Pope Martin V
Martin V Papacy began November 11, 1417 Papacy ended February 20, 1431 Predecessor Gregory XII Successor Eugene IV Orders Ordination 13 November 1417 Consecration 14 November 1417
by Jean Franczon Allarmet de Brogny
Created Cardinal 12 June 1405 Personal details Birth name Oddone Colonna Born c. 1368
Genazzano, near Rome, Papal States
Died 20 February 1431
Rome, Papal States
Other Popes named Martin Papal styles of
Pope Martin V
Reference style His Holiness Spoken style Your Holiness Religious style Holy Father Posthumous style None
He was born at Genazzano, the son of Agapito Colonna and Caterina Conti. He belonged to one of the oldest and most distinguished families of Rome. His brother Giordano became Prince of Salerno and Duke of Venosa, while his sister Paola was Lady of Piombino in 1441–45.
Oddone most likely studied at University of Perugia. He became apostolic protonotary under Pope Urban VI (1378–89), was created Cardinal Deacon of San Giorgio al Velabro by Pope Innocent VII (1405). In 1409 he took part in the Council of Pisa, and was one of the supporters of Antipope Alexander V; later he confirmed his allegiance to another antipope, antipope John XXIII, by whom his family obtained several privileges, while Oddone obtained for himself the vicariate of Todi, Orvieto, Perugia and Umbria. He was for this excommunicated by pope Gregory XII. Oddone was with John XXIII's following at the Council of Constance, and followed him in his escape at Schaffhausen on March 21, 1415. Later he returned to Konstanz, and took part in the process leading to the deposition of John.
He was elected pope on St. Martin's Day (November 11), 1417, at the Council of Constance by a conclave consisting of twenty-three cardinals and thirty delegates of the council, which, after deposing (1410–15), had long been divided by the conflicting discourses of Pope Gregory XII (1406–15) and antipope Benedict XIII (1394–1423).
His first act after his election was to publish a brief that confirmed all the regulations made by his predecessors regarding the papal chancery, regulations which had long been the subject of complaints. When the "nations" of the council pressed their plans for reform, Martin V submitted a counter-scheme and ultimately entered into negotiations for separate concordats, for the most part vague and illusory, with the Holy Roman Empire, England, and France.
He left Konstanz at the close of the council (May 1418), but travelled slowly through Italy, lingered at Florence. His authority in Rome was represented by his brother Giordano, who had fought under Muzio Attendolo against the condottiero Braccio da Montone. The pope at the time ruled only Rome (when not rebellious) and its neighborhood: Braccio held Umbria, Bologna was an independent commune, while much of Romagna and the Marche were held by local "vicars", which were in fact petty hereditary lords. In particular, Martin confirmed Giorgio Ordelaffi in Forlì, Ludovico Alidosi in Imola, Malatesta IV Malatesta in Rimini, and Guidantonio da Montefeltro in Spoleto, who would later marry the pope's nephew Caterina Colonna. In exchange with the recognition of Joan II of Naples, Martin obtained the restitution of Benevento, several fiefs in the Kingdom of Naples for his relatives and, above all, that Muzio Attendolo, then hired by the Neapolitans, should leave Rome. Martin, after a long stay in Florence, was thus able to Rome in September 1420.
In that period, in 1418, a synod, convoked by the Jews in Forlì, sent a deputation with costly gifts to the new pope, Martin V, asking that he abolish the oppressive laws promulgated by antipope Benedict XIII and that he grant the Jews those privileges which had been accorded them under previous popes. The deputation succeeded in its mission. In 1419-1420 Martin had diplomatic contacts with the Byzantine emperor Manuel II, who was invoking a council in Constantinople as a move to reduce the pressure from the Ottoman Turks. The pope, on 12 July 1420, conceded indulgence to any who would contribute to a crusade against the latter, which would be led by the King of the Romans, Sigismund. In the same year Martin obtained a reduction of the autonomy of the commune of Bologna, whose finances would be thenceforth under the authority of a papal treasurer. He also ended the war with Braccio da Montone, in exchange of his recognition as vicar, and reconciled with the deposed John XXIII, to whom he gave the title of Cardinal of Tusculum.
During his permanence in Rome, he moved his residence from St. Peter to Santa Maria Maggiore and, from 1424, the Basilica of Santi Apostoli near the family's palace. He also frequently sojourned in towns held by his family in the Latium (Tivoli, Vicovaro, Marino, Gallicano and others). The main concern of Martin's first years of pontificate was the resumed war against Braccio da Montone from 1423. The following year, the combined Papal-Neapolitan army, led by Giacomo Caldora and Francesco Sforza, defeated him at the Battle of L'Aquila (2 June 1424); Braccio died a few days later.
