World War II in Timeline-191
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Second Great War
date=1941 - 1944
casus=Europe: French invasion of
Alsace-Lorraine after German refusal to return it to FranceNorth America: Confederate invasion of Ohioafter U.S. refusal to return former territories to the CSA.
result=Central Powers Victory.North America: CSA ceases to exist. Kentucky, Houston, & Tennessee readmitted as states into the USA. Texas becomes an independent country but is occupied by the USA. The remainder of the CSA occupied by the USA. Mexico's Baja California is also occupied by the USA. Haiti is liberated from the CSA.
Europe: All heads of state of the Entente killed, overthrown, or kicked out of office.
Central PowersBlack Guerrillas
An analog to the real-life
World War II, this second global war is the backdrop to Harry Turtledove's Settling Accountstetralogy of the Timeline-191series. This shows what could have happened had the Confederacy won the American Civil War- this is not what actually happened.
The focus of this page is on the North American war, albeit supplemented with info from the European conflict. The
Central Powersinclude the United States, the German Empire, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Ireland, Chinaand the Republic of Quebec. The Ententeconsists of the Confederate States, Great Britain, France, Russia, and Japan.
The war is never called "World War II" in Turtledove's novels. In these articles, this war is referred to as the "Second Great War" to avoid confusion with our timeline's war. The characters themselves say there's no official name for this war but instead call it alternatively call it "The Greater War" and "The War". In one of the books, one remarked that the war was yet unnamed, but usually called "The War", with an expletive in front of it.
In this world, the CSA is similar to
Nazi Germany, complete with a totalitarian leader, President Jake Featherston (ruled 1934-1944), and his Freedom Party. The USA, in this timeline a combination of our timeline's Western Allies(U.S., UK, France) and the Soviet Union, is led here by Socialist President Al Smith (1937-42) and then his vice president, Charles La Follette (1942-44).
Operation Blackbeard (Ohio 1941)
The outbreak of the War in North America caught many Americans off-guard; Confederate President Jake Featherston had ordered bombing attacks over major U.S. cities without even declaring hostilities. The U.S. General Staff had been expecting war, but was also caught off-guard by the focal-point of the Confederacy's offensive: Ohio, and not Maryland-eastern Pennsylvania as in the last war. After opening the war with bombing raids and artillery barrages, the C.S. Army of Kentucky crossed the Ohio River into Ohio, with General George Patton's barrel forces in the lead.
Blackbeard was the brainchild of Lieutenant General
Nathan Bedford Forrest III, Chief of the Confederate General Staff and primary advisor to Featherston. Knowing that a long war of attrition would ultimately be won by the numerically and industrially superior USA, Forrest devised a plan to quickly knock the USA out of the war via Ohio. The bulk of the U.S. Army was positioned in Northern Virginia in front of Washington, and the force left to defend the Midwest was considered secondary to U.S. military planners. Forrest was aware of that, and made plans to break through the thin lines along the Ohio River and drive north to the Great Lakes, effectively cutting the USA in half.
Thus, the Confederate Army's objective was to reach Lake Erie as it launched its surprise attack on
June 22 1941.
Expecting a repeat of the 1914-17 conflict with its trench systems and set-piece engagements, the U.S. army under Brig. General Abner Dowling had set up lines of defense across southern Ohio, aiming to keep the CSA from Columbus and beyond. Using modern methods (
Blitzkriegin our world), Patton's armor smashed through the lines and moved on, leaving the pockets of resistance to be mopped up by second and third-wave infantry. The C.S. air force controlled the skies, bombing airfields and roads, tying down the U.S. fighters, and creating havoc on the roads by strafing columns of refugees. The Mule dive-bomber was a particularly feared weapon, as it screamed (using wind-powered sirens, much like the Ju-87 Stuka) down on its foes like a demon. In addition to dive-bombers and barrels, the C.S. forces employed modern chemical weapons as well as new infantry weapons such as fully-automatic rifles and submachine guns.
In two weeks, the Army of Kentucky breached the three defense lines set up by Dowling, capturing
Cincinnatiand Chillicothe, and by early July had reached the outskirts of the state capital.
Battle of Columbus
The U.S. Army fought the C.S. Army foot for foot near
Columbus, Ohio, and in suburbs such as Grove City and West Jefferson, destroying much of the area and displacing thousands of civilians, who fled north to escape the fighting. Fighting in the city itself didn't do as much damage, although the State Capitol took several direct hits by Mules (by now having earned the nickname of 'Asskickers' by soldiers on both sides), but remained standing, being used by artillery spotters for Confederate movements. West of Columbus, Patton's armor chased U.S. forces out of their positions along the Big Darby river and its tributaries. In a week of fighting, the Confederates pushed on, leaving the trapped U.S. divisions inside the capital of Ohio to wither until they surrendered.
The Drive to Lake Erie
Even before Columbus had fallen, General Patton had pushed on, towards the
Great Lakesand Blackbeard's objective of carving a corridor through the narrowest part of the United States. Barrels tore U.S. positions apart, Mules and Hound Dog fighters shot up anything that moved on the roads, and Confederate spies with near-perfect Yankee accents caused confusion behind the lines. General Dowling and his barrel commander, Colonel Irving Morrell, set up a last line of defense anchored between Findlayand Norwalk. The Confederates hit both towns with a heavy assault in late July, and rolled up the U.S. defenders to either side of the corridor as it snaked towards Lake Erie. In the southeast part of the state, Confederate forces halted local counterattacks aimed at the base of the salient.
=Fall of Sandusky=
The Army of Kentucky reached Lake Erie at the lakeside town of Sandusky, about halfway between Cleveland and Toledo. Some of the worst fighting of the Ohio campaign was waged in the street fighting that tore the town apart, especially in the battle for the crayon factory. Nevertheless, the city fell after several days and Confederate guns now looked out over Lake Erie. With the United States cut in half from the Ohio River to Lake Erie, many people on both sides figured the war would be ending soon. Jake Featherston thought so as he made his Peace Broadcast in early August, but his offer, much to everyone's surprise, was rebuffed by Al Smith. No matter whose soldiers occupied Ohio, according to Smith, the war would be fought to a finish.
The Confederate Corridor had separated several U.S. formations, forcing some west of the salient and others to the east. The stronger forces were all on the east side, and under Irving Morrell's command gathered themselves together for a strong counter-offensive aimed at driving west toward Columbus or Dayton. Featherston and his Intelligence chief, Brig. General Clarence Potter, had figured out the U.S. intentions, and ordered Confederate agents and sympathizers in the area to sabotage roads and bridges. When Morrell struck Monroe County in mid-August, he found his force constantly held up by wrecked bridges, leading to his calling off the attack after several days. The first U.S. response to the fall of Ohio got nowhere, and the U.S. War Department began shifting forces on the east side of the salient to the build-up in
Marylandand Northern Virginia. Meanwhile, U.S. forces on the west side were dispatched to the new front opening up in Utah. As he had proved himself an annoyance to the officers of the General Staff, Morrell himself was relegated to the now-secondary Ohio front, and his valuable skills in armor warfare were ignored.
Northern Virginia 1941-42
After the debacle in Ohio, Abner Dowling, commander of U.S forces in Ohio was sent before the Joint Congressional Committee On The Conduct of the War, an institution already in place from the First Great War. After a brief tongue-lashing, the general was sent to the War Department to await further orders.
