Fourcroy and Lavoisier,Guyton de Morveau, L. B.; Lavoisier, A. L.; Berthollet, C. L.; de Fourcroy, A. F. (1787). "Méthode de Nomenclature Chimique", Paris.] and promoted by the latter in a textbook which would survive long after his death at the guillotinein 1794.Lavoisier, A. L. (1801). "Traité Elémentaire de Chimie (3e edn.)", Paris:Deterville.] The project was also espoused by Jöns Jakob Berzelius,Berzelius, J. J. (1811). "J. Phys. '73, 248.] cite journal| title = Jöns Jacob Berzelius A Guide to the Perplexed Chemist| author = Jaime Wisniak| journal = The Chemical Educator | year = 2000| volume = 5| issue = 6| pages = 343–350| doi = 10.1007/s00897000430a] who adapted the ideas for the German-speaking world.
The recommendations of Guyton covered only what would be today known asinorganic compounds. With the massive expansion of organic chemistry in the mid-nineteenth century and the greater understanding of the structure of organic compounds, the need for a less "ad hoc" system of nomenclature was felt just as the theoretical tools became available to make this possible. An international conference was convened in
Genevain 1892 by the national chemical societies, from which the first widely accepted proposals for standardization arose."Bull. Soc. Chim. (Paris) '3"'(7), xiii. (1892)]
A commission was set up in 1913 by the Council of the International Association of Chemical Societies, but its work was interrupted by
World War I. After the war, the task passed to the newly formed International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, which first appointed commissions for organic, inorganic and biochemical nomenclature in 1921 and continues to do so to this day.
Types of nomenclature
For inorganic compounds there are a number of different ways in which compounds can be named. These are compositional, substitutive and additive. The different methods of nomenclature are covered in the article
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry 2005, which summarises the latest IUPAC recommendations.
Examples of compositional names are:
* PCl5 phosphorus pentachloride
* Ca2P3 dicalcium triphosphideAn alternative method uses the oxidation state on the metal in place of suffices e.g.:
* SnCl2, tin(II) chloride as an alternative to tin dichloride.
This naming method generally follows established IUPAC organic nomenclature. Hydrides of the main group elements (groups 13-17) are given -ane base names, e.g. borane, BH3, phosphane, PH3 (N.B. not phosphine). The compound PCl3 would be named substitutively as trichlorophosphane.
This naming method has been developed principally for coordination compounds although it can be more widely applied. An example of its application is:
* [CoCl(NH3)5] Cl2 pentaamminechloridocobalt(2+) chlorideNote that ligands such as chloride become chlorido- rather than chloro as in substitutive naming.
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry 2005
List of chemical compounds with unusual names
* [http://www.iupac.org/reports/provisional/abstract04/connelly_310804.html IUPAC Provisional Recommendations for the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (2004)] (online draft of an updated version of the "Red Book")
* [http://www.acdlabs.com/iupac/nomenclature/ IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry] (online version of the "Blue Book")
* [http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/ IUPAC Recommendations on Organic & Biochemical Nomenclature, Symbols, Terminology, etc.] (includes IUBMB Recommendations for biochemistry)
* [http://www.iupac.org/reports/1993/homann/index.html IUPAC Abbreviated list of quantities, units and symbols in physical chemistry] (online version of the "Green Book")
* [http://www.iupac.org/publications/compendium/index.html IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology] (online version of the "Gold Book", from
* [http://www.chemsoc.org/cgi-shell/empower.exe?DB=goldbook IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology] (online version of the "Gold Book", from the RSC, allows free text searching.)
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