Alexandria expedition of 1807

Warbox
conflict=Alexandria expedition of 1807
partof=the


caption=
place=Egypt
reason=The British forces wanted to secure a base of operations in the strategically important Mediterranean Sea.
result=British forces defeated and Mohammed Ali siezed power in Egypt.
territory=Alexandria and North of Egypt
combatant1=.
combatant2=
commander1=General Alexander Mackenzie-Fraser
commander2=Muhammad Ali and Omar Makram
strength1=2,500 regulars
strength2=Unknown
casualties1=900
casualties2=Unknown|

The Alexandria expedition of 1807 was an operation by the Royal Navy and the British Army during the Anglo-Turkish War (1807–1809) of the Napoleonic Wars to capture Alexandria in Egypt with the purpose of securing a base of operations against the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean Sea. It was a part of a larger strategy against the Ottoman-French alliance of the Ottoman Sultan Selim III. [p.25, Olson, Shadle] The people of Alexandria, being disaffected towards Muhammad Ali, opened gates of the city to the British forces, allowing for one of the easiest conquests of a city by the British forces during the Napoleonic Wars. However, due to lack of supplies, and inconclusive operations against the Egyptian forces, the Expedition was forced to embark the transports again, and leave Alexandria not having reached any specific goals towards influencing the Ottoman Empire's improving relations with France.

The Expedition commences

The Expedition begun during the mid-February 1807 when a force of British troops deployed in Calabria and Sicily was ordered by General Fox in Messina [p.684, Yeo] to embark on transports with a mission rumoured to be destined for Constantinople while Sir Duckworth, appointed second in command of the Mediterranean Fleet, sailed for Constantinople, but he failed to provide effective support for Dmitry Senyavin's Imperial Russian Navy in the Dardanelles Operation. After departure from Constantinople, as an Admiral of the White Squadron [pp.108-122, Lysons] he was to rendezvous with the transports in Aboukir Bay. However, by 17 March the fleet of transports with nearly 5,000 British troops on embarked board approached off Alexandria under the command of General Alexander Mackenzie-Fraser. [p.141, Scott]

Occupation of Alexandria

The appearance of the British transports off Alexandria was unexpected, and two Ottoman frigates (a 40 and 34 guns) and a corvette (16 guns) were taken as prizes on 20 March by HMS "Tigre". [p.609, The Literary Panorama] HMS "Apollo" with nineteen other transports had separated on the 7 March, and were not present during the initial landings.The sole garrison of the city at this time consisted of Albanian troops, which the French Consul-General Bernandino Drovetti [A Piedmontese Colonel who had served in the Egyptian Campaign with Napoleon, p.76, Manley, Ree] attempted to force and repel the British landing west of the city. [p.609, The Literary Panorama] Despite the high surf, between almost 700 troops with five field guns, and 56 seamen commanded by Lieutenant James Boxer, were disembarked without opposition, near the ravine that runs from lake Mareotis to the sea [p.313, James] , and breach the palisaded entrenchments at eight in the evening on the 18 March. It was fortuitous that serious resistance was not offered because the lines stretching from Fort des Baines to Lake Mareotis included eight guns in three batteries, and thirteen guns in the fort on the right flank. [p.609, The Literary Panorama] British casualties were light, however the Pompey Gate [also known as the "Pompey's Pillar"] was barricaded and defended by about 1,000 troops and armed residents, forcing British troops to take up a camp to the southward in the vicinity. Two detachments were sent to occupy the Aboukir Castle, and the "Cut", Qaitbay Citadel, a castle in Alexandria between lakes Maadia and Mareotis, to prevent Ottoman reinforcements reaching the city. On the next day 20 March the rest of the transports appeared off Alexandria, and an Arab messenger was sent with an offer of Capitualtion that was accepted by the city authorities. Vice-Admiral of the Blue Squadron Sir John Thomas Duckworth's also appeared on the 22 March [p.609, The Literary Panorama] off Alexandria in his flag on HMS "Royal George" [ [http://genealogy.darlingranges.com/tree/georgethom.php] George Thom] and a part of his squadron [p.313, James] , further bolstering the confidence of the British troops. On the occupation of the city Fraser and his staff first heard of the death of Muhammad Bey al-Alfi, upon whose co-operation they had founded their hopes of further success; and messengers were immediately despatched to his successor and to the other local Beys, inviting them to Alexandria. The British Resident, Major Missett, with support from Sir Duckworth, was able to convince General Mackenzie-Fraser of the importance of occupying Rosetta (Reshee'd) and Rahmanieh (Er-Rahhma'nee'yeh) to secure supplies for Alexandria because they controlled the canal by which supplies were brought to the city via the Nile. [p.308, Bell, Balbis]