U.S. forces were shifted to the Northern Virginia front for an attack on Richmond, with no attempt being made to disguise the U.S. plans. General Daniel MacArthur was put forward by the Joint Committee to head the attack, which would take place against several heavily-fortified Confederate positions along the river lines. MacArthur was confident about his chances against the Confederates, taking no account of their tenacity and will to win into his plans, and instead assumed that U.S. soldiers would be marching into Richmond on a very short basis. This hubris was to cost the USA dearly as the offensive opened in late October after several delays.
The Rappahannock and Rapidan
MacArthur launched his attack over the Rappahannock river to the west of Fredericksburg. Entrenched Confederate guns and barrels caused his force several thousand casualties, but by nightfall the USA had a bridgehead on the south bank. U.S. forces battled their way across trench systems toward the Rapidan, where they were stopped by a fierce defense. The USA had intended to hit with the same type of lightning strike the CSA had used in Ohio, but was instead reduced to using Great War methods of offense, which was also the product of MacArthur's own lack of imagination and innovation. After several days of fighting, a U.S. force crossed the Rapidan river and established a bridgehead in a tangle of terrain and forest called The Wilderness.
In their drive to the south, the U.S. army had exposed their right flank as it brushed against the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains. First Corps, under the command of Abner Dowling, was the unit in charge of watching the flank. Dowling made sure to watch the mountains for any of sign of Confederate activity, while MacArthur's orders were to advance south. Under Featherston's watch, General George Patton struck First Corps in a lightning counterattack and pushed the USA back several miles. Although Dowling recovered and held off Patton from reaching the USA's rear, MacArthur was forced to call off the attack in The Wilderness, which was holding up the U.S. bridgehead there.
While both sides of the line settled down for winter, their respective high commands made plans for renewed assaults in the spring. The Confederate General Staff quietly began removing veteran units from Northern Virginia and sending them northwest to Ohio for the renewal of their assault. General MacArthur also spent his winter making plans. Initially, he wanted to land a force on the Virginia Peninsula and march on Richmond from the east, ala George McClellan in 1862, even securing support from the U.S. Navy's Rear Admiral William Halsey. The U.S. General Staff, informed by Dowling that MacArthur had attempted to take a division from Dowling's First Corps to go into the landing force, quietly ordered him to scuttle the plan.
Undaunted and seemingly oblivious to being thwarted by the War Department, MacArthur began looking for new places to break through. After Dowling's intelligence reports informed him of the Confederates' clandestine troop withdrawals, MacArthur became confident that the CSA's line at the Rappahannock town of
Fredericksburg, Virginia, was the perfect place to launch his spring offensive. Unfortunately for MacArthur and for the thousands of U.S. soldiers preparing for the assault, Jake Featherston had also come across Fredericksburg as a likely flashpoint for a major engagement. Visiting the spot where he had spent the last hours of the Great War at Marye's Heights, which overlooks the town, Featherston wanted to draw the U.S. forces into the open fields under the Heights, which would be covered by dug-in machine-guns and artillery.
MacArthur began his attack by sending in engineers to build pontoon bridges across the Rappahannock under artillery fire. The engineers were slaughtered, as were several regiments of soldiers waiting to cross from the far bank. After a lull in the fighting, during which reinforcements were brought forward on both sides of the river, the USA attacked again, this time managing to secure a bridgehead inside Fredericksburg. Once the U.S. force began advancing south, Confederate guns opened up again and pinned them down, creating thousands of casualties. Several days later, MacArthur ordered the remaining troops to fall back across the river, never having advanced outside the town itself toward Marye's Heights. MacArthur and several U.S. officers were criticized in the press and before the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War. However, the senseless battle became almost instantly forgotten in the wake of the Confederate drive to Pittsburgh, which began soon after the Battle of Fredericksburg.
Operation Coal-Scuttle (Pennsylvania 1942-43)
The genesis for Operation Coal-scuttle (so named because the objective of Pittsburgh lay in the middle of the USA's heavy industrial area) lay in the aftermath of Operation Blackbeard. Al Smith, after refusing to negotiate with Featherston, launched the USA's first great counter-offensive in Northern Virginia--which Featherston and Forrest had been preparing for. As soon as it was apparent that the U.S. Army was not going to take Richmond anytime soon, the C.S. leadership began making plans to knock the United States out of the war--for good. Almost immediately following the success of Blackbeard, Featherston figured that the USA's steel-producing capability would be the last thing holding that country up. Once the steel-centers fell into Confederate hands, Featherston reasoned, the USA would have to sue for peace, since the country was still cut in half and the steel needed to make barrels and planes would be in enemy hands.
While General MacArthur kept himself and the USA busy in Northern Virginia, the Confederate Army began moving veteran units out of Virginia and into Ohio. As they had done in 1941, the Confederates in their 1942 offensive would employ modern tactics in their push to Pittsburgh, but this time adding a special force of Confederate soldiers in U.S. uniforms with U.S. accents sowing confusion behind the lines. On the diplomatic front, Featherston secured from Emperor Francisco Jose three Mexican divisions to guard the flanks of the C.S. advance. The Confederate President had to put "pressure" on the Mexican Emperor to get his divisions, but rewarded his counterpart by allowing Mexican immigrants to pour into the CSA and take over the jobs formerly belonging to the country's blacks. Featherston was gambling all on this great offensive.
U.S. Intelligence had been figuring out that the Confederates were moving forces somewhere, but no one was expecting an attack in northeastern Ohio in late June 1942. The Confederates burst from Sandusky and Columbus and launched their great drive to the east.
(This whole campaign, with the enemy's economic center as a target of the leader's megalomania, is an analog to Hitler's Operation Blue of the summer of 1942, which culminated in the
Battle of Stalingrad).
Battle of Cleveland
Confederate forces deployed along the shore of Lake Erie reached the outskirts of Cleveland on the first day of Coal-scuttle, catching the U.S. soldiers on the west side by surprise before they could react. Scattered U.S. units were overwhelmed, and the Confederates crossed the
CuyahogaRiver while meeting minimal resistance, which was bombed into submission by massed Mule formations. This allowed the C.S. forces to advance past the Flats and fan out into downtown Cleveland. Within a week of Coal-scuttle's start, the biggest city on the way to Pittsburgh had fallen.
Drive to the East
The Confederate Army under George Patton (who had returned to Ohio from the Virginia front) pushed to the east even while the battle for Cleveland raged. With the majority of prime U.S. units still in Northern Virginia under MacArthur's command, the U.S Army of Ohio under Br. General Irving Morrell withdrew to the Pennsylvania border region, while supplying the garrisons of Akron, Canton, and Youngstown. Morrell led small-scale counterattacks that halted and forced back some C.S. units, but failed to prevent Patton from crossing into Pennsylvania. By that time, it was obvious that Pittsburgh was Featherston's ultimate objective, and Morrell ordered his command to prepare for the defense of the region.
Meanwhile, the Confederate northern force that had seized Cleveland had reached the small town of
Beaver, Pennsylvaniabefore halting. The special unit of Confederate soldiers with U.S. uniforms and accents had been deployed at the front in Beaver and proceeded to wreak havoc behind the U.S. lines, causing confusion and terror amongst the green U.S. soldiers, civilians and refugees from Ohio.
Featherston and Forrest had originally planned to surround Pittsburgh and incapacitate the USA's steel industry with a siege, but several blunt counterattacks from Morrell had forced Patton to redirect his offensive into the city itself.
