Architecture of Canada
The architecture of Canada is, with the exception of that of the
First Nations, closely linked to the techniques and styles developed in Europe and the United States. However, design has long needed to be adapted to Canada's climate and geography, and at times has also reflected the uniqueness of Canadian culture.
Climate and geography
Canada's geography is highly diverse, and there are thus important differences in architecture. In most of Canada building materials are abundant, and the price of lumber and stone are low. The major exception are the prairie and the far north, where wood is in short supply. In the early history of the prairies the shortage of wood led to farm houses b as in the rest of the country. In the far north transportation costs of all goods are extremely high, and any construction project is expensive.
For the most part Canada is secure from major
natural disastersthat affect the architecture of other nations. However, the Canadian climate needs to be taken into account for every structure. All buildings need to be well insulated to protect their inhabitants against the extreme cold of the long winters. Buildings must be designed to survive the repeated cycle of freezing and thawing that can shatter stone and move buildings off their foundations. In most of Canada, buildings must also be able to survive the heavy weight of snow, which can collapse certain structures. In coastal British Columbia, the region's heavy rainfall is a factor in weatherproofing buildings, and ignoring it can have expensive consequences.
Prior to the arrival of Europeans the
First Nationslived in a wide array of structures. The semi-nomadic peoples of the Maritimes, Quebec, and Northern Ontario, such as the Mi'kmaq, Cree, and Algonquingenerally lived in wigwams. These were wood framed structures, covered with an outer layer of bark, reeds, or woven mats. In the Northeast United States the most common form of the wigwam was a dome, in Canada a cone shape was more common. These groups changed locations every few weeks or months. They would take the outer layer of the wigwam with them, and leave the heavy wood frame in place. The frame could be reused if the tribe returned to the location at a later date.
Further south, in what is today Southern Ontario and Quebec the
Iroquoissociety lived in permanent agricultural settlements holding several hundred to several thousand people. The standard form of housing was the long house. These were large structures, several times longer than they were wide holding a large number of people. They were built with a frame of saplings or branches, covered with a layer of bark or woven mats.
On the Prairies the standard form of life was a nomadic one, with the people often moving to a new location each day to follow the
bisonherds. Housing thus had to be portable, and the tipiwas developed. The tipi consisted of a thin wooden frame and an outer covering of animal hides. The structures could be quickly erected, and were light enough to transport long distances.
In the Interior of British Columbia the standard for of home was the semi-permanent
pit house, thousands of relics of which, known as quiggly holesare scattered across the Interior landscape. These were structures shaped like an upturned bowl, placed on top of a three of four foot deep pit. The bowl, made of wood, would be covered with an insulating layer of earth. The house would be entered by climbing down a ladder at the centre of the roof. See Quiggly hole.
Some of the most impressive First Nations architecture was that of the settled people of the west coast such as the
Haida. These people used advanced carpentryand joineryskills to construct large houses of redcedar planks. These were large square, solidly built houses. The most advanced design was the six beam house, named for the number of beams that supported the roof. The front of each house would be decorated with a heraldric pole, the pole and sometimes the house would be brightly painted with artistic designs.
In the far north, where wood was scarce and solid shelter essential for survival, several unique and innovative architectural styles were developed. One of the most famous is the
igloo, a domed structure made of snow, which was quite warm. In the summer months, when the igloos melted, tents made of seal skin, or other hides, were used. The Thule adopted a design similar to the pit houses of the BC interior, but because of the lack of wood they instead used whalebones for the frame.
Arrival of the Europeans
The first Europeans to inhabit what would become Canada were the French settlers of
New Franceand Acadia. The initial settlements at Port Royaland Quebec Citywere most concerned with defence, against both First Nations and the English. For most of the early history of Quebec city it was dominated by the large fortress and outer walls. The city was divided into two sections. The Upper Town was home to the fortress, Intendant's house, and churches, these structures were built of stone in imitation of the Baroque architecturethen popular in France. The Lower Town consisted of densely packed structures on narrow streets, and was the commercial centre and home to the workers.
