Etrog is the
Hebrewname for the citronor "Citrus medica". This is the standard romanization of the original lettering אֶתְרוֹג, which is according to the Sephardicpronunciation. Some follow the Ashkenaziversion calling it "esrog" or "esrig", by others it is transliteratedas "athrog" or similar [See [http://lib.ucr.edu/agnic/webber/Vol1/Chapter4.html#acid The Citrus Industry] as a common example.] .
It is well known as one of the
four speciesused in the rituals associated with the Jewish holidayof Sukkot. In some period of time it was also regarded as a major Jewish symbol. Leviticus[http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0323.htm 23:40] refers to the "etrog" as "pri eitz hadar" (פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר), which literally means, "a fruit of the beautiful tree." In modern Hebrew, "hadar" refers to the genus citrus, while Nahmanides(1194 – c. 1270) suggests that the word was the original Hebrew name for the citron. According to him, the word "etrog" was introduced over time, adapted from the Aramaic. The Arabic name for the citron fruit, "itranj" (اترنج), mentioned in hadithliterature, is also associated with the Hebrew.
After its main role in the ritual on Sukkot, it is a common Ashkenazi custom to eat the etrog on
Tu Bishvatin form of a sugared fruit soup which is also including quince[ [http://www.cyber-kitchen.com/rfcj/SPICESandCONDIMENTS/Citron_EtrogEsrog_JamJelly_-_pareve.html Recipe] ] , or as succade. By this time, they are praying to The Almighty to merit a beautiful Etrog for the upcoming Sukkoth. [http://www.aish.com/tubshvat/tubshvatinterests/Lchaim_to_the_Trees.asp Aish]
The fruit is ready to harvest when it reaches about six inches in length. Although for commercial use it is not harvested before January, when at optimum size – for ritual use it must be picked while still small, in order to reach the market in time. The optimal size is also the best for marketability, as by growing larger it may lose from its beauty. Since the citron blooms several times a season, fruit may be picked during July and August, and even in June.
Halachathe fruit must only reach the size of a hen's egg in order to be considered kosher, but larger sizes are preferred as long as they can be held with one hand. Marketwise, a nice size fetches a higher price, as long the fruit is also good in other aspects. If both hands are needed to hold it, it is still kosher, but less desirable.
According to Halacha the fruit should at least start to ripen and turn yellow before the first day of use. On the other hand, it is not nice and consequently not marketable when overripe, and colour turning to hot yellow. Therefore it is typically picked while still green, taking advantage of
ethylenegas to ripen the fruit in a controlled manner. The same gas is also naturally released from apples, so some growers simply put the fruits in the same box as apples.
In any case, one should be very careful while experimenting with ethylene, since it may cause the small peduncle stalk (the "oketz") to fall off, and render the etrog unkosher.
The "etrog" used in the
mitzvahof the four speciesmust be largely unblemished, with the fewest black specks or other flaws. Extra special care is needed to cut around the leaves and thorns that may scratch the fruit. It is also important to protect the fruit-bearing trees from any dust and carbon, which may get caught in the stomataof the fruit during growth, and may later appear as a black dot.
The etrog may differ in shape, since the several citron varieties used for that purpose, each bear fruits with a distinct form and shape. Furthermore, a specific variety or even a single tree may also bear fruit in several shapes and sizes. An etrog of completely round shape is not-kosher, whilst a slanted or bent specimen is permissible but not the best. The bearing branch must be arched down with care, in order to get the fruit growing straight in a downward position. Otherwise the fruit will be forced to make the curvature on its own body, while turned downwards because of its increasing weight. This practice must be performed very delicately in order not to break the stiff citron twig.
While many prefer the pyramid shape of
variety etrog, and others for the barrel shape of the Diamante, some look for an etrog with a gartel—a hourglass-like strip running around the middle, more commonly found on the Moroccan citron.
