Family life and children of Vladimir I
Until his baptism,
Vladimir I of Kiev(c. 958– 1015) was described by Thietmar of Merseburgas "a great profligate" ( Latin: "fornicator maximus"). He had a few hundred concubines in Kiev and in the country residence of Berestovo. He also had official pagan wives, the most famous being Rogneda of Polotsk. His other wives are mentioned in the Primary Chronicle, with various children assigned to various wives in the different versions of the document. Hence, speculations abound.
Norse sagas mention that, while ruling in Novgorodin his early days, Vladimir had a Varangianwife named Olava or Allogia. This unusual name is probably a feminine form of Olaf. According to Snorri Sturlusonthe runaway Olaf Tryggvasonwas sheltered by Allogia in her house; she also paid a large fine for him.
Several authorities, notably Rydzevskaya ("Ancient Rus and Scandinavia in 9-14 cent.", 1978), hold that later
skalds confused Vladimir's wife Olava with his grandmother and tutor Olga, with Allogia being the distorted form of Olga's name. Others postulate Olava was a real person and the mother of Vysheslav, the first of Vladimir's sons to reign in Novgorod, as behooves the eldest son and heir. On the other hand, there is no evidence that the tradition of sending the eldest son of Kievan monarch to Novgorod existed at such an early date.
Those scholars who believe that this early Norse wife was not fictitious, suppose that Vladimir could have married her during his famous exile in
Scandinaviain the late 970s. They usually refer an account in Ingvars saga(in a part called " Eymund's saga") which tells that Eric VI of Swedenmarried his daughter to a 'konung of fjordlying to the East from Holmgard'. This prince may have been Vladimir the Great.
Rogneda of Polotsk" Rogneda of Polotskis the best known of Vladimir's pagan wives, although her ancestry has fuelled the drollest speculations. See [http://www.genealogia.ru/ru/links/articles/drevnerus/index.htm this article] for extensive but tenuous arguments for her Ynglingroyal descent.
Primary Chroniclementions three of Rogneda's sons - Izyaslav of Polotsk(+1001), Vsevolod of Volhynia(+ca 995), and Yaroslav the Wise. Following an old Yngling tradition, Izyaslav inherited the lands of his maternal grandfather, i.e., Polotsk. According to the Kievan succession law, his progeny forfeited their rights to the Kievan throne, because their forefather had never ruled in Kievsupreme. They, however, retained the principality of Polotsk and formed a dynasty of local rulers, of which Vseslav the Sorcererwas the most notable.
During his unruly youth, Vladimir begot his eldest son, Sviatopolk, relations with whom would cloud his declining years. His mother was a Greek nun captured by
Svyatoslav Iin Bulgariaand married to his lawful heir Yaropolk I. Russian historian Vasily Tatischev, invariably erring in the matters of onomastics, gives her the fanciful Roman name of Julia. When Yaropolk was murdered by Vladimir's agents, the new sovereign raped his wife and she soon (some would say, too soon) gave birth to a child. Thus, Sviatopolk was probably the eldest of Vladimir's sons, although the issue of his parentage has been questioned and he has been known in the family as "the son of two fathers".
Malfrida"Vladimir apparently had a Czech wife, whose name is given by Vasily Tatishchevas Malfrida. Historians have gone to extremes in order to provide a political rationale behind such an alliance, as the Czech princes are assumed to have backed up Vladimir's brother Yaropolk rather than Vladimir. His children by these marriage were probably Svyatoslav of Smolensk, killed during the 1015internecine war, and Mstislav of Chernigov. Some chronicles, however, report that Rogneda was Mstislav's mother.
Another wife was a Bulgarian lady, whose name is given by Tatishchev as Adela. Historians have disagreed as to whether she came from
Volga Bulgariaor from Bulgariaon the Danube. According to the Primary Chronicle, both Boris and Glebwere her children. This tradition, however, is viewed by most scholars as a product of later hagiographical tendency to merge the identity of both saints. Actually, they were of different age and their names point to different cultural traditions. Judging by his Oriental name, Boris could have been Adela's only offspring.
Anna Porphyrogeneta, daughter of Emperor
Romanos IIand Theophano, was the only princess of the Makedones to have been married to a foreigner. The Byzantine emperors regarded the Franks and Russians as barbarians, refusing Hugues Capet's proposals to marry Anna to his son Robert I, so the Baptism of Kievan Ruswas a prerequisite for this marriage. Following the wedding, Vladimir is said to have divorced all his pagan wives, although this claim is disputed. Regarded by later Russians as a saint, Anna was interred with her husband in the Church of the Tithes.
Anna is not known to have had any children. Either her possible barrenness or the Byzantine house rule could account for this. Had she had any progeny, the prestigious and much sought imperial parentage would have certainly been advertised by her descendants. Hagiographic sources, contrary to the
Primary Chronicle, posit Boris and Glebas her offspring, on the understanding that holy brothers should have had a holy mother.
Anna is known to have predeceased Vladimir by four years.
Thietmar of Merseburg, writing from contemporary accounts, mentions that Boleslaw I of Polandcaptured Vladimir's widow during his raid on Kievin 1018. The historians long had no clue as to identity of this wife. The emigre historian Nicholas Baumgarten, however, pointed to the controversial record of the "Genealogia Welforum" and the "Historia Welforum Weingartensis" that one daughter of Count Kuno von Oenningen (future Duke Konrad of Swabia) by "filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris" ( Otto the Great's daughter; possibly Rechlinda Otona [Regelindis] , claimed by some as illegitimate daughter and by others legitimate, born from his first marriage with Edith of Wessex) married "rex Rugorum" (king of Russia). He interpreted this evidence as pertaining to Vladimir's last wife.