The settlers of the rural areas along the St. Lawrence largely came from
Normandy, and the houses they built echoed their roots. The surroundings forced enough differences that a unique style developed, and the house of the New France farmer remains a symbol of French-Canadian nationalism. These were rectangular structures of one storey, but with an extremely tall and steep roof, sometimes almost twice as tall as the house below. This roof design perhaps developed to prevent the accumulation of snow. The houses were usually built of wood, though the surviving ones are almost all built of stone. Landmarks in the rural areas were the churches and the mansion of the seigneurs. The seigneurs built much larger homes for themselves, but rarely were the manors ornate. Each parish had its church, often smaller copies of major churches in Quebec City or Montreal. A unique style of French-Canadian church thus developed.
The first English settlements in what would become Canada were in Newfoundland, growing out of the temporary fishing settlements that had been established in the sixteenth century. The first English settlement in the Maritimes was in Halifax, and then along the
South Shore. The style that developed in the Maritimes was very close to the architecture of New England. Trade links between the two areas were close, and many of the settlers in the Maritimes were from there. Some of the first houses erected in Halifax were actually prefabricated structures assembled in Boston or New York and shipped to the new settlement. Cape Cod style cottages were built throughout the region. However, the influence of the Foreign Protestantswas also felt as the architecture of the region also borrowed some techniques and styles from Germany and Switzerland.
Growth and expansion
The English speaking population of Canada grew dramatically with the influx of
United Empire Loyalistsafter the American Revolution. This doubled the population of the Maritimes and brought the first significant European population to what was soon Upper Canada. One of the most popular styles in the pre-revolutionary United States was Georgian, after the revolution this style fell out of favour due to its association with the colonial regime, but the Loyalists embraced the style as an overt symbol of their loyalty. The style had also, however, fallen out of style in Britain, and Canada was alone in embracing Georgian architecture for much of the early nineteenth century.
In Lower Canada the Georgian style was employed by the English minority, but this minority dominated the commercial and political class. French-Canadian architecture kept many of its traditional forms, but also adopted some English styles. Throughout British North America the Georgian style was mostly used by the middle and upper classes, and also for institutional buildings such as churches and government structures. In rural areas, and among the urban poor, simpler styles dominated. In the Maritimes the New England style cottages continued to be popular. For the first settlers in Ontario the
log cabinwas the standard first house. Logs were a byproduct of the need the clear the land, and log cabins were cheap and easy to build. After a few years of farming it was typical to build a more elegant farmhouse. The most common design was the Ontario Style House, which consisted of a rectangular wood building with the main gableover the short sides, and a smaller gable over the main entrance.
The pattern of building in the west was very different. The first settlements in much of the West were the forts of the
Hudson's Bay Companyand North West Companyand the cabins of the Metis. The next important presence was that of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The railway needed to build stations every 13 km of its 4200 km route in order to rewater the steam engines. Many of these stations became a nucleus of towns. These stations were built to standardized designs, with a number of different sizes for stations of differing importance. Other important monuments throughout the prairies were the grain elevators, and the banks which competed with each other by building ever more ornate structures.
While there is little wood native to the prairies, the railway enabled it to be imported at relatively low cost. It was still common to build a first temporary home out of
sod. For those who were unsure of how to build a home, an industry of predesigned and prefabricated homes sold by catalogue developed. A settler could simply order plans for a few dollars, or also order the precut lumber, and premade doors and windows. The Eaton's catalogue of 1910 offered homes from a shack for $165 to a nine room house for $1,025. These structures were erected across the prairies.
