Pyrrhuloxia

Pyrrhuloxia
Male in Tucson, Arizona, USA
Female Desert Cardinal
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Cardinalidae
Genus: Cardinalis
Species: C. sinuatus
Binomial name
Cardinalis sinuatus
Bonaparte, 1838

The Pyrrhuloxia or Desert Cardinal (Cardinalis sinuatus) is a medium-sized North American song bird found in the American southwest and northern Mexico. This distinctive species with a short, stout bill, red crest and wings, closely resembles the Northern Cardinal and the Vermilion Cardinal, all of which are in the same genus.

Contents

Taxonomy

The Desert Cardinal is one of three birds in the genus Cardinalis and is included in the family Cardinalidae, a group of passerine birds found in North and South America.

Its name of Pyrrhuloxia - once part of its latin name - comes from Greek terms describing its coloration (πυρρος = pyrrhos = reddish or orange) and the shape of its bill (λοξος = loxos = oblique).[1][2] The common name, Desert Cardinal, refers to it inhabiting the southwest, and often arid regions, of the North American continent.

Description

The Desert Cardinal is a medium-sized song bird where the length for both sexes is approximately 8.3 in (21 cm), while the average weight is 0.8–1.5 oz (24–43 g).[2]

The most obvious differences between the male Desert Cardinal and the Northern Cardinal are the former's largely coloring. The Desert Cardinal is predominantly brownish-gray with a red breast, a red mask, and a yellow parrot-like bill that is stout and rounded.[2] The females of the two species resemble each other much more closely, but the shapes of their bills are diagnostic. The songs of the two species are identical, though the Pyrrhuloxia's is not quite as loud. This cardinal retains the distinctive long pointed red crest present in all species.

Distribution and habitat

The Pyrrhuloxia is a year-round resident of desert scrub and mesquite thickets, in the U.S. states of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas and woodland edges in Mexico. It occupies the southwestern half of Texas, approximately the southern third of New Mexico, and southeastern region of Arizona. Its range flows further south inhabiting areas from the west to east coast of Mexico north of the Sierra Madre del Sur, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and Isthmus of Tehuantepec, whilst excluding the Sierra Madre Occidental. An individual of the species has reportedly been seen as far away from its dominant range as Costa Mesa, California in Orange County.[2]

This cardinal is relatively nonmigratory, though it may occasionally stray slightly north of its usual range. The Pyrrhuloxia prefers habitat along stream beds. In areas where the range of the Pyrrhuloxia and Northern Cardinal overlap, hybridization may occur between them. There seems to be no conflicts between the species as none have yet been reported.[2]

Ecology

In breeding season, songs are used to establish and defend territories. One song has a sharp, clear, wha-cheer, wha-cheer while another is characteristic of a metallic "quink." Females also sing, but they use softer and duller notes. A short cheep or chip is a regular contact call given by both sexes while foraging.

Diet

The Pyrrhuloxias diet consists of seeds, fruits and insects. While foraging the Desert Cardinal will snatch insects from trees as well as pick seeds from the stalks of predominantly grasses and like plants. It also seeks out cactus fruit for consumption. This bird is a benefit to cotton fields as it assists in eating populations of cotton worms and weevils.[3] This species of Cardinal also visits bird feeders and in the winter forage in huge flocks, sometimes numbering in the thousands.[2]

Reproduction

Breeding season for this cardinal usually begins in mid-March, ending in mid-August. As breeding season approaches, territories are established and defended by the male.[4] The male defends the territory by chasing away intruders and from a good vantage point, singing. Where both the Desert and Northern cardinal breeding territories overlap, no inter-species conflicts have been observed.[2]

The Desert Cardinal places its nest in dense shrub, often concealed. The nest is small and forms a bowl or cup-like shape made up of grass, twigs or bits of tree bark. Clutches of two to four eggs are most common while the eggs are whitish with specks of green or gray. During incubation period of two weeks, the male brings food to the female. At hatching the chicks are helpless and have a bright yellow bill with red lining around the mouth. The chicks fledge in approximately ten days while both male and female tend to the young.[5] The young bird can wait for up to a month before fully fledging, becoming independent and feeding the large flocks. During this period the bird will achieve complete growth. [6]

