Teenage pregnancy


Teenage pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy is defined as a teenage or underage girl, usually within the ages of 13-17, becoming pregnant. The term in everyday speech usually refers to women who have not reached legal adulthood, which varies across the world, who become pregnant.

The average age of menarche (first menstrual period) in the United States is 12.5 years old, though this figure varies by ethnicity [ [http://www.center4research.org/children11.html When Little Girls Become Women: Early Onset of Puberty in Girls] ] and weight, and first ovulation occurs only irregularly until after this. The average age of menarche has been declining and is continuing to do so. Whether fertility leads to early pregnancy depends on a number of factors, both societal and personal. Worldwide, rates of teenage pregnancy range from 143 per 1000 in some sub-Saharan African countries to 2.9 per 1000 in South Korea.Treffers, P.E. (November 22, 2003). [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=14669537&dopt=Abstract Teenage pregnancy, a worldwide problem] . "Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 147(47)", 2320-5. Retrieved July 7, 2006. ] UNICEF. (2001). PDFlink| [http://www.unicef-icdc.org/publications/pdf/repcard3e.pdf A League Table of Teenage Births in Rich Nations] |888 KB. Retrieved July 7, 2006. ]

Pregnant teenagers face many of the same obstetrics issues as women in their 20s and 30s. However, there are additional medical concerns for younger mothers, particularly those under 15 and those living in developing countries. [http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/328/7449/1152-a Pregnancy and childbirth are leading causes of death in teenage girls in developing countries] ] For mothers between 15 and 19, age in itself is not a risk factor, but additional risks may be associated with socioeconomic factors.Makinson, C. (1985). [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2431924&query_hl=21&itool=pubmed_docsum The health consequences of teenage fertility] . "Family Planning Perspectives, 17 (3)", 132-9. Retrieved May 29, 2006.]

Data supporting teenage pregnancy as a social issue in developed countries include lower educational levels, higher rates of poverty, and other poorer "life outcomes" in children of teenage mothers. Teenage pregnancy in developed countries is usually outside of marriage, and carries a social stigma in many communities and cultures. For these reasons, there have been many studies and campaigns which attempt to uncover the causes and limit the numbers of teenage pregnancies.The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. (2002). PDFlink| [http://www.teenpregnancy.org/resources/data/pdf/notjust.pdf Not Just Another Single Issue: Teen Pregnancy Prevention's Link to Other Critical Social Issues] |147 KB. Retrieved May 27, 2006.] In other countries and cultures, particularly in the developing world, teenage pregnancy is usually within marriage and does not involve a social stigma. [Population Council (2006) [http://www.popcouncil.org/publications/popbriefs/pb12(1)_1.html Unexplored Elements of Adolescence in the Developing World] "Population Briefs", January 2006, Vol. 12, No. 1. Retrieved April 18, 2007.]

Global incidence

References

Further reading

*cite book |last=Armstrong |first=Bruce |editor=Alex Gitterman |title=Handbook of Social Work Practice with Vulnerable and Resilient Populations |edition=2nd edition |year=2001 |publisher=Columbia University Press |location=New York, NY |isbn=023111396X |pages= |chapter=Adolescent Pregnancy |chapterurl=

*cite book |last=Checkland |first=David and James Wong |editor= |title=Teen Pregnancy and Parenting: Social and Ethical Issues |edition= |year=1999 |publisher=University of Toronto Press |location=Toronto, Canada; Buffalo, NY |isbn=0802042155 |pages= |chapter= |chapterurl=

*cite book |last=Dash |first=Leon |editor= |title=When Children want Children: The Urban Crisis of Teenage Childbearing |edition=1st Illinois paperback |year=2003, 1989 |publisher=University of Illinois Press |location=Urbana, IL |isbn=0252071239 |pages= |chapter= |chapterurl=

*cite book |last=Erickson |first=Pamela I. |editor= |title=Latina Adolescent Childbearing in East Los Angeles |edition= |year=1998 |publisher=University of Texas Press |location=Austin, TX |isbn=0292720939 |pages= |chapter= |chapterurl=

*cite book |last=Kaplan |first=Elaine Bell |editor= |title=Not Our Kind of Girl: Unraveling the Myths of Black Teenage Motherhood |edition= |year=1997 |publisher=University of California Press |location=Berkeley, CA |isbn=0520087364 |pages= |chapter= |chapterurl=

*cite book |last=Harris|first=Irving B. |editor= |title=Children in Jeopardy: Can We Break the Cycle of Poverty? |edition= |year=1996 |publisher=Yale Child Study Center: Distributed by Yale University Press |location=New Haven, CT |isbn=0300068921 |pages= |chapter= |chapterurl=

*cite book |last=Luker |first=Kristin |editor= |title=Dubious Conceptions: The Politics of Teenage Pregnancy |year=1996 |publisher=Harvard University Press |location=Cambridge, MA |isbn=0674217020 |pages= |chapter= |chapterurl=

*cite book |last=Rhode |first=Deborah L. |editor=Nancy Ehrenreich |title=The Reproductive Rights Reader |edition= |year=2007 |publisher=New York University Press |location=New York, NY |isbn=9780814722305 |pages= |chapter=Politics and Pregnancy: Adolescent Mothers and Public Policy |chapterurl=

*cite book |last=Seitz |first=Victoria |editor=Edward Zigler, Sharon Lynn Kagan, and Nancy Wilson Hall |title=Children, Families, and Government: Preparing for the Twenty-First Century |edition= |year=1996 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=New York, NY |isbn=0521242193 |pages= |chapter=Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting |chapterurl=

*cite book |last=Silverstein |first=Helena |editor= |title=Girls on the Stand: How Courts Fail Pregnant Minors |edition= |year=2007 |publisher=New York University Press |location=New York, NY |isbn=9780814740316 |pages= |chapter= |chapterurl=

External links

Organizations

* [http://www.teenagepregnancyunit.gov.uk Teenage Pregnancy Unit]
* [http://www.tcwf.org/health_issues/teen_pregnancy.htm The California Wellness Foundation Teenage Pregancy Prevention Program]
* [http://www.teenpregnancy.org National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy]
* [http://www.familyfocus.org.au Family Focus Australia - First Steps Program to support Teenage mothers and their children]

Articles

* " [http://www.plannedparenthood.org/library/TEEN-PREGNANCY/Reducing.html Reducing Teenage Pregnancy] " by Deborah Weiss
*" [http://www.scarleteen.com/reproduction/babynow.html I Want It Now!, or Why Becoming a Parent Should Never be Rushed] " by Heather Corinna
* [http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/search.tkl?q=teen+pregnancy&search_crit=fulltext&search=Search&date1=Anytime&date2=Anytime&type=form Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Teen Pregnancy]

Forums and support sites

* [http://www.babyandbump.com/teen-pregnancy/ Teenage pregnancy support and advice forum]
* [http://ehealthforum.com/health/teen_pregnancy.html Teenage pregnancy forum]
* [http://www.youngmommies.com/ The Young Mommies Help Site]
* [http://www.standupgirl.com StandUpGirl] : young mothers and pregnant teen peer support.
* [http://www.girl-mom.com Girl-Mom] : online community for young mothers.
* [http://www.ymtb.org Young Mums To Be] : educational program from British teens.
* [http://www.ywca.org.uk/youngmums YWCA England & Wales: Respect Young Mums]
* [http://teenpregnancy911.piczo.com/ Handbook for Pregnant Teens]
* [http://www.urhealthstyle.com/: Teen Health Support Site]
* [http://www.teenmomincollege.com/: Teen Parent Support and Information] "'


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