Battle of Pittsburgh
Patton unleashed his armor into the city of Pittsburgh, hoping to reach the
Allegheny Riverand the downtown area before the USA could put up a proper defense. In every battle before Pittsburgh, Patton had avoided sending barrels into cities, which made horrible conditions for barrel warfare. Not wishing to give up the USA's steel center without a fight, Morrell turned every inch of the city into a fortress. U.S. and C.S. soldiers and barrels fought over every block and sector of the outer neighborhoods of Pittsburgh, actions that caused thousands of casualties for both sides. Inch by inch, the Confederates pressed toward the city center at the junction of the Allegheny, Ohio, and Monongahela rivers.
After several weeks of brutal street fighting, Forrest was convinced that the objectives of Operation Coal-scuttle had been met: the industries in and around Pittsburgh had been wrecked, while several U.S. divisions had been mauled. He made his presentation to Featherston, who was following the battle from his large Presidential-Bunker underneath Shockoe Hill (he did pay a visit to the Pennsylvania front while Patton was making his approach to Pittsburgh), but was sucked into a debate with Featherston, who wanted to occupy the area as well as wreck it, if for nothing more than to prove to the United States that he could win any battle on any site he chose. Featherston flew into a rage when Forrest made a comparison to the Great War, (the Confederate President, who was only a sergeant in that conflict, thought of himself as a better strategist than Forrest, who had matured after the Great War had ended), kicking the Confederate Army Chief of Staff out. Pittsburgh, Featherston declared, would fall--at all costs.
On the U.S. side, Morrell had been bugging the War Department for weeks on end, even prompting its trouble-shooter Br. General John Abell to make a personal visit. In the middle of October, as the Confederacy was on the verge of reaching the Allegheny, Morrell finally got leeway and reinforcements to fight the battle the way he thought it should be. His Intelligence reports indicated weak flanks along both sides of the Confederate salient in Pennsylvania, manned by the three Mexican divisions that Featherston had taken from Francisco Jose. The Mexicans had no armor or machine guns, and weak artillery, which made soft targets for the great counter-offensive Morrell was planning to unleash. By mid-November, he was ready--but for a snowstorm that he needed to launch his attack during. It came three days after the date his attack had originally been scheduled to take place.
Morrell led the pincer force from the north while another U.S. force pushed from West Virginia. The Mexican divisions that had been guarding the flanks to the Confederate army in Pittsburgh were annihilated. In a week, the U.S. pincers met at the small Ohio town of Lafayette, just south of Canton. The Confederates in Pittsburgh were now trapped in a pocket.
In addition to the Pittsburgh Counteroffensive, the USA launched several sideshow attacks all along the American-Confederate border to draw C.S. reinforcements from the Midwest and stretch the frontier thin. In Virginia, MacArthur engaged the Army of Northern Virginia in several local battles; in Arkansas another U.S. force pushed south from Missouri. Arms shipments to black rebels in the Deep South increased, but only by a little bit; even with people such as Flora Blackford bringing the Black Holocaust to the attention of the world, public opinion continued to show little support for the blacks' cause.
The main sideshow event took place in western Texas (formerly the U.S. state of Houston between July 4, 1918-January 7, 1941). In November 1942, Major General Abner Dowling found himself redeployed to Clovis, New Mexico, in order to spearhead a diversionary attack into the Confederate periphery and forestall any enemy ambitions. Although sceptical of the worth of the attack other than to take the attention away from Pittsburgh, Dowling's Eleventh Army was forty miles inside Texas by mid-month, advancing along Confederate Highway 84 via Sudan and Amherst towards Lubbock - a similar penetration to that accomplished in the Great War. As yet unbeknown to the U.S. forces, just one hundred miles further to the south-east was
Camp Determination, whose guards were eyeing the U.S. push with some nervousness, and preparing to destroy the camp's installations if necessary.
Nathan Bedford Forrest III had returned to Jake Featherston's office after the Confederates in Pittsburgh were surrounded and re-made his point about withdrawing, this time adding that Patton needed to do so before his barrels and trucks ran out of fuel. The President overruled him with his point that Confederate air force transports could make an air-bridge to Pittsburgh and keep Patton supplied to continue wrecking the city, ignoring the simple fact that there were not enough transports to keep an entire army supplied. In the meantime, enough spare Confederate forces could be scraped up and mount a counterattack to break through and relieve Patton. Where the President could come up with the number needed to make the attack possible, Forrest didn't know. Nevertheless, Confederate Army supply clerks and quartermasters were drafted into infantry formations and rushed into an attack in mid-December, at one point nearly making it to within twenty miles of Patton's lines.
Irving Morrell had figured that the CSA would attempt such a move. Just when the Confederates were about to relieve Pittsburgh, using up the last of their reserves, he ordered a collection of U.S. units in northwestern Ohio and Indiana to strike the Confederate Corridor on its west side: the operation being named "Rosebud." The Confederate push to relieve Pittsburgh was stopped dead as Forrest was forced to move units back and forth across the Corridor to contain the U.S. attack in the west. With no spare C.S. Army units anywhere in the CSA, the Confederate Army was stretched extremely thin.
Jake Featherston thought differently. He ordered the Mexican Emperor (through his Secretary of State,
George Herbert Walker) to hand over another five divisions, although this time they were to replace Confederate Army divisions fighting black rebels in the Deep South. For the same purpose, Featherston ordered his Attorney General, Ferdinand Koenig, to increase the "population reductions" at Camp Determination (which was being threatened by Dowling's Eleventh Army) and elsewhere, annihilating the CSA's black population and releasing precious C.S. Army and Freedom Party Guard units for service at the front. However, these extra Army forces relieved by the Mexicans arrived too late to save the Pittsburgh Pocket.
The Crushing of the Pittsburgh Pocket
The Confederate Army in Pittsburgh was slowly wiped out in winter actions up to the end of January 1943. With the air-bridge failing and Irving Morrell's Rosebud attack preventing rescue from the outside, Patton's soldiers started to fall apart--even being forced to resort to stealing U.S. cigarettes (universally considered to be inferior to Southern tobacco) and U.S. bolt-action rifles. One by one, the CSA's positions collapsed; Jake Featherston personally ordered General Patton to board the last transport plane out of the Pocket before the airfield was captured. On February 2, 1943, the remaining C.S. soldiers surrendered the last holdout positions. From this point in the Second World War, the United States had the initiative.
The Western Theater (Kentucky, Tennessee and Georgia 1943)
Collapse of the Ohio Corridor
Following the surrender of the Army of Kentucky in Pittsburgh in early February, the U.S. Army continued its push into Ohio. Instead of heading toward the more populated stretch of the state along the lakeshore and in the west, Brigadier General Irving Morrell attacked the C.S. Army along several points in the southern part of the state, shattering the Confederates and forcing them to retreat across the Ohio into Kentucky. Although several occupied towns held out against Morrell’s push, the remnants of the Confederate Army in Ohio had no cohesion, and by mid-March, U.S. soil was totally free of Confederate soldiers, save for the ones in POW camps.
Kentucky and Tennessee invaded
Morrell devised a plan to slash a line across the Confederate States in the same way that the CSA had cut the USA in half two years before in Blackbeard. He was optimistic that his campaign would end the war before the end of 1943, but conservative estimates by the War Department concluded that Morrell’s plan was a two-year campaign.
Troops, barrels, aerial units and supplies were stocked along the northern bank of the Ohio River in preparation for the assault. To keep Confederate Intelligence guessing, Morrell transported units back and forth in an effort to disguise his primary focus: the stretch of Kentucky between Louisville and Paducah. When the attack finally began in May, barrages and air raids (along with dummy balloon barrels and landing craft, gunfire played on loudspeakers and empty gas shells to trick the Confederates) on several locations in northern Kentucky prevented the CSA from figuring out where the real attack was. By the end of the first week, Morrell’s army was well within central Kentucky, capturing Bowling Green at the end of the month. By the first of June the state line had been crossed and Tennessee invaded.
