Binswanger's disease

Infobox_Disease
Name = Binswangers disease


Caption =
DiseasesDB = 1405
ICD10 = ICD10|I|67|3|i|60
ICD9 = ICD9|290.12
ICDO =
OMIM =
MedlinePlus =
eMedicineSubj =
eMedicineTopic =
MeshID = D015140

Binswanger's disease or Subcortical Leukoencephalopathy is a rare form of multi-infarct dementia caused by damage to white brain matter.cite journal |author=Akiguchi I, Tomimoto H, Suenaga T, Wakita H, Budka H |title=Alterations in glia and axons in the brains of Binswanger's disease patients |journal=Stroke |volume=28 |issue=7 |pages=1423–9 |year=1997 |pmid=9227695 |doi= |url=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9227695] It is characterized by loss of memory and intellectual function and by changes in mood.

It was described by Otto Binswanger in 1894.cite journal |author=Pantoni L, Moretti M, Inzitari D |title=The first Italian report on "Binswanger's disease" |journal=Ital J Neurol Sci |volume=17 |issue=5 |pages=367–70 |year=1996 |pmid=8933231|doi=10.1007/BF01999900] Alois Alzheimer first used the phrase "Binswanger's disease" in 1902.cite web |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2459/is_n1_v23/ai_14904670 |title=Review: Binswanger's disease, leukoaraiosis and dementia | Age and Ageing | Find Articles at BNET.com |accessdate=2008-01-30 |format= |work=]

It was more formally described by Olszewski in 1962.cite journal |author=Loeb C |title=Binswanger's disease is not a single entity |journal=Neurol. Sci. |volume=21 |issue=6 |pages=343–8 |year=2000 |pmid=11441570 |doi= 10.1007/s100720070048|url=http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/10072/bibs/0021006/00210343.htm] cite journal |author=Olszewski J |title=Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. Review of the literature on the so-called Binswanger's disease and presentation of two cases |journal=World Neurol |volume=3 |issue= |pages=359–75 |year=1962 |pmid=14481961 |doi=]

The term is sometimes considered too imprecise for formal nosology.cite journal |author=Pantoni L, Garcia JH |title=The significance of cerebral white matter abnormalities 100 years after Binswanger's report. A review |journal=Stroke |volume=26 |issue=7 |pages=1293–301 |year=1995 |pmid=7604429 |doi= |url=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=7604429]

Presentation

Binswanger's disease is one of the neurological syndromes associated with hypertension. It is uncommon, but obviously devastating. The histologic findings are diffuse, irregular loss of axons and myelin accompanied by widespread gliosis. Small infarcts may be seen in the frontal lobes. The pathologic mechanism may be damage caused by severe atherosclerosis.

A patient with long term severe hypertension develops progressive dementia. CT scans of the head demonstrate a diffuse loss of deep hemispheric white matter.

Prognosis

Binswanger's disease has no known treatment, let alone cure, although drugs used to treat high blood pressure, depression, arrhythmia and low blood pressure are used to treat the condition's symptoms. [NINDS|binswangers]

References


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