Performance improvement is the
conceptof measuring the output of a particular processor procedure, then modifying the process or procedure in order to increase the output, increase efficiency, or increase the effectivenessof the process or procedure. The concept of performance improvement can be applied to either individual performance such as an athlete or organisational performance such as a racingteam or a commercial enterprise.
Organisational development, performance improvement is the concept of organizational change in which the managers and governing body of an organisationput into place and manage a programme which measures the current levelof performance of the organization and then generates ideas for modifying organisational behaviorand infrastructurewhich are put into place in order to achieve a better level of output. The primary goals of organisational improvement are to improve organizational effectivenessand organizational efficiencyin order to improve the ability of the organisation to deliver its goods and/or services and prosper in the marketplaces in which the organization competes. A third area of improvement which is sometimes targeted for improvement is organisational efficacywhich involves the process of setting organizational goals and objectives.
Performance improvement at the
operationalor individual employeelevel usually involves processes such as statistical quality control. At the organisational level, performance improvement usually involves softer forms of measurement such as customer satisfactionsurveys which are used to obtain qualitative information about performance from the viewpoint of customers.
Performance is a measure of the results achieved. Performance efficiency is the ratio between effort expended and results achieved. The difference between current performance and the theoretical performance limit is the performance improvement zone.
Another way to think of performance improvement is to see it as improvement in four potential areas. First, is the resource INPUT requirements (e.g., reduced
working capital, material, replacement/reorder time,and set-up requirements). Second, is the THROUGHPUT requirements, often viewed as process efficiency; this is measured in terms of time, waste, and resource utilization. Third, OUTPUT requirements, often viewed from a cost/price, quality, functionality perspective. Fourth, OUTCOME requirements, did it end up making a difference.
Performance is an abstract concept and it must be represented by concrete, measurable phenomena or events in order to be measured.
Baseballathlete performance is abstract covering many different types of activities. Batting averageis a concrete measure of a particular performance attribute for a particular game role, batting, for the game of baseball.
Performance assumes an actor of some kind but the actor could be an individual person or a group of people acting in concert. The performance platform is the infrastructure or devices used in the performance act.
There are two main ways to improve performance: improving the measured attribute by using the performance platform more effectively, or by improving the measured attribute by modifying the performance platform, which in turn allows a given level of use to be more effective in producing the desired output.
For instance, in several sports such as
tennisand golf, there have been technological improvements in the apparatuses used in these sports. The improved apparatus in turn allows players to achieve better performance with no improvement in skill by purchasing new equipment. The apparatus, the golf club and golf ballor the tennis racket, provide the player with a higher theoretical performance limit.
Performance improvement can occur at different levels:
* an individual
* a team
Business performance managementand improvementcan be thought of as a cycle:
Planningwhere goals and objectives are established
Coachingwhere a managerintervenes to give feedbackand adjust performance
Performance appraisalwhere individual performance is formally documented and feedback delivered
* [http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/ Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute CMMI]
* [http://www.opm.gov/perform/sitemap.asp Office of Personnel Management]
* [http://www.petrexonline.com/publications/4-creating-a-performance-improvement-culture Creating a Performance Improvement Culture]
* [http://www.ispi.org International Society for Performance Improvement]
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