The retreating C.S. Army, its air cover virtually annihilated by overwhelming U.S. air superiority, was harried by fighter-bombers interdicting supply lines and dumps while constantly being attacked with bombs and rockets. In an effort to slow down Morrell, the CSA blew up the Featherston Dams along the
Cumberland River; not bothered at all by the rising waters, Morrell pressed on toward Chattanooga. Nashvilleand Memphis, both to the west, and Knoxville to the east were ignored and left to wither on the vine. It was in the latter city, protected by the Great Smoky Mountains, that Jake Featherston prepared for the Confederacy’s first great response to Morrell’s offensive.
The Battle of Pikeville
Major General George Patton was to lead the counteroffensive. His orders, delivered orally by Featherston in the Presidential bunker in Richmond, were to cut off Morrell in south-central Tennessee and roll the U.S. forces in the rear back to the Ohio, irrespective of the massive U.S. air superiority. The counteroffensive began in early July and forced Morrell to halt the drive to Chattanooga by diverting the USA to respond to its left flank. Despite the ferocity of the Confederates' attack, U.S. air power shattered Confederate buildups around Knoxville and lines of communication through the mountain passes, while dealing a heavy blow to the Army of Tennessee around the city of
Pikeville, Tennessee. Defeated, Patton went back to Featherston and was dealt a harsh verbal reprimand before being given the task of defending Chattanooga the same way Morrell defended Pittsburgh the autumn before. Meanwhile, Morrell resumed his offensive, and although fighting a partisan war with bushwhackers in his rear units, he finally arrived at the Tennessee River.
The Battle of Chattanooga
Morrell was forced to replenish his depleted stocks and units used up in the push through Kentucky and Tennessee. On the other side of the Tennessee, Patton used the lull to heavily fortify Chattanooga and the heights surrounding the city – Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. Seeing as such, Morrell turned to subterfuge and surprise to assist in his mission to take the city. Copying Patton's tactic from the year before of using raiders disguised in the enemy’s uniform, he dressed up members of the U.S. 133rd Special Reconnaissance Company (a unit consisting mostly of men who were born in or had lived in the CSA) and used them to secure a bridgehead on the southern bank. In early August, Morrell used paratroopers for the first time in warfare to take Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, compromising Patton's defenses and forcing a C.S. retreat into Georgia. With minimal cost to his own side, Morrell had taken the last city in the CSA before the vital linchpin of Atlanta.
The Drive to Atlanta
The U.S. Army continued its assault, driving the Confederacy from town after town in northwestern Georgia as summer turned to autumn. Strong defenses in Dalton and
Kennesaw Mountain, combined with autumnal rains turning the terrain into fields of muck, had the effect of only slowing Morrell’s offensive.
In Richmond, Featherston engaged in shouting matches with Generals Bedford Forrest III and Patton about how to handle Morrell. Finally recognizing that a great danger to the CSA existed, Featherston ordered almost the entire Army of Northern Virginia, sitting in quiet trenches on the Rappahannock Line, to head to
Atlanta, leaving only a skeleton force to deal with General Daniel MacArthur’s U.S. army. The President of the CSA also made plans to move the seat of government from Richmond to Atlanta in the event that MacArthur attacked.
In Georgia, Morrell pressed forward, taking Marietta and Lawrenceville in October and placing Atlanta under artillery fire. With Marietta occupied by the USA and the newly constituted Army of Georgia only beginning to build defenses around the transportation hub, Atlanta seemed destined to fall.
Conquest of Baja California
The American conquest of
Baja Californiawas undertaken soon after the lull in Pacific operations began. Marines landed midway down the peninsula and took Cabo San Lucas on the southern tip, while the U.S. Army pushed from San Diego deep into the territory, seizing control of the remainder of Baja. Harassment operations against Confederate forces in Guaymas and the Sonoran coast began soon afterward.
The Texas Front
General Dowling's Eleventh Army continued its pressure on Lubbock, Texas, the linchpin of the Confederate defenses in the west. After the capture of Lubbock, and revival of the state of Houston, Brigade Leader Jefferson Pinkard blew up the gas chambers at Camp Determination and had all records sent to the newly-constructed Camp Humble before the Yankees broke through. Freedom Party Guard Units were deployed to slow down the U.S. advance, which delayed the capture of Camp Determination for a time. Pinkard was put in charge of Camp Humble, not far from Houston, Texas to continue population reductions. The United States used the mass graves at Camp Determination as a propaganda theme.
In 1944, the state government of Texas seceded from the Confederacy and became the Republic of Texas. Confederate forces were allowed to leave the new republic unmolested by Texan (but not by U.S.) forces, with the exception of personnel wanted for crimes against humanity.
Twilight of the Confederacy (The Deep South and Virginia 1944)
The Drive to Savannah
Instead of pushing right into the city of Atlanta, Morrell's army pushed south and east past the metropolis in the direction of the Atlantic. Patton saw another opportunity to counter-attack, and launched a corps-level assault on Morrell's right flank at Lawrenceville, but, consisting of exhausted units and ill-trained National Assault Force kids and old men, the attack failed. Patton called off the counter-attacks and settled down to defend each town as the USA passed through them.
However, the CSA proved incapable of defending its own towns. A company of U.S. soldiers, nicknamed Lavochkin's Looters, rampaged east through Georgia and wrecked several towns, killing hundreds of civilians. Morrell drove toward the
Savannah Riverwith ease, pushing aside Confederate and Freedom Party defenders. Augusta was captured, and a few weeks later Savannah was taken. The Confederate States of America was cut into two, such as the United States had been in 1941.
Atlanta, Birmingham, and Huntsville Fall
General Morrell also oversaw the capture of Atlanta. A couple corps, detached from Morrell's main army, swung past Atlanta from the west and severed the city's links to
Alabama. In his bunker in Richmond, President Featherston finally realized that the city could no longer be held, and ordered Patton to destroy the city and pull out; he also ordered Saul Goldman to stop mentioning Atlanta at all in his propaganda, hoping that by neglecting to mention the city he wouldn't have to continue making up lies about how Atlanta was holding out.
Morrell toured the fallen capital of Georgia on New Years' Day 1944. He appointed General Ironhewer to command the detached corps in the western suburbs and went back to the Savannah front to oversee the drive into the Carolinas. Ironhewer in turn attacked into Alabama, pushing steadily toward Birmingham, while sending a force to join in the attack on Huntsville, already in progress by a unit coming down from Tennessee.
Patton barricaded himself in Birmingham, and made attacks on the chief city of Alabama expensive. However, his defense of Birmingham, ably assisted by new heavy tanks coming off the line from assembly lines in the city itself, could not hold off massive air raids on the factories and industrial plants. In late June, living under the dire threat of atomic annihilation and the impending collapse of the CSA, Patton surrendered his Army of Kentucky.
The USA settled down for a siege of Huntsville as well. On its outskirts, thousands of starving
political prisonerswere released from rocket-production facilities, while U.S. armor pushed toward the Tennessee River. Around the same time as Birmingham, the Confederate commander in Huntsville surrendered. The next major cities in the Confederacy were New Orleansand Little Rock, but the Confederacy surrendered before Ironhewer could begin the offensive.