Canon law prohibited interest upon a loan. To avoid this, annuities were paid, interest in effect but not in name. The dispute as to the legality of annuity contracts was brought before Martin V in 1423. He held that purchased annuities, which were redeemable at the option of the seller, were lawful. When the lawfulness of annuities was established, they were widely used in commerce; it seems that city states used them to raise compulsory loans from their citizens.
In accordance with the decree of Constance, confirmed by himself, ordering that councils should be held every five years, in 1423 Martin V summoned the council which met at Pavia and afterwards at Siena (the Council of Siena)—it was rather poorly attended, which gave the pope a pretext for dissolving it as soon as it had come to the resolution that "internal church union by reform ought to take precedence over external union". It was prorogued for seven years, and then met at Basel (the Council of Basel); shortly after its opening Martin V died of apoplexy.
He is buried in the confession of St. John Lateran Basilica in Rome.
Note on numbering
When the second Pope to take the name Martin was elected, there was confusion over how many Popes had taken the name before. It was believed then that there were three, so the second Pope named Martin was called Martin IV. Therefore, the third Pope named Martin was called V. But, in reality, those believed to be Martin II and Martin III were called Marinus I and Marinus II, although they are sometimes still known as Martin II and Martin III. This has advanced the numbering of all subsequent Popes Martin by two. Popes Martin IV–V are really the second and third popes by that name.
Pope Martin V and slavery
Slavery was commonplace in this era and was accepted by "almost everyone" with few arguing against it. During the 15th century, sentiment in Europe increasingly turned against the enslavement of Christians and the Church denounced such practices, but this did not extend to unbelievers. According to Burton (2007) Martin authorized a crusade against Africa in 1418 and this coupled with a later bull (1441) sanctioned the Portuguese trade in African slaves. In March 1425 a bull was issued that threatened excommunication for any Christian slave dealers and ordered Jews to wear a "badge of infamy" to deter, in part, the buying of Christians. In June 1425 Martin anathematized those who sold Christian slaves to Muslims. Traffic in Christian slaves was not banned, purely the sale to non-Christian owners. The papal bull of excommunication issued to the Genoese merchants of Caffa related to the buying and selling of Christians but has been considered ineffectual as prior injunctions against the Viennese, including the Laws of Gazaria, made allowances for the sale of both Christian and Muslim slaves. Ten black African slaves were presented to Martin in 1441 by Prince Henry of Portugal. Martin supported colonial expansion. Davidson (1961) argues that Martin's injunction against slavery was not a condemnation of slavery itself but rather it was driven through fear of "infidel power".
- Setton, Kenneth M. (1978). The Papacy and the Levant. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 0871691272. http://www.nytimes.com/1995/02/23/obituaries/kenneth-m-setton-80-scholar-and-author-on-medieval-europe.html.
- Burton, Keith Augustus (2007). The blessing of Africa. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 0830827625.
- Davis, David Brion (1988). The problem of slavery in Western culture. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0195056396.
- Davidson, Basil (1961). The African Slave Trade. James Currey Publishers. ISBN 0852557981.
- Semmes, Clovis E. (1996). Racism, health, and post-industrialism. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0275954285. http://www.emich.edu/public/daas/Faculty.htm.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica 9th edition
- ^ a b c d e f g h i [http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/papa-martino-v_(Dizionario-Biografico) Page at the Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Enciclopedia Italiana.
- ^ Catholic Encyclopedia
- ^ Lumley's Treatise upon the Law of Annuities and Rent Charges, 1st ed, 1833
- ^ Affirmed by Pope Calixtus III, preserved 25 ATR 388 in the Corp Jur Canon Extra III tit 5.
- ^ a b "The Papacy and the Levant", p. 46
- ^ Burton, p. 197
- ^ "The problem of slavery in Western culture, P. 100"
- ^ "Slavery and the Catholic Church", John Francis Maxwell, p. 49, Barry Rose Publishers, 1975
- ^ "The African Slave Trade", p. 41, Basil Davidson, James Currey Publishers, 1961, ISBN 0852557981
- ^ C. E. Semmes citing V.B Thompson 1987
- ^ "A history of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, 1450–1990", p. 144
- ^ Davidson 1961, P. 100 fn 8
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