It is believed that the only child of this alliance was Dobronega, or Maria, who married
Casimir I of Polandbetween 1038and 1042. As her father Vladimir died about 25 years before that marriage and she was still young enough to bear at least five children, including two future Polish dukes ( Boleslaw II of Poland, who later became a king, and Wladyslaw Herman), it is thought probable that she was Vladimir's daughter by the last marriage.
Some sources claimed Agatha, the wife of
Edward the Exileof England, was another daughter of this marriage and full-sister of Dobronegra. Their marriage took place by the same time of Dobronegra's wedding (the date of birth of her first child support this) and this maybe because was double wedding of both sisters. This can resolve the question about the connection between Agatha and the Holy Roman Empire claimed by several medieval sources.
There is also a case for Yaroslav's descent from Anna. According to this theory,
Nestor the Chroniclerdeliberately represented Yaroslav as Rogneda's son, because he systematically removed all information concerning Kievan ties with Byzantium, spawning pro-Varangian bias (see Normanist theoryfor details). Proponents allege that Yaroslav's true age was falsified by Nestor, who attempted to represent him as 10 years older than he actually had been, in order to justify Yaroslav's seizure of the throne at the expense of his older brothers.
Primary Chronicle, for instance, states that Yaroslav died at the age of 76 in 1054(thus putting his birth at 978), while dating Vladimir's encounter and marriage to Yaroslav's purported mother, Rogneda, to 980. Elsewhere, speaking about Yaroslav's rule in Novgorod (1016), Nestor says that Yaroslav was 28, thus putting his birth at 988. The forensic analysis of Yaroslav's skeleton seems to have confirmed these suspicions, estimating Yaroslav's birth at ca. 988-990, after both the Baptism of Kievan Rusand Vladimir's divorce of Rogneda. Consequently, it is assumed that Yaroslav was either Vladimir's natural son born after the latter's baptism or his son by Anna.
Had Yaroslav an imperial Byzantine descent, he likely would not have stinted to advertise it. Some have seen the willingness of European kings to marry Yaroslav's daughters as an indication of this imperial descent. Subsequent Polish chroniclers and historians, in particular, were eager to view Yaroslav as Anna's son. Recent proponents invoke
onomasticarguments, which have often proven decisive in the matters of medieval prosopography. It is curious that Yaroslav named his elder son Vladimir (after his own father) and his eldest daughter Anna (as if after his own mother). Also, there is a certain pattern in his sons having Slavic names (as Vladimir), and his daughters having Greek names only (as Anna). However, in the absence of better sources, Anna's maternity remains a pure speculation.
Vladimir had several children whose maternity cannot be established with certainty. These include two sons, Stanislav of Smolensk and Sudislav of Pskov, the latter outliving all of his siblings. There is also one daughter, named Predslava, who was captured by Boleslaw I in Kiev and taken with him to
Polandas a concubine. Another daughter, Premyslava, is attested in numerous (though rather late) Hungarian sources as the wife of Duke Ladislaus, one of the early Arpadians.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Life and Fate — infobox Book | name = Life and Fate title orig = translator = author = Vasily Grossman illustrator = cover artist = country = U.S.S.R. language = Russian series = genre = publisher = release date = media type = pages = isbn = preceded by =… … Wikipedia
POLITICAL LIFE AND PARTIES — Introduction It was largely due to the existence of the pre state political parties, which had conducted intensive political activities for almost half a century within the framework of the yishuv , under the British Mandate for Palestine, that… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Vladimir I of Kiev — Infobox Saint name=Saint Vladimir of Kiev birth date=c. 958 death date=1015 feast day=July 15 venerated in=Anglicanism Eastern Orthodoxy Lutheranism Roman Catholicism imagesize=250px caption=Golden coin of Vladimir, with his portrait and personal … Wikipedia
Vladimir Nabokov — This article is about the novelist. For his father, the politician, see Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov. This name uses Eastern Slavic naming customs; the patronymic is Vladimirovich and the family name is Nabokov. Vladimir Nabokov Nabokov in 1969 … Wikipedia
Vladimir Tismăneanu — (b. July 4, 1951) is a Romanian and American political scientist, sociologist, and professor at the University of Maryland, College Park. A specialist in political systems and compared politics, he is chair of the editorial committee (2004 2008)… … Wikipedia
Vladimir Chertkov — Vladimir Grigoryevich Chertkov ( ru. Владимир Григорьевич Чертков; sometimes transcribed as Chertkoff or Tchertkoff [As seen on the cover of [http://www.lib.sfu.ca/cgi bin/edocs/Doukhobor Collection?Display=108] ] ) (OldStyleDate|3… … Wikipedia
Vladimir Zhirinovsky — Vladimir Volfovich Zhirinovsky ( ru. Владимир Вольфович Жириновский, born April 25, 1946 as Vladimir Volfovich Eidelstein) is a Russian politician, founder and the leader of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR), Vice Chairman of the… … Wikipedia
Vladimir Lenin — Lenin redirects here. For other uses, see Lenin (disambiguation). Vladimir Ilyich Lenin Владимир Ильич Ленин … Wikipedia
Vladimir Putin — This name uses Eastern Slavic naming customs; the patronymic is Vladimirovich and the family name is Putin. Vladimir Putin Владимир Путин … Wikipedia
Vladimir Bougrine — ) was a russian painter.BiographyVladimir was the second child of two academic painters. His father, Alexander Bougrine, was an icon restorer and his painter mother Nathalie Anikina also worked at the Hermitage. He was brought up in two rooms at… … Wikipedia