The Battle of Richmond
Even while fighting in Georgia and Alabama raged, the USA made plans to resume the war on the Virginia front. Abner Dowling was ordered to take command of a corps in General MacArthur's army, and in February the offensive opened with a massive artillery barrage. The Rappahannock was crossed to the east of Fredericksburg, scene of so much slaughter in 1942, as well as to the west. The U.S. pushed south out of its salient in
The Wildernessand drove for Spotsylvania. In a few days, the USA had reached the North Anna Riverline, and pushed the few Confederate defenders aside. The din of artillery fire grew steadily louder in Richmond.
In his bunker, Featherston raged at Nathan Bedford Forrest III to pull soldiers from other areas for the defense of the CSA's capital. The chief of the General Staff replied that he could not comply with the President's demands, and started asking his commander-in-chief if he felt that it was time to step down, all the while waiting for his own soldiers to come to the bunker office. Featherston called in Freedom Party Guards and crushed Forrest's coup before it could fully get off the ground. Forrest was tortured and then shot. A few days later, Featherston and his Cabinet fled the capital of the Confederate States, setting up Petersburg to be the temporary seat of government.
U.S. soldiers battled street by street through Richmond, pushing south across the
James River. The city fell not long afterward, and President La Follette toured the captured site a few days later. The USA continued pushing past Richmond, driving east and west, toward Hampton Roadsand Appomattox Countyrespectively. Featherston fled Petersburg for Portsmouth, where he ordered the CSA's atomic bomb to be deployed against Philadelphia. A few days later, after broadcasting a defiant speech filled with lies and hate against the USA, Featherston witnessed the detonation of the USA's atomic bomb, dropped by aircraft over the city of Newport News. With U.S. forces pushing steadily toward Hampton Roads, the Confederate President evacuated the region and headed for North Carolina.
Featherston and his Cabinet fled south across North Carolina, broadcasting speeches from
Goldsboroand Charlotteto keep the Confederate people appraised of the ongoing struggle. In response to the continuation of the war, as well as revenge for the Confederacy's secession in 1860-61, the USA destroyed Charleston, South Carolina, with an atomic bomb. La Follette called for Featherston to turn himself in and stop the bloodshed, but the Confederate President responded with a fiery, profane "No!"
When the Confederate government reached the town of
Spartanburg, South Carolina, they came to the realization that it would be almost impossible for them to cross U.S. lines on foot or by automobile. Featherston, wishing to continue the fight from the Deep South, even in guerrilla form if necessary, ordered the general in charge of Charlotte's defenses to fly a transport down to Spartanburg and pick them up. Early the next morning, the transport took off and flew into Georgia, hoping to bypass the USA Army by avoiding Atlanta.
It was not to be. The transport was identified as a hostile plane and shot down. Featherston and most of his followers, including General Clarence Potter, survived the crash landing. But they quickly realized that they were behind enemy lines in unfamiliar territory. Walking down the Athens, highway toward the small town of Madison, not realizing that the place was occupied by the USA and its black allies, the party was spotted by a member of the black auxiliary, Cassius, (son of Scipio/Xerxes, who fired upon them. Featherston was hit in the chest and face and died before his body hit the road.
The CSA Surrenders
With Jake Featherston's body bleeding on the side of the Athens highway, his followers gave themselves up. Ferdinand Koenig, Saul Goldman, Clarence Potter, and several high-ranking members of the armed forces were arrested and held for possible
Confederate vice-president Donald Partridge, the man ridiculed in both CSA and USA as a nobody, a lightweight, a man to make fun of, was now President of the Confederate States. Not possessing the demonic hatred and charisma held by Featherston that would keep the conflict going, Partridge reached an agreement for a cease-fire on all fronts in the second week of July. The President met with General Morrell at the birthplace of
James K. Polk, on the outskirts of Charlotte, and ended the American half of the Second World War with the CSA's unconditional surrender. At one minute past six on the evening of July 14, 1944, the Confederate States of America ceased to exist. It had been independent for 83 years.
Road to War
The State of Utah had been under Army occupation for twenty years, from the Great War to the Smith Administration. As a measure of goodwill and conciliation, Al Smith's first act as president in February, 1937, was to release
Utahfrom martial law. In the gubernatorial and congressional elections that followed almost immediately, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (known as the LDS Church or the Mormons) took control of the government apparatus. Moderate Heber Young counseled a return to normalcy in Utah's relations with the rest of the Union, but hardliners in the U.S. Congress and elsewhere constantly fulminated about U.S. policies towards the Mormons. With the relations between the USA and the CSA worsening, Mormon agents made contact with Confederate government officials and Freedom Party supporters and received promises of support in the event of a general war between the Union and the Confederacy, the expectation being that the Mormons would rise up and hamper the USA's war effort.
Jake Featherston unleashed the Confederate Army into the USA on June 22, 1941. As the U.S. Army reeled back in disarray in the face of the Confederate onslaught in Ohio, Governor Young publicly warned the Smith Administration that transportation of U.S. military goods and personnel across the Transcontinental Railroad in Utah would not be tolerated. Privately, a Mormon agent contacted Congresswoman Flora Hamburger Blackford (S-NY) and asked her to convince President Smith to let Utah off. Al Smith reacted strongly against these Mormon ultimatums, which, along with the fall of Columbus in the middle of July, compelled the Mormon hardliners to take action. They launched their coup, seized power in Salt Lake City, and assassinated several moderates and Gentiles. Heber Young was forced to flee into Colorado along with his entourage as the hardliners renamed Utah the "Nation of Deseret" and declared war on the United States.
Battle of Provo
Acting quickly, the Mormons blew up the Transcontinental Railroad line running through the state, seized federal installations and weapons compounds, and occupied the major towns and cities, killing or dispersing the non-conformists. Armed with Confederate weapons and funds, Mormon rebels mined the roads and regions around the cities, and fortified strong points guarding access into the populated areas. They were prepared when, in the aftermath of the CSA’s Operation Blackbeard in Ohio, U.S. Army units to the west of the Confederate Corridor were shipped to Utah to deal with the uprising.
After entering Utah from Colorado, the U.S. Army disembarked and set up camp, being attacked almost immediately by makeshift Mormon bombers. Pushing west, the Americans hit a stone wall in Provo, being forced to fight street by street into the center of town while under constant attacks by Mormon insurgents armed with
Featherston Fizzes( Molotov cocktails) and homemade grenades. Confederate anti-barrel mines destroyed entire columns of Great War-vintage barrels. (All the available modern armor was facing the Confederacy in the East.) Meanwhile, Spigot mortars rained down hard on the infantry.
The fighting raged well into the winter and spring of 1942, when the USA finally cleared the city of remaining insurgents. When the fighting petered out in the spring of 1942, President Charles La Follette (Al Smith was killed in a bombing raid in February, 1942) sent out peace feelers to the LDS Church on a basis of a status quo ante bellum. Represented by Hyrum Rush, the Mormon hardliners rejected La Follette’s offer and pressed for independence, which in turn was rejected by the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War and Secretary of the Interior
Harry Hopkins. The Utah War would continue.
The End of the Utah War
Almost as soon as Hyrum Rush was back in Mormon-held territory, car bombings took place all over the USA, from the State House in Boston to Wall Street and Times Square in New York City to the Congress hall in Philadelphia, and in other places as well. On the front lines, U.S. soldiers listened to Confederate Connie--the C.S. propaganda voice aimed at lowering U.S. morale (similar to
Tokyo Roseand Lord Haw-Hawin the Axis)--cheer on the Mormons and reminded the USA about how their funding Red black uprisings in the CSA caused similar havoc.