Attempts to supply the expedition

The 1,500 troops of the 31st regiment and the Chasseurs Britanniques were detached, accompanied by a section of Royal Artillery under Major-General Patrick Wauchope [of Edmonston] and Brigadier-General Meade, on the mission to secure the Abourmandur Heights [heights of Caffarille and Cretin] outside the city [p.595, The Monthly Magazine] and entered Rosetta without encountering any opposition; but as soon as they had dispersed among the narrow streets, the garrison opened a deadly fire on them from the latticed windows and the roofs of the houses. They effected a retreat on Aboukir and Alexandria, after a very heavy loss of General Wauchope, three other officers and 185 killed, and General Meade, nineteen other officers and 281 wounded. [p.520, Russell, Jones] The heads of the slain were fixed on stakes on the sides of the road crossing the Ezbekia in Cairo. [p.19,Lane, Thompson] [p.76, Manley, Ree]

Manoeuvring against Muhammad Ali

Muhammad Ali, meanwhile, was conducting an expedition against the Beys in Upper Egypt, and he later defeated them near Assiut, when he heard of the arrival of the British. In great alarm lest the beys should join them, especially as they were far north of his position, he immediately sent messengers to his rivals, promising to comply with all their demands if they should join in expelling the invaders. This proposal being agreed to, both armies marched towards Cairo on opposite sides of the river.

Occupation of Rosetta

The possession of Rosetta being deemed indispensable, Brigadier-Generals Sir William Stewart and Colonel Oswald were despatched there with 2,500 men. However a deputy of Muhammad Ali, Umar Makram, had begun to rally the local population and bring troops from Cairo in the attempt to slow the British advance towards the capital of Egypt. They fought a running battle for fifteen days against superior Turkish forces before being ordered to withdraw, including thirteen day cannonade of the town which was continued without effect. [p.19,Lane, Thompson] On April 20, news arrived from the advanced guard at Al Hamed of 50-60 large vessels with reinforcements joining the besieged by Nile [p.520, Russell, Jones] , and General Stewart was compelled to retreat. [p.26, Olson, Shadle] A dragoon was despatched to Lieutenant-colonel Macleod, commanding at Al Hamed, also with orders to fall back. [p.19,Lane, Thompson] The messenger, however, was unable to penetrate to the British position. On 21 April, the advanced guard consisting of a detachment of the 31st, two companies of the 78th, one of the 35th, and De Rolls regiment, with a picquet of dragoons, the whole mustering 733 men, was surrounded [p.19,Lane, Thompson] , and, after a gallant resistance, the survivors, who had expended all their ammunition, became prisoners of war. [p.7, Hassan, Fernea] General Stewart regained Alexandria with the remainder of his force, having lost, in killed, wounded and missing, over 900 men. [p.520, Russell, Jones] Some hundreds of British heads were now exposed on stakes in Cairo, and the prisoners were marched between these mutilated remains of their countrymen. [p.19,Lane, Thompson] However, this time the British prisoners were well treated, and officers were given the comforts of quarters in the Citadel. [p.7, Hassan, Fernea]

iege of Alexandria

The defeat at Rosetta forces Mackenzie-Fraser to reconsider the position, and British troops were ordered to reoccupy Alexandria which was soon besieged by the Arab and Mamluk troops from Cairo. [p.26, Olson, Shadle] Using his feigned good will as a pretext, Muhammad Ali then offered to the British the freedom to receive supplies from Sir Duckworth's transports and a grain trade agreement with an added assurances of security for any trade routes to India in return for recognition of his independence from the Ottoman Empire. Although the grain agreement was accepted, and supplies continued to be delivered to the British troops in Alexandria, recognition of independence was not given by the British Government which had no intention to see the Ottoman Empire dismantled at this time. [p.26, Olson, Shadle]