According to researchers, this "gartel" indicates when the bearing tree was infected by a certain
virusor viroid, which decreases the albedo on the specific spot. These viroids have been around since the time of Bar Kokhba (circa 130 CE), as obtained from the fact that archaeologists have unearthed a mosaicdepicting an etrog with a "gartel". [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=6wVtRfI0V8UC&pg=PA249&lpg=PA249&dq=variety+etrog&source=web&ots=MvX5dpgQNO&sig=zCdLJ40fvB4TzUvFKXMahitahvs Bar-Joseph, M. 2003. Natural history of viroids-horticultural aspects, pp. 246-251. In: Viroids. CSIRO Publication, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia.] ]
Only the etrog is found to be susceptible to these viroids, proving again that the etrog is genetically pure, and has not changed much over the centuries. [ [http://grande.nal.usda.gov/ibids/index.php?mode2=detail&origin=ibids_references&therow=796030 The Search for the Authentic Citron: Historic and Genetic Analysis; HortScienc 40(7):1963-1968. 2005] ]
An "etrog" with an intact "pitam" is considered especially valuable. A "pitam" is composed of a style (Hebrew: "dad"), and a stigma (Hebrew: "shoshanta"), which usually falls off during the growing process. However, varieties that shed off their "pitam" during growth are also kosher. When only the stigma breaks off, even post-harvest, it could still be considered kosher as long as part of the style has remained attached. If the whole pitam i.e. the stigma and style, are unnaturally broke off till the bottom, it is not kosher for the ritual use.
Many "pitams" are preserved today thanks to an
auxindiscovered by Dr. Eliezer E. Goldschmidt, formerly professor of horticulture at the Hebrew University. Working with the picloramhormone in a citrus orchardone day, he discovered to surprise that some of the Valencia oranges found nearby had preserved beautiful, perfect "pitams".
Usually a citrus fruit, other than an etrog or "citron hybrid" like the bergamot, does not preserve its "pitam". When it occasionally does, it should at least be dry, sunken and very fragile. In this case the "pitams" were all fresh and healthy just like those of the Moroccan or
Experimenting with the picloram in a laboratory, Goldschmidt eventually found the correct “dose” to achieve the desired effect: one droplet of the chemical in three million drops of water. This invention is highly appreciated by the Jewish community. [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9122(197101)58:1%3C14:SAITC(%3E2.0.CO;2-I Style Abscission in the Citron. "American Journal of Botany", Vol. 58, no 1. pp. 14-23] ]
In order for a citron to be kosher it must be pure, not grafted nor bred with any other
species, therefore only a few traditional varieties are used. In addition, the plantations must be under strict rabbinical supervision.
Citronvarieties traditionally used as Etrog, are the Diamante Citronfrom Italy, the Greek Citron, the Balady Citronfrom Israel, the Moroccan and Yemenite Citrons.A general DNAstudy was arranged by the world-renowned researcher of the etrog, Prof. Goldschmidt and colleagues, who positively testified 12 famous accessions of citron for purity and being genetically related.
As they clarify in their joint publication, this is only referring to the genotypic information which could be changed by breeding for e.g. out cross
pollinationetc., not about graftingwhich is not suspected to change anything in the genes. [A brief documentation of this study could be found at the [http://www.lal.ufl.edu/societies/ISC/gcgn/Appendix_9.PDF Global Citrus Germplasm Network] .] The Fingered and Florentine Citrons although they are also Citronvarieties or maybe hybrids, are not used for the ritual. The Corsican Citronis no longer in use even it was once used and sacred.
election and cultivation
In addition to the above, there are many rabbinical indicators to identify pure etrogs out of possible hybrids. Those traditional specifications were preserved by continues selections accomplished by professional farmers. [Article by Professor Goldschmidt, published by
Tehumin, summer 5741 (1981), booklet 2, p. 144]
The most accepted indicators are as following: 1) a pure etrog has a thick rind, in contrast to its narrow pulp
segments which are also almost dry, 2) the outer surface of an etrog fruit is ribbed and warted, and 3) the etrog peduncle is somewhat buried inward; a lemonor different citron hybrid is opposing one or all of the specifications. [Letter by rabbi Shmuel Yehuda Katzenellenbogenof Paduamidst the 16th century, printed in Teshuvat ha'Remo chapter 126]
A later and not so widely accepted indicator is the orientation of the seed, which should be pointing vertically by an etrog, except if it was strained by its neighbors; by a lemon and hybrids they are positioned horizontally even when there is enough space. [Shiurey Kneseth Hagdola and Olat Shabbat, cited by
Magen Avraham, Orach Chaimchapter 648, comment 23]
The etrog is typically grown from cuttings that are two to four years old, the tree begins to bear fruit when it is around four years old. [Chiri, Alfredo. (2002). [http://home.att.net/~oc_crfg/alfredo-sep02.htm Etrog] ] If the tree germinates from seeds, it will not fruit for about seven years, and there may be some genetic change to the tree or fruit in the event of seed propagation. [ [http://www.sunkist.com/products/growing_packing.asp Sunkist Website]
* [http://www.ultimatecitrus.com/pdf/tncitrus.htm Citrus Propagation by Ultimate Citrus]
* [http://www.ultimatecitrus.com/pdf/propagation.pdf Fact Sheet HS-86 June 1994 by the University of Florida]
* [http://faculty.fortlewis.edu/shuler_p/classeswebsites/propagation_2.htm CROP PROPAGATION II: SEXUAL PROPAGATION] ]
Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim, 648 and commentaries.
