- Defense (military)
Defense (or defence) has several uses in the sphere of military application.
Personal defense implies measures taken by individual soldiers in protecting themselves whether by use of protective materials such as armor, or field construction of trenches or a bunker, or by using weapons that prevent the enemy approaching them to initiate close combat. In close combat where blade weapons are used, defense refers to a specific armed fighting technique.
A defensive military doctrine implies operation of larger military forces from a largely defensive posture, which at the operational warfare scale assumes the form of defense in depth, and at strategic scale encompasses a large area of operations such as the Maginot Line by large parts of the French Army before World War II.
In military operations planning, a defensive strategy is the policy of preventing an attack, or minimizing the damage of an attack, by the forces assuming defense in strategic depth for preventing an enemy from conquering territory.
Defense is also a euphemism for war, used by governments to reflect their non-aggressive posture in their region which does not carry the negative connotation of war, such as Ministry or Department of Defense.
Within the scope of a national defense policy, defense is used to include most military issues.
Military science seeks to integrate all the meanings of defense into a coherent whole that seeks to understand and develop applied uses for all of the above meanings within a single national defense management structure.
Although defense of territory, territorial waters and national airspace is one of the functions of the governments of sovereign states in the modern world, Hans-Hermann Hoppe, Murray Rothbard, Morris and Linda Tannehill, and other anarcho-capitalist writers have opined that it could be more efficiently provided by private vendors.
Defense through the ages
Historically, it was generally true that defenders had an advantage over attackers. Battles commonly focused on sieges of important cities, allowing defenders to strengthen their position. They had the ability to make preparations for the battle to protect themselves from the enemy while making the enemy vulnerable, e.g. preparing positions such as trenches and fortifications or in more recent times laying obstacles such as land mines and tank traps. However, in encounters larger than the small scale, the attacker may often have the advantage, since they get to choose the time and place of battle. An attacker may concentrate their entire force on a small part of the defended area, while the defender is forced to spread their forces over the possible area of attack.
In the modern era, the defenders' advantage has been gradually reduced, due to factors like increased mobility of modern forces, better communication technologies, and increased protection of troops and equipment.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
military resources — Military and civilian personnel, facilities, equipment, and supplies under the control of a Department of Defense component … Military dictionary
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program — Military weather satellite controlled by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Also called DMSP … Military dictionary
Military Police Corps (Israel) — Military Police Corps Corps insignia Active 1944–present Country Israel … Wikipedia
Military of Afghanistan — Emblem of the Afghan National Army Founded 1709 Current form … Wikipedia
Military Advocate General — logo The Military Advocate General assists the Israel Defense Forces in imposing rules of conduct through legal advice, legal instruction, maintaining the mechanisms for military prosecution and legal defense, and fulfilling special legal tasks.… … Wikipedia
Military Rabbinate — Active 1948 Country Israel Allegiance Israeli Defense Force Type Religious services Role Infantry … Wikipedia
Military Intelligence Directorate (Israel) — Military Intelligence Directorate Directorate of Military Intelligence Hebrew: אגף המודיעין Common name Aman Agency overview Legal personality Governmental: Government agency … Wikipedia
Military Information Services — Wojskowe Służby Informacyjne overview Formed 1991 (1991) Preceding agencies Second Directorate for Intelligence and Counter intelligence Second Directorate of General Staff of the Polish Army Internal Military Service Diss … Wikipedia
Military Airlift Command — emblem Active 1966–1992 Country … Wikipedia
Defense Academic Information Technology Consortium — Logo Agency overview Formed May 1, 2008 Parent agency … Wikipedia