- Arthur Hugh Clough
Arthur Hugh Clough (1 January 1819 – 13 November 1861) was an English poet, an educationalist, and the devoted assistant to ground-breaking nurse Florence Nightingale. He was the brother of suffragist Anne Clough, who ended up as principal of Newnham College, Cambridge.
Arthur Clough was born in Liverpool to James Butler Clough, a cotton merchant of Welsh descent, and Anne Perfect, from Pontefract in Yorkshire. In 1822 the family moved to the United States, and Clough's early childhood was spent mainly in Charleston, South Carolina. In 1828 Clough and his older brother Charles returned to England to attend school in Chester. In 1829 Clough began attending Rugby School, then under Thomas Arnold, whose strenuous views on life and education he accepted. (See Muscular Christianity.)
Cut off to a large degree from his family, he passed a somewhat solitary boyhood, devoted to the school and to early literary efforts in the Rugby Magazine. In 1836 his parents returned to Liverpool, and in 1837 he went with a scholarship to Balliol College, Oxford. Here his contemporaries included Benjamin Jowett, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, John Campbell Shairp, William George Ward and Frederick Temple. Matthew Arnold, four years his junior, arrived the term after Clough had graduated. Clough and Arnold enjoyed an intense friendship in Oxford, but neither liked the other's poetry.
Oxford, in 1837, was in the full swirl of the High Church movement led by John Henry Newman. Clough was for a time influenced by this movement, but eventually rejected it. He surprised everyone by graduating from Oxford with only Second Class Honours, but won a fellowship with a tutorship at Oriel College. He became unwilling to teach the doctrines of the Church of England, as his tutorship required of him, and in 1848 he resigned as tutor and traveled to Paris, where he witnessed the revolution of 1848. Returning to England in a state of euphoria, he wrote his long poem The Bothie of Tober-na-Vuolich, a farewell to the academic life, following it up with poems from his time as student and tutor, in the shared publication Ambarvalia. In 1849 he witnessed another revolution, the siege of the Roman Republic, which inspired another long poem, Amours de Voyage. Easter Day, written in Naples, was a passionate denial of the Resurrection and the fore-runner of the unfinished poem Dipsychus.
Since 1846 Clough had been financially responsible for his mother and sister (following the death of his father and younger brother and the marriage of his elder brother). In the autumn of 1849, to provide for them, he became principal of University Hall, a hostel for Unitarian students at University College, London, but found its ideology as oppressive as that which he had left behind in Oxford. He soon found that he disliked London, in spite of the friendship of Thomas Carlyle and his wife Jane Welsh Carlyle. A prospect of a post in Sydney led him to engage himself to Blanche Mary Shore Smith, but when that failed to materialize, he traveled in 1852 to Cambridge, Massachusetts, encouraged by Ralph Waldo Emerson. There he remained several months, lecturing and editing an older edition of Plutarch for the booksellers, until in 1853 the offer of an examinership in the Education Office brought him to London once more. He married Miss Shore Smith and pursued a steady official career, diversified only by an appointment in 1856 as secretary to a commission sent to study foreign military education. He devoted enormous energy to work as an unpaid secretarial assistant to his wife's cousin Florence Nightingale. He wrote virtually no poetry for six years.
In 1860 his health began to fail. He visited first Great Malvern and Freshwater, Isle of Wight. From April 1861 he traveled strenuously in Greece, Turkey and France, where he met up with the Tennyson family. Despite his fragile health, this Continental tour renewed a state of euphoria like that of 1848-9, and he quickly wrote the elements of his last long poem, Mari Magno. His wife joined him on a voyage from Switzerland to Italy, where he contracted malaria. He died in Florence on 13 November. He is buried in the English Cemetery there, in a tomb that his wife and sister had Susan Horner design from Jean-François Champollion's book on Egyptian hieroglyphs. Matthew Arnold wrote the elegy of Thyrsis to his memory.
Shortly before he left Oxford, in the stress of the Irish potato famine, Clough wrote an ethical pamphlet addressed to the undergraduates, with the title, A Consideration of Objections against the Retrenchment Association at Oxford (1847). His Homeric pastoral The Bothie of Toper-na-fuosich, afterwards renamed Tober-na-Vuolich (1848), and written in hexameter is full of socialism, reading-party humours and Scottish scenery. Ambarvalia (1849), published jointly with his friend Thomas Burbidge, contains shorter poems of various dates from circa 1840 onwards. Amours de Voyage, a novel in verse, was written at Rome in 1849; Dipsychus, a rather amorphous satire, at Venice in 1850; and the idylls which make up Mari Magno, or Tales on Board, in 1861. A few lyric and elegiac pieces, later in date than the Ambarvalia, complete Clough's poetic output. His only considerable enterprise in prose was a revision of a 17th century translation of Plutarch (called the "Dryden Translation," but actually the product of translators other than Dryden) which occupied him from 1852, and was published as Plutarch's Lives (1859).