* [http://www.citrusvariety.ucr.edu/citrus/ethrog.html The Citrus Variety Collection] by the
University of CaliforniaRiverside
* [http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/citron.html Description of citron and varieties by Purdue University]
* [http://www.uoregon.edu/~dfalk/courses/ejud/synagogues_files/image018.jpgAncient Treasures and the Dead Sea Scrolls]
* [http://www.jewlicious.com/wp-content/uploads/TM/floor1.jpgMosaic depicting an "etrog"]
* [http://www.rigal.freeserve.co.uk/jewish/customs/indexpage.htm Lulav, Etrog, Shofar and Menorah, 2nd Cent. CE, Ostia Synagogue]
* [http://members.verizon.net/vze3xycv/images/coins/JewRvlts/1stRevLulavEtrogO.jpgAn antique Hebrew coin depicting an "etrog"]
* Etrog Varieties with pictures, from [http://www.esrogfarm.com/esrogvarieties/web/default/ Zeide Reuven Etrog Farm]
* More information on the etrog by [http://www.milechai.com/judaism/esrog.html Milechai.com]
* [http://www.chayas.com/sheela.htm#ethrog Agitation for the Yemenite Citron]
* [http://www.jewfaq.org/etrog.htm Judaism 101] Information and pictures.
* [http://www.jewishtoronto.net/page.html?ArticleID=113423 UJA of Greater Toronto]
* [http://www.forward.com/articles/11624/ "The Jewish Daily Forward"]
* Information on citron varieties [http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9360848/citron Concise.Britannica.com] or by [http://www.innvista.com/health/foods/fruits/citron.htm InnVista.com]
* Pictures [http://www.homecitrusgrowers.co.uk/citrusvarieties/uncommon3.html homecitrusgrowers.co.uk]
* DNA study [http://www.actahort.org/members/showpdf?booknrarnr=741_38 ActaHort]
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Look at other dictionaries:
ETROG — (Heb. אֶתְרוֹג), citrus fruit among the Four Species used on Sukkot. The Bible describes what is usually rendered as the fruit of a goodly tree (peri eẓ hadar; Lev. 23:40), traditionally interpreted as being the etrog (Citrus medica). The word… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Etrog — Der Etrog (hebräisch אתרוג, jiddisch Essrig) ist eine gelbgrüne Zitrusfrucht. Es handelt sich um eine Sorte der Zitronatzitrone (Citrus medica cedra). Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Etrog — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Etrog (homonymie). L’etrog (hébreu : אתרוג) est l un des cultivars de cédrat (Citrus medica), un … Wikipédia en Français
etrog — /es rohg, reuhg, et /; Seph. Heb. /et rddawg /; Ashk. Heb. /es rddohg /, n., pl. etrogs, etrogim Seph. Heb. /et rddaw geem /; Ashk. Heb. /es rddoh gim/. Judaism. a citron for use with the lulav during the Sukkoth festival service. Also, ethrog,… … Universalium
etrog — variant of ethrog … Useful english dictionary
ETROG, SOREL — (1933– ), sculptor, painter, poet, filmmaker. Etrog was born in Jassy, Romania. In 1950, he immigrated with his family to Israel. He studied at the Israel Institute of Painting and Sculpture in Tel Aviv (1953–55). From 1955 to 1958, he was a… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Etrog (disambiguation) — Etrog is the Hebrew word for the Citron or Citrus medica .* For the Jewish religious rite utilizing the fruit; see Etrog* For the particular variety of citron bearing this name; see Variety etrog* Etrog may refer also to the rest of citron… … Wikipedia
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Etrog (homonymie) — L’etrog est le nom hébreu du cédrat (citrus medica), utilisé dans la tradition lors de la fête de Souccot. En dérivent : le nom de Sorel Etrog, sculpteur juif canadien, né en Roumanie le prix Etrog, équivalent canadien des Oscars, ainsi… … Wikipédia en Français
Sorel Etrog — (born August 29, 1933) is a Romanian born Canadian sculptor.Renowned Canadian sculptor and painter Sorel Etrog was born in 1933, leaving his native Romania for Israel in 1950 where he studied at the Tel Aviv Art Institute. His first solo… … Wikipedia