For some immigrants to the prairies, most notably the Ukrainians, there was not enough capital to buy a predesigned home, but since the immigrants were highly experienced with farming on the very similar Ukrainian steppe, houses identical to the peasant cottages of Eastern Europe were built across the
prairies. These cottages had characteristic flared thatched roofs and white plaster walls. Even more notable were the onion domed Ukrainian churches built across the prairies. Other groups such as the Hutteritesand Doukhoborsalso built unique structures. In the long run, however, the second and third generation immigrants tended to embrace the more British styles: the churches remained distinctly Eastern, but the houses largely conformed to the rest.
Victorian styles of architecture dominated in Canada from the min-nineteenth century up to the
First World War. Unlike during the previous centuries there was now easy communication between Canada and the architectural centres of the United States and Britain. It was common for Canadian architects to travel, study, and work in these other areas, and it was also increasingly common to hire foreign architects. This meant that ideas and styles developed elsewhere were quickly adopted in Canada. These were diverse styles, but one common element were attempts to revive ideas of the past. The first such style to come to prominence was the Gothic Revivalstyle, which first came to Canada in the 1830s. This became the dominant architectural style for churches, especially Anglican and Roman Catholic ones, which both embraced Gothic Revival as evidence of their conservatism. It also was used for scholastic structures, such as universities and some houses. Some of the most prominent Gothic Revival structures are the original Parliament Buildings in Ottawa, by noted architect Thomas Fullerwho in 1881 was appointed Chief Dominion Architect.
Other revived styles also became prominent.
Romanesque Revivalbuildings such as the British Columbia Legislature, Old Toronto City Hall, and Langevin Blockwere erected in this period. Neoclassicism became popular for banks, and for train station such as Toronto's Union Station. Several Second Empire Stylestructures were erected such as the National Assembly of Quebec, Manitoba Legislative Building, Montreal City Hall, and the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick. In the 1890s Queen Anne Stylearchitecture became the dominant one for upper and middle class houses across Canada. Early in the twentieth style the Tudor Stylebecame quite popular, especially on the West Coast.
In the period after the
First World War Canadian nationalismled to attempts to proclaim a unique Canadian architecture, distinct from that of Britain and the United States. One style promoted as distinctly Canadian was the Château Style, also known as Railway Gothic. This style first appeared in the late nineteenth century with grandiose railway hotels such as the Château Frontenacand Banff Springs Hotel. It was a mix of Victorian Gothic Revival with castles of the Loirein France. The railways were seen as symbols of Canada, and the mix of French and English ideas was also considered distinctly Canadian . During the Interwar years the Château style was used in several prominent public structures, such as the Supreme Court building. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie Kingwas a prominent supporter of the style. The third and current Hotel Vancouver, the last of the great Gothic railway hotels, was also completed after the start of World War II, though it had been under construction until 1929 (its predecessor was Italian Renaissance, a common style in late Victorian and Edwardian British Columbia).
The desire for a unique Canadian style also led to a revival of the Neo Gothic style during the interwar period. In part because of the prominence of the Parliament Buildings and the CPR's "railway Gothic", Gothic architecture had become closely associated with Canada and while the United States embraced
Art DecoCanadian architects returned to the Middle Ages for inspiration, by way of John Ruskin's writings on Neo-Gothic, the most Victorian of all styles. Thus, when the Centre Block of the Parliament burnt down it was rebuilt in a similar Gothic style to that that had been used sixty years earlier.
At the same time developments, especially those in United States, were not ignored. Toronto closely followed Chicago and New York as the home of skyscrapers employing new steel framed construction and
elevators. Toronto's influence on other Canadian cities, largely because of the control of capital (especially banks) meant that Western Canadian cities, particularly Vancouver, became filled with lesser versions of their counterparts in Toronto (e.g. TD Tower (Vancouver), Bentall Centre (Vancouver)which displaced the city's older and distinctly Edwardian flavour.
Modernism appeared in a number of guises. In the 1930s and 1920s the banks and insurance companies embraced
Modern Classicism. The Prairie Style, well suited to the Canadian terrain, became a popular one for homes and other structures, especially the designs of Francis Sullivan. In British Columbia, the bungalowstyle popular in British India became a fixture in local house design, and styles such as Arts and crafts, Queen Anne and emulations of Californian Spanish and other distinctly western North America styles were common.