Eventually, the Mormons started targeting urban centers and mass transit networks with "people bombs" (
suicide bombers). Unlike the car bombs, the Confederacy's radio and news networks acted as if the people bombs never happened, being ordered to do so by Jake Featherston, who feared the news would give his own black rebels ideas he would rather they not have. Nevertheless, for all of Saul Goldman's attempts to suppress news of the people bombs from the C.S. people, a black people bomb destroyed a white restaurant in Jackson, Mississippiin October 1942, prompting Featherston to ordered the city's entire black population to be sent to an extermination camp (more on the Confederate Population Reduction Program below).
By 1943, the Mormon rebellion in Utah was finally suppressed. Mormons outside of the ruins of Salt Lake City surrendered to occupying U.S. troops. These same soldiers were sent to put down the flames of revolt in Canada.
The Atlantic Campaign
The naval war in the Atlantic saw early victories for the Entente before settling into a stalemate. The US carrier "Remembrance" fired the opening shots of the Atlantic campaign when its aircraft bombed Charleston in response to the Confederacy's surprise attack on Philadelphia.
Shortly thereafter, the British carrier "Ark Royal" lured the "Remembrance" and "Sandwich Islands" away from American-controlled
Bermuda, allowing a joint Anglo-CS taskforce to capture the strategically-placed island. The Confederate reduction of the US-ruled Bahamasbegan soon afterwards. The islands were conquered by the end of autumn.
Thereafter, the naval war settled down into a long period of isolated duels between Entente and Central Powers vessels. The US Navy was occupied with coastal raids upon the Confederacy and preventing British vessels from shipping arms to Canadian rebels in Newfoundland.
In late 1942, a major sea battle was fought between the Royal Navy and German High Seas Fleet. Confusion existed in North America over which side was victorious. The BBC claimed British victory, German Imperial Wireless denied it but did not counterclaim German victory. Future events (a sudden increase in German ships fuelling in US ports, for example) may tell which side won, or if it ended in a draw.
In 1943, a seaborne operation to re-recapture Bermuda from British and C.S. forces succeeded in seizing control of the islands for the United States. The United States also began running guns to Irish rebels to aid their fight against the British occupiers.
The Pacific Campaign
Japan bided its time during the first weeks of the war, allowing the Confederate army to deal the US a major blow before Tokyo committed its forces. As in the Pacific War ten years earlier, Japan's objective was control of the Sandwich Islands.
Early skirmishing was followed by triumph for Japan when America's sole carrier in the Pacific, the "Remembrance", was sunk in December, 1941, while protecting
Midway Island. Though Japan also lost one carrier and suffered damage to another, the island fell to the Japanese, leaving them in a position to further threaten the Sandwich Islands.
1942 began with the same long calm that had characterised most of the previous year. With only one Japanese carrier operational near Midway, neither side was capable of offensive moves, until the newly-built escort carriers "Trenton" and "Chapultepec" reached Pearl Harbor. In the second , planes from the "Trenton" sank Japan's only carrier near Midway while suffering little damage herself. As of early 1943, the Pacific remained mired in stalemate.
To the surprise of the U.S. Navy, an assault on Midway Island revealed the Japanese had completely abandoned their garrison there. Many suspected the Japanese were concentrating their resources for an assault on British-held Malaya and Singapore. An amphibious assault on Wake Island some months later regained U.S. control of the island but also found no signs of the Japanese.
Shortly before the outbreak of war, the US Army reassigned its occupation forces to postings further south. They were replaced by Quebecois conscripts, whose French language and customs only infuriated the English-speaking Canadians.
Canada, nonetheless, remained quiet throughout the first twelve months of the war. Confederate attempts to provoke a rising were met with scorn; the Canadians saw them as tyrants in the same vein as the Americans. Eventually, the CS government persuaded
Winston Churchillto add British weight to their efforts, and soon Entente agents met with more success.
The Canadian revolt erupted in the Autumn of 1942, just as the Confederate Army of Kentucky was beginning its offensive into Pennsylvania. The Québécois garrisons proved unable to resist many of the Canadian forces, and by the end of the year
Winnipegwas in rebel hands. The US Army had to divert critical resources from Utah and the eastern fronts; accordingly Philadelphia pressured Quebec City to conscript more of its youth for service in Canada. By mid-1943, Winnipeg was surrounded and under siege by the U.S. and Québécois armies, and by mid-1944, the leaders of the revolt surrendered in Saskatoon.
Opening Moves (1941)
The war in Europe kicked off a few weeks earlier than the North American conflict. The ascension of Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm V following Wilhelm II's death prompted demands from
Action Francaisefor the return of Alsace-Lorraine. Friedrich's refusal led to a new round of fighting between the Entente and the German bloc.
France and Britain were the first to declare war on Germany. French barrels and infantry began the liberation / conquest of Alsace-Lorraine while the RAF's bombers started pounding on north German cities. Tsar Michael of Russia recalled his ambassadors from Berlin, Vienna, and Constantinople, joining his western allies in the war shortly afterwards.
Events in western Europe during the summer and autumn of 1941 seemed to favour the Entente powers. French forces soon recovered the objectives in Alsace-Lorraine and stood upon the Rhine. The Anglo-French thrust through the Low Countries met with enormous success; the Belgians welcomed the Entente soldiers as liberators, while the more pro-German Dutch were unable to resist the occupation of Holland. Before long, Entente forces were driving into the
North German Plain. Pro-American Ireland was also conquered by British forces during this time.
But already the Entente's advance seemed to be slowing down.
Hamburgwas threatened but did not fall, ensuring that the German High Seas Fleet remained a viable force. Further south, France was unable to force a crossing of the Rhine, as the Germans swiftly rallied to repel the invaders. Winston Churchill's invasion of Norway was a bloody fiasco; all Churchill succeeded in doing was driving that nation into Germany's camp. Though Bulgaria toyed with the idea of deserting Germany, the presence of Turkey on her southern border eventually persuaded the Bulgarians to remain on the Kaiser's side.
Russia was able to drive Austro-German forces from most of the Ukraine, albeit thanks to Ukrainian support for their Russian liberators. Elsewhere however Russia's swarming tactics, unchanged since the Great War, resulted in heavy losses to German panzers and '88' flak guns for no appreciable gains.
By the end of 1941 it was clear that although the Central Powers had suffered enormous blows, the Entente had failed to knock either Germany or Austria-Hungary out of the war. By the winter of 1941-42 Germany was strong enough to launch counter-attacks against Britain outside Hamburg, and throw Austro-German forces against the Russians in the east.
Throughout 1942, the lines remained more or less stable. Anglo-French soldiers fought hard to retain the territory they had taken during the previous year, but no real gains seem to have been made by either side. Confederate newspapers reported on Russian advances toward Warsaw in German-ally Poland, but none of the viewpoint chars read any US or German reports at the time.
Partisans proved a sizable problem for all sides. Britain contended with Irish rebels while the Tsar fought Jewish, Finnish, Chechen, and Azerbaijani partisans. For its part, Austria-Hungary battled Serbs, Bosnians, and Romanians among others.
The Ukraine was a hornet's nest of Russian, German, and nationalist factions fighting fierce guerilla warfare against each other. Each major alliance funded certain groups.
No information exists concerning Italy, and very little concerning the Ottoman Empire. However, since Russia recalled its ambassador to Constantinople, it can be assumed that relations are hostile.