Departure from Alexandria

Colonel Dravetti, now advising Muhammed Ali in Cairo, was able to persuade the dictator to release the British prisoners as a good will gesture, sparing them the usual fate of becoming slaves to their captors. [p.76, Manley, Ree] In September, when no further use could be gained from occupation of Alexandria, General Mackenzie-Fraser was permitted to surrender the city [p.25, Olson, Shadle] and withdraw to Sicily on the 25th. [p.520, Russell, Jones]

Expedition Order of Battle

The Royal Navy

HMS "Royal George" (110 guns) Vice-Admiral Duckworth (flag), Captain Richard Dalling Dunn

HMS "Repulse" (74 guns)

HMS "Pompee" (74 guns)

HMS "Thunderer" (74 guns)

HMS "Canopus" (80 guns)

HMS "Tigre" (74 guns) Captain Benjamin Hallowell [commanding the naval part of an expedition [http://www.aandc.org/research/sir_benjamin_hallowell_bio2.htm] Sir Benjamin Hallowell (1761 - 1834)]

HMS "Apollo" (38 guns) Captain Fellowes

HMS "Wizard" brig-sloop (16 guns) Captain Palmer
33 transportsThe British Army
detachment, Royal Staff Corps
detachment, Royal Artillery
detachment, Royal Engineers Sir John Burgoyne [p.287, Hart]
3rd squadron, 20th Dragoons
1st Battalion 31st Regiment of Foot
1st Battalion 35th Regiment of Foot
2nd Battalion 35th Regiment of Foot
2nd Battalion 78th Regiment of Foot

Regiment de Roll

Chasseurs Britanniques

Sicilian Regiment

ee also

*Muhammad Ali's seizure of power

Citations and notes

References

* Alsager Pollock, Arthur William, (ed.), "The United Service Magazine", Notes of an Expedition to Alexandria of the year 1807, H. Colburn [etc.] , 1837
* Scott, Walter, "The Life of Napoleon Buonaparte, Emperor of the French: With a Preliminary View of the French Revolution", vol.II, Carey, Lea & Carey, Philadelphia, 1827
* "The Monthly Magazine; or British Register", Vol.XXIII, Part I for 1807, July 1, Richard Phillips, London
* The Literary Panorama, Vol.II, Letter from Major General [Mackenzie-] Fraser to Viscount Castlereagh, London, Charles Taylor, 1807
* Manley, Deborah & Ree, Peta, "Henry Salt: Artist, Traveller, Diplomat, Egyptologist", Libri Publications Ltd., 2001
* Olson, James Stuart & Shadle, Robert, "Historical Dictionary of the British Empire", Robert T. Harrison, Alexandria, British occupation of (1807), Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996
* Hart, H.G., Captain 49th Regiment, "The New Annual Army Lists for 1848, Ninth annual volume, containing the dates of Commissions, and statement of the war services and wounds of nearly every officer in the Army, Ordnance and Marines", John Murray, London, 1848 (includes Militia List, and Imperial Yeomanry List)
* Russell, William & Jones, William, "The History of Modern Europe: With a View of the Progress of Society from the Rise of the Modern Kingdoms to the Peace of Paris, in 1763", Vol.III, Harper & brothers, New York, 1839
* Bell, James, "A System of Geography, Popular and Scientific: Or A Physical, Political, and Statistical Account of the World and Its Various Divisions", Vol.III, Archibald Fullarton and Co., Glasgow, 1832
* Hassan, Hassan & Fernea, Robert, "In the House of Muhammad Ali: A Family Album, 1805-1952", American University in Cairo Press, 2000
* Lane, Edward William & Thompson, Jason, "Description of Egypt: Notes and Views in Egypt and Nubia, Made During the Years 1825, -26, -27, and -28 ...", American University in Cairo Press, 2000
* James, William, "Naval history of Great Britain", Vol. IV, [http://www.pbenyon.plus.com/Naval_History/Vol_IV/Vol_IV_P_313.htm]
* Yeo, Richard R., "The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia", Routledge, 1999


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