Relationship with humans

As large areas of the Pyrrhuloxia's habitat in its northern range have been lost to humans, unlike with the Northern Cardinal, the former's populations appear to be in a slight decline.[7]

Photo gallery

References

  • BirdLife International (2004). Cardinalis sinuatus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 10 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  1. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica. "desert cardinal". http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1111027/desert-cardinal. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Cornell Lab of Ornithology. "Pyrrhuloxia". Cornell University. http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Pyrrhuloxia/lifehistory. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  3. ^ The Aviary at Owls.com. "Pyrrhuloxia". http://aviary.owls.com/pyrrhuloxia/pyrrhuloxia.html. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  4. ^ University of Michigan Museum of Zoology: Animal Diversity Web. "Cardinalis sinuatus: pyrrhuloxia". University of Michigan. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cardinalis_sinuatus.html. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  5. ^ New Hampshire Public Television: NatureWorks. "Pyrrhuloxia - Cardinalis sinuatus". NHPTV. http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/pyrrhuloxia.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  6. ^ The Birds of North America - Online. "Pyrrhuloxia". NHPTV. http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/391/articles/introduction. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  7. ^ University of Michigan Museum of Zoology: Animal Diversity Web. "Cardinalis sinuatus: pyrrhuloxia". University of Michigan. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cardinalis_sinuatus.html. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • pyrrhuloxia — ☆ pyrrhuloxia [pir΄oo läk′sē ə, pir΄əläk′sē ə ] n. [ModL < Pyrrhula (< Gr pyrrhoulas, a red colored bird < pyrrhos, flame colored < pyr, FIRE) + Loxia, the crossbill genus < Gr loxos, crosswise + IA] a brownish gray and red… …   English World dictionary

  • pyrrhuloxia — noun crested grey and red bird of southwest United States and Mexico • Syn: ↑Pyrrhuloxia sinuata • Hypernyms: ↑finch • Member Holonyms: ↑genus Pyrrhuloxia * * * |pir(y)ə+ noun …   Useful english dictionary

  • pyrrhuloxia — papūginis kardinolas statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Cardinalis sinuatus; Pyrrhuloxia sinuatus angl. pyrrhuloxia vok. Schmalschnabelkardinal, m rus. попугайный кардинал, m pranc. cardinal pyrrhuloxia, m ryšiai: platesnis… …   Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

  • pyrrhuloxia — /pir euh lok see euh/, n. a cardinallike grosbeak, Cardinalis (Pyrrhuloxia) sinuatus, of the southwestern U.S. and Mexico, having a bill superficially resembling that of a parrot. [ < NL Pyrrhu(la) finch genus ( < Gk pyrrhoúlas a red bird, deriv …   Universalium

  • pyrrhuloxia — pyr•rhu•lox•i•a [[t]ˌpɪr əˈlɒk si ə[/t]] n. pl. lox•i•as orn a songbird, Cardinalis (Pyrrhuloxia) sinuatus, of the southwestern U.S. and Mexico, resembling the cardinal but with a red breast and gray back • Etymology: < NL, =Pyrrhu(la) finch… …   From formal English to slang

  • pyrrhuloxia — noun Any of several North American birds, of the genus Cardinalis, that have grey and red plumage …   Wiktionary

  • pyrrhuloxia — pyr·rhu·loxia …   English syllables

  • pyrrhuloxia — /pɪrəˈlɒksiə/ (say piruh lokseeuh) noun a small bird, Cardinalis sinuatus, of the family Fringillidae, inhabiting the south western US and Mexico, and having a bill superficially resembling that of a parrot. {New Latin, from Pyrrhu(la) finch… …   Australian English dictionary

  • Pyrrhuloxia sinuatus — papūginis kardinolas statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Cardinalis sinuatus; Pyrrhuloxia sinuatus angl. pyrrhuloxia vok. Schmalschnabelkardinal, m rus. попугайный кардинал, m pranc. cardinal pyrrhuloxia, m ryšiai: platesnis… …   Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

  • Pyrrhuloxia sinuata — noun crested grey and red bird of southwest United States and Mexico • Syn: ↑pyrrhuloxia • Hypernyms: ↑finch • Member Holonyms: ↑genus Pyrrhuloxia …   Useful english dictionary

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