In Vancouver during the 1950s and 1960s, modernist architectures inspired by
Frank Lloyd Wrightand fostered by the unique building materials and physical setting resulted in various daring new styles of housing, particularly on Vancouver's ritzy North Shore, featuring open beams, glass walls, and innovative floor plans. Vancouver architect Arthur Erickson, more known for grandiose exercises in instititutional concrete such as Robson Squareand Simon Fraser University, pioneered the British Columbia version of the "West Coast style", variations of which are also common in Washington, Oregon and California. Despite the impersonality of his large-scale projects, Erickson-designed houses are prized for their intimacy and taste, as well as their advantageous use of natural settings. A lesser, though much more common, form of modernist architecture developed during the 1960s was the Vancouver Special, a two-storey stuccoed box which took up most of a city lot, and typically featured two suites, one upstairs and one downstairs.
The movements and styles popular in the United States and Britain were not totally ignored in Canada. Several
Art Decostructures were erected, such as the Vancouver City Halland the Marine Buildingalso in that city and Commerce Court North in Toronto. The Georgian revival that was underway in the United States also made some incursions to Canada, as did diverse styles such as Egyptian Revivaland Spanish Colonial styles.
After the Second World War, the desire for unique Canadian styles faded as the International Style came to dominate the Canadian scene in the 1960s and 1970s. Many of the most prominent Canadian projects of this period were designed by foreigners, who won open contests. Prominent modernists such as
Ludwig Mies van der Roheand I.M. Peidesigned major works in Canada. At the same time top Canadian architects did much of their work abroad. One of the first and most prominent modernist structures was Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's Toronto-Dominion Centrewas one of the most prominent of the early glass panelled office towers, which would be imitated around the world. The International Style period coincided with a major building boom in Canada, and few restrictions on massive building projects. International Style skyscrapers came to dominate many of Canada's major cities, especially Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, and Toronto. In Montreal fewer such buildings were erected, but those that were such as Place Ville-Marieand Place Victoria, were large enough to dominate the skyline.
The modernist styles had even mixed results when applied to residential structures, such as the large
housing projects constructed in this era. Massive Canadian housing projects, such as St. James Town, were far less disastrous than their counterparts in the United States. The post war period saw the rise of massive and low density suburbssurrounding most Canadian cities, with Don Millsbeing Canada's first community constructed on rigidly modernist lines. One important development was the rise of shopping mallsthat became the commercial, and often social, centres of these suburban areas.
While the glass boxes of the International Style skyscraper were at first unique and interesting, the idea was soon repeated to the point of ubiquity. Architects attempted to put new twists into such towers, such as the
Toronto City Hall. By the 1970s a backlash was underway against modernism, and Canada was one of its centres. Prominent anti-modernists such as Jane Jacobsand George Bairdwere based in Canada.
The new Canadian architecture once again turned to the past. A prominent heritage preservation movement has developed, and most cities today have a heritage district of restored structures. Old factories and warehouses, rather than be demolished, have been refurbished, such as the
Queen's Quay Terminal, a former warehouse that was rebuilt into a mix of stores, condos, and a theatre. New buildings have also again begun to echo the past. Massey College's concrete Gothicism is an early example, and other structures have reflected the Chateau Style.
List of tallest structures in Canada
Gothic Revival architecture in Canada
Architecture of Toronto
Architecture of Montreal
Architecture of Ottawa
Architecture of Quebec City
List of buildings
Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada
*" [http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1SEC803225 Architecture in Canada] " "
The Canadian Encyclopedia"
*Kalman, Harold D. "A History of Canadian Architecture." Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1994.
* [http://www.collectionscanada.ca/structures/parliament/ Canada by Design: Parliament Hill, Ottawa] at Library and Archives Canada
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