- Conquest of Mecca
Conquest of Mecca Part of the Muslim-Quraysh Wars Date 11 January, 630 CE Location Mecca Result Muslim victory and Quraish surrender Belligerents Muslims Quraysh Commanders and leaders Muhammad Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 Unknown Casualties and losses 0 0Campaigns led by Muhammad
Ghazwah (expeditions where he took part)
- Caravan Raids
- Dul Ashir
- Banu Qaynuqa
- Banu Nadir
- Invasion of Nejd
- Invasion of Badr
- 1st Jandal
- Banu Qurayza
- 2nd Banu Lahyan
- Banu Mustaliq
- Conquest of Fidak
- 3rd Qura
- Dhat al-Riqa
- Banu Baqra
Sariyyah (expeditions which he ordered)
- 1st Banu Asad
- 1st Banu Lahyan
- Al Raji
- Bir Maona
- Assassination of Abu Rafi
- 2nd Banu Asad
- 1st Banu Thalabah
- 2nd Banu Thalabah
- Dhu Qarad
- 3rd Banu Thalabah
- 1st Qura
- 2nd Jandal
- 1st Ali
- 2nd Qura
- Abu Bakr
- Banu Murrah
- Banu Uwal
- 3rd Fadak
- Banu Sulaym
- Banu Amir
- Dhat Atlah
- Abu Ubaidah
- Abi Hadrad
- 1st Khalid ibn Walid
- Demolition of Suwa
- Demolition of Manat
- 2nd Khalid ibn Walid
- Demolition of Yaghuth
- 1st Autas
- 2nd Autas
- Banu Tamim
- Banu Khatham
- Banu Kilab
- 3rd Ali
- Banu Udhrah
- 3rd Khalid ibn Walid
- 4th Khalid ibn Walid
- Abu Sufyan
- 5th Khalid ibn Walid
- 2nd Ali
- 3rd Ali
- Dhul Khalasa
- Army of Usama (Final Expedition)
Khalid ibn al-Walid
Campaigns in Armenia and Anatolia
According to the terms of the treaty of Hudaibiyah, the Arab tribes were given the option of joining either of the parties, the Muslims or Quraish. Should any of these tribes face aggression, the party to which it was allied would have the right to retaliate. As a consequence, Banu Bakr joined Quraish, and Khuza‘ah joined Muhammed. They thus lived in peace for some time; but ulterior motives stretching back to the pre-Islamic period, ignited by unabated fire of revenge, triggered fresh hostilities. Banu Bakr, without concern for the provisions of the treaty, attacked Banu Khuza'a in a place called Al-Wateer in Sha‘ban, in 8 A.H. Quraish helped Banu Bakr with men and arms, taking advantage of the dark night. Pressed by their enemies, the tribesmen of Khuza‘ah sought the Holy Sanctuary, but here too, their lives were not spared, and, contrary to all accepted traditions, Nawfal, the chief of Banu Bakr, chased them in the sanctified area — where no blood should be shed — and massacred his adversaries.
After the incident, Quraysh sent a delegation to Muhammad, petitioning to maintain the treaty with the Muslims and offering material compensation. The Muslim forces had gathered in strength and apparently Muhammad was waiting for a pretext to settle account with Quraysh and for the final attack and the conquest of Mecca.
Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, the leader of the Quraysh in Mecca, sensing that the balance was now tilted in Muhammad's favour and that the Quraish were not strong enough to stop the Muslims from conquering the city, travelled to Medina, trying to restore the treaty. During his stay, he was repulsed by Ali and by his own daughter Ramlah, who now was one of Muhammad's wives. Though Muhammad refused to reach an agreement and Abu Sufyan returned to Mecca empty handed, these efforts ultimately ensured that the conquest occurred without battle.
Muhammad assembled an army of approximately 10,000 men and marched towards Mecca.
Again Abu Sufyan travelled back and forth between Mecca and Muhammad, still trying to reach a settlement. According to the sources, he found assistance in Muhammad's uncle Al-Abbas, though some scholars consider that historians writing under the rule of Abbas' descendants, the Abbasid Dynasty, had exaggerated Abbas' role and downplayed the role of Abu Sufyan, who was the ancestor of the Abbaside's enemies.
On the eve of the conquest, Abu Sufyan adopted Islam. When asked by Muhammad, he conceded that the Meccan gods had proved powerless and that there was indeed "no god but Allah", the first part of the Islamic confession of faith. In turn, Muhammad declared Abu Sufyan's house a sanctuary:
- "He Who enters the house of Abu Sufyan will be safe, He who lays down arms will be safe, He who locks his door will be safe".
He also declared:
- Allah has made Mecca a sanctuary since the day He created the Heavens and the Earth, and it will remain a sanctuary by virtue of the sanctity Allah has bestowed on it until the Day of Resurrection. It (fighting in it) was not made lawful to anyone before me. Nor will it be made lawful to anyone after me, and it was not made lawful for me except for a short period of time. Its animals (that can be hunted) should not be chased, nor should its trees be cut, nor its vegetation or grass uprooted, nor its Luqata (most things) picked up except by one who makes a public announcement about it.'
Then along with his companions Muhammad visited the Kaaba. The idols were broken and their gods were destroyed. Thereupon Muhammad recited the following verse from the Qur'an:"Say the Truth is come and falsehood gone; Verily falsehood is ever vanishing."
