Faulty generalization


Faulty generalization

Quote box
width=70%
align=center
quote="All generalizations are dangerous, even this one."
source=Alexandre Dumas, fils [ [http://www.quotedb.com/quotes/3341 All generalizations are dangerous, even this one. by Alexandre Dumas ] ]

A faulty generalization, also known as an inductive fallacy, is any of several errors of inductive inference:

Logic

The proportion Q of the sample h attribute A.

therefore

The proportion Q of the population has attribute A.

Such a generalization proceeds from a premise about a sample to a conclusion about the population.

Faulty generalization is a mode of thinking that takes knowledge from one group's or person's experiences and incorrectly extends it to another.

Inductive fallacies

* Hasty generalization is the fallacy of examining just one or very few examples or studying a single case, and generalizing that to be representative of the whole class of objects or phenomena.
*The overwhelming exception is related to the hasty generalization, but working from the other end. It is a generalization which is accurate, but tags on a qualification which eliminates enough cases (as exceptions); that what remains is much less impressive than what the original statement might have led one to assume.
*Biased sample
*Misleading vividness is a kind of hasty generalization that appeals to the senses.
*Statistical special pleading occurs when the interpretation of the relevant statistic is "massaged" by looking for ways to reclassify or requantify data from one portion of results, but not applying the same scrutiny to other categories.

References

ee also

*Association fallacy
*Package-deal fallacy
*Straw man


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Generalization — is a foundational element of logic and human reasoning. Generalization posits the existence of a domain or set of elements, as well as one or more common characteristics shared by those elements. As such, it is the essential basis of all valid… …   Wikipedia

  • Hasty generalization — is a logical fallacy of faulty generalization by reaching an inductive generalization based on insufficient evidence  essentially making a hasty conclusion without considering all of the variables. In statistics, it may involve basing broad… …   Wikipedia

  • Anecdotal evidence — The expression anecdotal evidence has two quite distinct meanings.(1) Evidence in the form of an anecdote or hearsay is called anecdotal if there is doubt about its veracity: the evidence itself is considered untrustworthy or untrue.(2) Evidence …   Wikipedia

  • Accident (fallacy) — The logical fallacy of accident, also called destroying the exception or a dicto simpliciter ad dictum secundum quid, is a deductive fallacy occurring in statistical syllogisms (an argument based on a generalization) when an exception to the… …   Wikipedia

  • Overwhelming exception — An overwhelming exception is a logical fallacy similar to a hasty generalization. It is a generalization that is accurate, but comes with one or more qualifications which eliminate so many cases that what remains is much less impressive than the… …   Wikipedia

  • Misleading vividness — is a term that can be applied to anecdotal evidence[1] describing an occurrence, even if it is an exceptional occurrence, with sufficient detail to permit hasty generalizations about the occurrence (e.g., to convince someone that the occurrence… …   Wikipedia

  • Statistical syllogism — A statistical syllogism is an inductive syllogism. Statistical syllogisms may use qualifying words like most , frequently , almost never , rarely , etc., or may have a statistical generalization as one or both of their premises. For example:… …   Wikipedia

  • Converse accident — The logical fallacy of converse accident (also called reverse accident, destroying the exception, or a dicto secundum quid ad dictum simpliciter) is a deductive fallacy that can occur in a statistical syllogism when an exception to a… …   Wikipedia

  • A dicto simpliciter — (Latin: from a maxim without qualification , meaning from a universal rule ) or ad dictum simpliciter (Latin: to a maxim without qualification , meaning to a universal rule ) are Latin phrases for a type of logical fallacy. A dicto simpliciter… …   Wikipedia

  • Cognitive distortion — Cognitive distortions are exaggerated and irrational thoughts identified in cognitive therapy and its variants, which in theory perpetuate certain psychological disorders. The theory of cognitive distortions was first proposed by Aaron T.… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.