Torcello is a quiet and sparsely populated
islandat the northern end of the Venetian Lagoon. It is considered the oldest continuously populated region of Venice, and once held the largest population of the Republic of Venice.
After the downfall of the Roman Empire, Torcello was one of the first lagoon islands to be successively populated by those
Venetiwho fled the "terra firma" (mainland) to take shelter from the recurring barbarian invasions, especially after Attila the Hunhad destroyed the city of Altinumand all of the surrounding settlements in 452. Although the hard-fought Venetoregion formally belonged to the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravennasince the end of the Gothic War, it remained unsafe on account of frequent Germanic invasions and wars: During the following 200 years the Langobardsand the Franksfuelled a permanent influx of sophisticated urban refugees to the island’s relative safety, including the Bishop of Altino himself. In 638 Torcello became the bishop’s official see for more than a thousand years and the people of Altinum brought with them the relics of Saint Heliodorus, now the patron saintof the island.
Torcello benefited from and maintaining close cultural and trading ties with
Constantinople, after the fall of the western Roman Empire, but as a rather distant outpost of the Byzantine Empireit could establish "de facto" autonomy from the eastern capital.
Torcello rapidly grew in importance as a political and trading centre: In the
10th centuryit had a population of at least 10,000 people and was much more powerful than Venice. Thanks to the lagoon’s salt marshes, the salines became Torcello’s economic backbone and its harbour developed quickly into an important re-export market in the profitable east-west-trade, which was largely controlled by Byzantium during that period. Fortunately for the island of "rivus altus" (see Rialto), the lagoon around the island of Torcello gradually became a swampfrom the 12th centuryonwards and Torcello’s heyday came to an end: Navigation in the "laguna morta" (dead lagoon) was impossible before long and the growing swamps seriously aggravated the malariasituation, so that the population abandoned the worthless island bit by bit and left for Murano, Buranoor Venice. It now has a population of around 20 people.
The former splendour of Torcello’s numerous palazzi, its twelve
parishes and its sixteen cloisters has almost disappeared since the Venetians recycled the useful building material. The only remaining medieval buildings form an ensemble of four edifices.
Today's main attraction is the
Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta, founded in 639and with much eleventh and 12th century Byzantine work, including mosaics (e.g. a vivid version of the Last Judgement), surviving. Other attractions include the eleventh and 12th century Church of Santa Fosca, which is surrounded by a porticus in form of a Greek cross, and a museumhoused in two fourteenth century palaces, the "Palazzo dell'Archivio" and the "Palazzo del Consiglio", which was once the seat of the communal government. Another noteworthy sight for tourists is an ancient stone chair, known as " Attila’s Throne". It has, however, nothing to do with the king of the Huns, but it was most likely the podestà’s or the bishop’s chair.
Torcello is also home to a
Devil's Bridge, known as the "Ponte del Diavolo" or alternatively the "Pontecello del Diavolo" (devil's little bridge).
One of the most famous fans of the island’s decayed and contemplative charm was
Ernest Hemingwaywho spent some time there in 1948, writing parts of " Across the River and Into the Trees".
Notes and references
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?q=venice,+italy&ll=45.497203,12.415752&spn=0.012002,0.041096&t=k&hl=en Satellite image from Google Maps]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Torcello — Torcello, vue du nord de la lagune Géographie Pays … Wikipédia en Français
Torcello — Blick auf Torcello, Campanile Santa Maria Assunta Gewässer Lagune von Venedig … Deutsch Wikipedia
Torcello — Torcello. La Laguna de Venecia Torcello queda en la parte superior … Wikipedia Español
Torcello — (spr. Tortschello), Insel bei Venedig mit Kathedrale (im 7. Jahrh. erbaut), mit alten Malereien, Mosaiken u. Sculpturen … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Torcello — (spr. tschello), Insel in den Lagunen von Venedig, 9 km nordöstlich von Venedig, zur Gemeinde Burano gehörig, mit (1901) 192 Einw. Von der ehemals bedeutenden Stadt T. sind nur wenige Häuser und zwei Kirchen übrig: der Dom (Santa Maria), eine… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Torcello — (spr. tortsch ), Laguneninsel in der ital. Prov. Venedig, 130 E., Dom aus dem 7. Jahrh … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Torcello — Torcẹllo [ tʃ ], Laguneninsel vor Venedig, Italien. Dom (639 gegründet, im 9. Jahrhundert umgebaut, im 11. Jahrhundert erneuert, Vorhalle 14./15. Jahrhundert; Mosaiken, v. a. des 12. Jahrhunderts); Kirche Santa Fosca, Zentralbau (11.… … Universal-Lexikon
Torcello — ▪ Italy island village in the Laguna Veneta (Venice Lagoon) and an eastern environ of Venice, Italy. Founded in AD 452 by refugees from Altino on the mainland, the bishopric of Altino was transferred there in the 7th century. The island, a… … Universalium
Torcello — Sp Torčèlas Ap Torcello L Š Italija … Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė
Torcello — geographical name island Italy in Lagoon of Venice … New Collegiate Dictionary