By 1943, the German Army had driven Anglo/French forces out of their territory and over the Dutch border. Subsequent operations were undertaken to free the Netherlands and "liberate" Belgium from Anglo-French forces. In the east, German armored units dealt a decisive blow to Russian forces outside of Kiev, tightening German control in the area. Another thrust was aimed at the capital of Petrograd, which the Russians tried unsuccessfully to turn back. Russia was no longer able to mount offensive operations, now trying to defend their Motherland with a battered and wounded army. Austria-Hungary was wracked by terrorist attacks but continued reprisals against the Serbs. The United States began running guns to Irish rebels in their fight against the British occupiers.
By early 1944, the stalemate had been broken. In the winter of that year, the Germans unleashed the atomic bomb for the first time, annihilating Petrograd and dealing a critical blow to the Entente. Though Tsar Michael vowed to continue the fight, the Russian war machine had been crippled too severely to pose any considerable threat. Slowly, Russia began to disintegrate. Atomic power had tipped the balance in favor of the Central Powers.
After Petrograd, the Germans dropped an atomic bomb on Paris, killing Charles XI. The French sued for peace.
Despite the capitulation of their European allies, the British still had one card left to play. After the destruction of Paris, they dropped their own bomb on Hamburg.
In response, London, Brighton, and Norwich were bombed in three simultaneous attacks. Winston Churchill boldly declared that they would avenge this action, but the British plane carrying the bomb was shot down in between Bruges and Ghent, in Belgium. By then, the British government had turned against Churchill. Shortly after the attacks, Parliament voted no-confidence in the Churchill-Mosley regime. A provisional government under Sir Horace Wilson was formed and sought an armistice with Germany.
The war in Europe had finally come to an end.
The Confederate Holocaust
The Black Rebellion of the 1930s
Throughout the 1930s, Negroes fought back against the oppressive Freedom Party regime under President Jake Featherston. Featherston often provoked them into fighting the Confederate army, and used this as an excuse to get U.S. president
Herbert Hoover(president from 1933-1937) to let the Freedom Party build up the Confederate Army. The black rebellions in the 30's failed miserably, and those who weren't killed by the C.S. Army were taken away to the concentration camps to be murdered. In retrospect, the rebellions only cemented Freedom Party control of the South and let Featherston unleash his war machine on the world in 1941.
From Discrimination to Deportation (1934-1941)
For decades the black population of the CSA languished under a system of strict racial control, similar to South Africa's
Apartheid, where blacks were considered to be residents of the South, but not citizens like whites. Blacks would take the work that not even the bottom rung of white society would do (the so called "po' buckra" or "white trash"), such as plantation work. Blacks also received harsher sentences for crimes compared to whites who committed the same crimes. Additionally, blacks couldn't leave their respective towns, parishes, or counties without having their passbook authorized by the state government. To travel from Jackson to Vicksburg, Mississippi, for instance, would require at least two-weeks for approval from the state.
For a while after the First World War the system was let up, but under increasing Freedom control of the halls of power in the late 1920s and early 30s strict control was re-enacted. After Jake Featherston became president in early 1934, there was nothing to prevent the whites from turning on their black brethren now that the highest law in the land endorsed it. And endorse it the Freedom Party did; several times in 1934 race riots destroyed the black districts of several Confederate cities. The Confederate government, which was slowly being interconnected with the Freedom Party during the Freedomization of the mid-1930s, passed it off as a simple "internal affair." The blacks became more militant, and, armed with Marxist rhetoric and weapons that had been hidden since 1916, prepared to hit back at their white oppressors. The day after Election Day in the midterm elections of 1935 (which were clearly rigged by the Freedom Party, ensuring complete Freedom domination of the state legislatures, which picked the national Senators) the blacks struck. While not as racially-charged as 1915, the rebellion still caused alarm in the white population. And some Confederates took advantage of the new revolt; Featherston asked his U.S. counterpart,
Herbert Hooverto allow him to increase the C.S. Army to a size larger than that allowed by the 1917 Armistice. Hoover agreed, thinking it was going to be used for internal policing only. At that point Featherston began his re-armament and conscription.
The Freedom Party had built several concentration camps in 1934 to house potential dissidents such Radical Liberal leaders and Whig politicians. Featherston put the captured black rebels in these camps, and started arresting black men for the flimsiest of pretenses. He also blamed the USA for the rebellions, and even went as far as to place U.S. weapons in the hands of dead blacks and photograph them for "evidence." By 1940-41, most of the white "politicals" had been murdered and their slots taken by black men. The new problem was that there were too many black men in these camps, and not much being done to properly take care of them.
The Population Reductions Begin (1941-1942)
The world began dissolving into a state of war in 1941 as Featherston and his Attorney General, Ferdinand Koenig, made the decision to destroy the black race in North America. With the eyes of the world turned toward the developing wars in Europe and Ohio, the commandants of several concentration camps in Louisiana began "population reductions"; i.e.: the murder of thousands of prisoners in order to make room for a replacement batch, which in turn would have their "populations reduced." (This became a slang term that popped into mainstream Confederate vocabulary.) Throughout 1941, men like Jefferson Davis Pinkard and Mercer Scott at Camp Dependable, and others at other places, led groups of a couple thousand blacks to nearby bayous or woods, forced them to dig graves, then shot them with submachine gun fire. The strain of mass executions took their toll on the Freedom Party guards carrying out the death sentences, and several committed suicide. In one such suicide, guard Chick Blades killed himself with carbon monoxide from his automobile exhaust. This gave Pinkard the idea of execution by gas chamber. He reconfigured a truck by sealing off its transport area and rerouting the exhaust to pump carbon monoxide into the chamber, turning it into a mobile gas chamber. Featherston and Koenig were pleased by this more efficient way of murder, and took several units of trucks from the Army for this purpose. They also ordered architects and scientists to develop a blueprint for the greatest prison camp ever built, which would open up on an empty stretch of prairie in western Texas. Hundreds of "transport trucks" were requisitioned for use there, while whole cities' worth of prisoners would be brought in by a rail spur. And "cities' worth" was exactly the idea for the camp. The Freedom Party was extending the black genocide to women and children.
Camps Determination and Humble (1942-1944)
Camp Determination was an extermination camp built in western Texas and headed by Group Leader
Jefferson Pinkard. It was built in a secluded area in the middle of the vast Texan prairie, with a rail spur leading away from the main east-west line to Abilene and beyond. Built from scratch by labor-gangs of black prisoners under white supervision, Determination had over a hundred barrack-halls stretching for several thousand yards. Surrounded by multiple lines of barbed wire and guard towers, escape from the camp was almost impossible, with every foot of land personally supervised by Pinkard himself. Beyond the sight (and smell) of the camp lay enormous stretches of mass graves, serviced by a paved road.
The first trainloads of inmates arrived in April 1942. Every time a new train arrived from the east, a corresponding barracks-hall of prisoners were led into gassing trucks and executed. In this industrial-like method, massive numbers of blacks had their "populations reduced," while their fellow inmates not yet marked for destruction were none the wiser. In May 1942, Pinkard was instructed by Attorney General Koenig to make room for a women-and-children's camp, nicknamed Camp Undecided. This camp was built from scratch on the opposite side of the rail spur and was serviced by female Freedom Party Guards.