The people assembled at the Kaaba, and Muhammad delivered the following address:
- "There is no God but Allah. He has no associate. He has made good His promise that He held to his bondman and helped him and defeated all the confederates. Bear in mind that every claim of privilege, whether that of blood or property is abolished except that of the custody of the Ka'aba and of supplying water to the pilgrims. Bear in mind that for any one who is slain the blood money is a hundred camels. People of Quraish, surely God has abolished from you all pride of the time of ignorance and all pride in your ancestry, because all men are descended from Adam, and Adam was made of clay."
Then Muhammad turning to the people said:
"O Quraish, what do you think of the treatment that I should accord you?"
And they said, "Mercy, O Prophet of Allah. We expect nothing but good from you."
Thereupon Muhammad declared:
"I speak to you in the same words as Joseph spoke to his brothers. This day there is no reproof against you; Go your way, for you are free." Muhammad's prestige grew after the surrender of the Meccans. Emissaries from all over Arabia came to Medina to accept him.
Ten people were ordered to be killed:, Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl, Abdullah ibn Saad ibn Abi Sarh, Habbar bin Aswad, Miqyas Subabah Laythi, Huwairath bin Nuqayd, Abdullah Hilal and four women who had been guilty of murder or other offences or had sparked off the war and disrupted the peace.
However, they were not all killed; Ikrimah lived to adopt Islam and fight in future battles among Muslim ranks.
- ^ a b c The Message by Ayatullah Ja'far Subhani, chapter 48 referencing Sirah by Ibn Hisham, vol. II, page 409.
- ^ Peters, Francis E. (1994). Muhammad and the origins of Islam. SUNY Press. pp. 334. ISBN 0791418758, 9780791418758. http://books.google.com/books?id=0OrCo4VyvGkC&pg=PA235&dq=%22The+violation+might+have+been+settled+in+other+ways-the+Quraysh+appeared+willing+to+negotiate+-+but+in+January+630+A.D.+Muhammad+judged+the+occasion+fit+and+the+time+appropriate+for+settling+accounts+with+the+polytheists+in+Mecca+for+once+and+for+all.%22&hl=en&ei=I8f_TaOZOoGDOtWt5N4I&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22The%20violation%20might%20have%20been%20settled%20in%20other%20ways-the%20Quraysh%20appeared%20willing%20to%20negotiate%20-%20but%20in%20January%20630%20A.D.%20Muhammad%20judged%20the%20occasion%20fit%20and%20the%20time%20appropriate%20for%20settling%20accounts%20with%20the%20polytheists%20in%20Mecca%20for%20once%20and%20for%20all.%22&f=false.
- ^ Lewis, Bernard (1967). The Arabs in history. Harper & Row. pp. 200. ISBN 0061310298, 9780061310294. http://books.google.dk/books?id=_J2FAAAAIAAJ&q=%22the+murder+of+a+Muslim+by+a+Meccan+for+what+appears+to+have+been+a+purely+private+difference+of+opinion+served+as+casus+belli+for+the+final+attack+and+the+conquest+of+Mecca.%22&dq=%22the+murder+of+a+Muslim+by+a+Meccan+for+what+appears+to+have+been+a+purely+private+difference+of+opinion+served+as+casus+belli+for+the+final+attack+and+the+conquest+of+Mecca.%22&hl=en&ei=s8H_TZfkOsmZOriq_N4I&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA.
- ^ John Glubb, The Life and Times of Muhammad, Lanham 1998, p. 304-310.
- ^ Page 329, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh by Ibn al-Athir (Arabic).
- ^ Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 603
- ^ Quran, Chapter 17: Al-Isra (The Journey by Night), verse 81
- ^ Related by Ibn Kathir, recorded by Ibn al-Hajjaj Muslim
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca — A series of articles on Prophet of Islam Muhammad Life In Mecca · Hijra · … Wikipedia
Mecca — For other uses, see Mecca (disambiguation). Mecca مكة المكرمة City of Makkah Makkat Al Mukarramah Masjid al Haram and the center of Mecca … Wikipedia
Conquest of Fidak — v · … Wikipedia
Muhammad in Mecca — A series of articles on Prophet of Islam Muhammad Life In Mecca · Hijra · … Wikipedia
Muhammad — For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). For other uses, see Muhammad (disambiguation). Prophet Muhammad Prophet, Messenger, Apostle, Witness, Bearer of Good Tidings, Warne … Wikipedia
Uthman Ibn Affan — ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān (Arabic: ar. عثمان بن عفان) (c. 579 July 17 656) was one of the sahaba (companions). An early convert to Islam, he played a major role in early Islamic history, most notably as the third Caliph of the Rashidun Empire (644 to… … Wikipedia
Abu Bakr — For other people with the name, see Abu Bakr (name). Abu Bakr Caliph Abu Bakr s empire at its peak, 634. Khalifat ul Rasūl (Prophet s successor) … Wikipedia
Umar — For other uses, see Omar (disambiguation). Umar ibn al Khattab Caliph Umar s empire at its peak, 644 Al Farooq Reign … Wikipedia
Muhammad in Medina — A series of articles on Prophet of Islam Muhammad Life In Mecca · Hijra · … Wikipedia
Khalid ibn al-Walid — Infobox Military Person name= Khālid ibn al Walīd caption= Khālid ibn al Walīd is famous for his victories against the Byzantines and the Persians during the early Muslim conquests. allegiance= Rashidun Caliphate commands= nickname= The Sword of… … Wikipedia