During a routine bug extermination of the guards' barracks, Pinkard came across the idea of using insecticide as a way to dispose of mass numbers of prisoners. With the help of Caleb Beauregeard Slattery, Vice President of Cyclone Chemicals Company, Pinkard developed the concept of using gas chambers (already used in various state prisons across the United States) to exterminate people. The first "bathhouse" went into operation in August 1942, with the murder of 100 blacks (far less than the maximum room for a thousand inmates) personally witnessed by Pinkard, Koenig and other Justice Department and Freedom Party Guard leaders. The bathhouses, gassing trucks, and mental strain of the FPGs were put to the test when, in a fit of rage, Featherston sent the entire black population of Jackson, Mississippi to be gassed in October 1942. In less than a week, Pinkard and his crew murdered 30,000 blacks -- the victims being marched straight to their deaths as soon as each train was unloaded.
Trouble was on the horizon for Pinkard and his camp. General Abner Dowling's Eleventh Army was advancing on Lubbock, Texas, the linchpin of the Confederate defenses in the west, finally capturing the city in the spring of 1943 and re-establishing the state of Houston. Soon after the capture of Lubbock, the camp and the nearby town of Snyder (home to Pinkard's family and several of the Guardsmen) came under constant aerial assault, while the rail line to Abilene was continuously put out of action, forcing shipments to the camp to halt. Pinkard and Koenig argued over how to solve the problem before Featherston finally ordered Pinkard to begin construction on a new camp in eastern Texas. The Guards and records were sent ahead to the new Camp Humble, just north of the city of Houston, while the gas chambers were blown up -- but not before every remaining black prisoner was gassed. While Dowling and the 11th Army were displaying the atrocities and mass graves of Determination to the world, Humble was receiving its first shipment of prisoners and preparing its newly-constructed crematorium for the bodies of its victims.
The machinery of mass killing did not occur in the Confederacy alone; Haiti, which was occupied by the Confederates until 1944, had a Confederate-run extermination camp.
The End of the Camps
Camp Humble stopped operations in the summer of 1944, when the Republic of Texas was recognized by the United States. As part of the deal by which Texas left the war, the camp was surrounded by Texas forces, who refused to allow camp guards, and specifically Jefferson Pinkard, to escape. Pinkard was arrested by U.S. forces.
Article Six of the unconditional surrender of the Confederacy specifically ordered camps to stop operations as of 6:01 p.m. on July 14, 1944, and to feed and maintain their prisoners.
The Nuclear Race
By 1943 both the United States and the Confederacy, along with other countries, had initiated programs to develop atomic weapons. While no power had developed a weapon yet, it appeared that the United States and German programs were ahead of the Confederate one, with Germany the closest to completion. Around the turn of the New Year in 1943, the U.S. achieved its first sustained chain reaction at its plant in Hanford, Washington. The British and the French were also rumored to be working on atomic weapons.
President Featherston demanded more production from the Confederate nuclear program, fearing that the U.S. would develop the weapon first. In an attempt to slow down the U.S. nuclear program, C.S. bombers flew a long-range mission to bomb the "uranium works" in Hanford. No serious damage was incurred, and the program continued under heightened security. A later U.S. bombing raid on the Confederate atomic program in Lexington, Virginia, killed several prominent Confederate nuclear physicists.
Petrograd, Russia, nuked by Germany
Philadelphia, USA, nuked by the Confederate States of America
* Newport News, CSA, nuked by the United States of America
Paris, France, nuked by Germany
* Charleston, CSA, nuked by the USA
Hamburg, Germany, nuked by Great Britain
London, nuked by Germany as part of three simultaneous atomic bombings
* Norwich, nuked by Germany as part of three simultaneous atomic bombings
* Brighton, nuked by Germany as part of three simultaneous atomic bombings
* Partway between
Bruges, and Ghent, Belgium, a failed bombing by Great Britain
The aftermath of the Second Great War in Timeline-191 is left very much an open question as of the last book (currently) in the series, "Settling Accounts: In At The Death". The Central Powers were victorious in the global conflict. In North America, the USA was beginning to reincorporate the territory of the CSA, with Houston, Kentucky, and Tennessee already re-admitted as states. The status of Texas is unknown: it seceded from the CSA before the war ended, and was occupied by the USA at the end of the war, but apparently remained an independent country. Further, the Confederacy of T-191 extends further south than the original Confederacy of OTL, either through purchase (Chihuaha and Sonora) or conquest (Cuba), and the USA may now control all of this territory. Additionally, it is not clear if the USA will remove its troops from Baja California or annex it outright.
The United States has not only defeated the Confederate States as in the First Great War, but crushed it and reincorporated the territory it lost in the War of Secession. As one character put it, "The United States learned a bar-fighter's lesson after the First Great War: after you knock a man down, kick him in the belly to make sure he doesn't get up again." Apparently left with no patience for the citizens of the former Confederate States for causing four major wars in the past 83 years, the US appears to be imposing draconian occupation laws on the former Confederate States, apparently far more strict than OTL's Reconstruction.
Millions of blacks living in the South were massacred in Featherston's "population reductions." The Black Holocaust also resulted in the Confederacy importing many more migrant hispanic workers from the Empire of Mexico to serve as a replacement workforce. The US occupation forces are strictly enforcing the liberty and equal rights of the handful of surviving blacks in the South, a concept which has been totally absent from white Southerners for over 83 years (indeed, considered outright unethical to many of them). The US occupation forces after the war began circulating a pamphlet titled "Equality" throughout the South to state the goals of the US army in maintaining equality for blacks. Further, similar to how after OTL's Holocaust of Jews in Europe, it has been conjectured that the experience of Featherston and his "population reductions" has "immunized" much of the world against tolerating future racism. For example, General Dowling states that he never even considered himself fond of or on the side of blacks, but that the Confederacy's black extermination camps has filled him with disgust.
Globally, Britain and France have been thoroughly defeated by Germany and Tsarist Russia has been crushed lower than ever before. All heads of state of the Entente were killed, overthrown, or kicked out of office.
It is strongly hinted that a new rising superpower in Timeline-191 is the Empire of Japan. The Pacific War of OTL never really happened to Japan in Timeline-191. Japan fought the USA in the 1930’s but the war ended with status quo ante bellum, and the Japanese were left unimpressed. While the USA was able to hold onto the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) and Midway, and Japan apparently stopped fighting the USA in the Second Great War, this is simply because they didn’t see the need to keep wasting the resources. In OTL, Japan pre-emptively attacked the USA’s Pacific Fleet at Hawaii because the USA was opposed to Japan’s invasion of China and Indonesia for their rich natural resources, and Japan knew that sooner or later, the USA would try to repulse them from these conquests. In Timeline-191, the USA is so preoccupied with fighting the Confederacy that they simply do not have the resources to repulse Japan from Indonesia, etc. Thus, there was no real point in Japan continuing to fight the USA. Eventually, Japan essentially formed its own third side in the war, stopping its offensives against the USA (while still nominally a US enemy) in order to stab the Entente in the back, and start invading British possessions in southeast Asia, such as rubber-rich Malaysia. By the end of the war, unchecked Japanese Imperialism has left the Empire in control of much of Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and vast swaths of China. As one character points out, within 20 years, with all of the resources of these conquered territories, Japan could become a truly global superpower.
[http://turtledove.wikia.com/wiki/Second_Great_War "Second Great War" at Turtledove Wiki]
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List of World War II topics (P) — # P 15 Termit # P 59 Airacomet # P 61 Black Widow # P 80 Shooting Star # P 4 class torpedo boat # P. G. Wodehouse # P. O. Box 1142 # P. Y. Saeki # P107 # Paavo Berg # Paavo Nurmi # Paavo Yrjölä # Pablo de Escandón y Barrón # Pacific Fighters #… … Wikipedia