Clough's output is small and much of it appeared posthumously. Anthony Kenny notes that the editions prepared by Clough's wife, Blanche, have "been criticized ... for omitting, in the interests of propriety, significant passages in Dipsychus and other poems." But editing Clough's literary remains has proven a challenging task even for later editors. Kenny goes on to state that "it was no mean feat to have placed almost all of Clough's poetry in the public domain within a decade, and to have secured for it general critical and popular acclaim."
His long poems have a certain narrative and psychological penetration, and some of his lyrics have a strength of melody to match their depth of thought. He is regarded[by whom?] as one of the most forward-looking English poets of the 19th century, in part due to a sexual frankness that shocked his contemporaries. He often went against the popular religious and social ideals of his day, and his verse is said[by whom?] to have the melancholy and the perplexity of an age of transition, although Through a Glass Darkly suggests that he did not lack certain religious beliefs of his own. His work is interesting to students of metre, owing to the experiments which he made, in the Bothie and elsewhere, with English hexameters and other types of verse formed upon classical models.
Clough is perhaps best known now for his short poems Say Not the Struggle Naught Availeth, a rousing call to tired soldiers to keep up the good fight, Through a Glass Darkly, an exploration of religious doubt, and The Latest Decalogue, a satirical take on the Ten Commandments. The Latest Decalogue's couplet on murder, "Thou shalt not kill; but need'st not strive Officiously to keep alive:" is often quoted in debates on medical ethics in the sense that it is not right to struggle to keep terminally ill people alive, especially if they are suffering. Broadcaster Geoffrey Robertson QC used the phrase in an episode of his television series, Geoffrey Robertson's Hypotheticals (Affairs of the Heart, ABC, 1989), illustrating this point of view; it is unclear whether Robertson was aware Clough's version of the Sixth Commandment had nothing to do with the alleviation of suffering but was instead referring to those who do not afford - in any circumstances - due respect to the sanctity of human life. Clough himself gives no indication the couplet on murder might refer to the medical profession in general or to the treatment of the terminally ill in particular; indeed, the entire text of The Latest Decalogue satirizes the hypocrisy, materialism, the selective ethics and self-interest common to all of mankind.
- Clough's Poems (1862) edited, with a short memoir, by F.T. Palgrave,
- Letters and Remains, with a longer memoir, privately printed in 1865. *Both volumes published together in 1869, and reprinted
- Robindra Biswas, Arthur Hugh Clough: Towards a Reconsideration(1972)
- Samuel Waddington, Arthur Hugh Clough: A Monograph (1883)
- Anthony Kenny, Arthur Hugh Clough, a Poet's Life (2005)
- Howard F. Lowry and Ralph Leslie Rusk (editors), Emerson-Clough Letters, Hamden: Archon Books, 1968.
- Selections from the poems were made by Mrs Clough for the Golden Treasury series in 1894, and by E. Rhys in 1896.
- "The French Lieutenant's Woman" (1969), by John Fowles.
- Poem Hunter
- Note: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Works by Arthur Hugh Clough at Project Gutenberg
- The Poetry of Arthur Hugh Clough[dead link]
- Arthur Hugh Clough Index Entry at Poets' Corner
- Arthur Hugh Clough's poetry at Minstrels[dead link]
- Archival material relating to Arthur Hugh Clough listed at the UK National Register of Archives
The works of Plutarch Works Lives
Alcibiades and Coriolanus1 · Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar · Aratus of Sicyon & Artaxerxes and Galba & Otho2 · Aristides and Cato the Elder1 · Crassus and Nicias1 · Demetrius and Antony1 · Demosthenes and Cicero1 · Dion and Brutus1 · Fabius and Pericles1 · Lucullus and Cimon1 · Lysander and Sulla1 · Numa and Lycurgus1 · Pelopidas and Marcellus1 · Philopoemen and Flamininus1 · Phocion and Cato the Younger · Pompey and Agesilaus1 · Poplicola and Solon1 · Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius · Romulus and Theseus1 · Sertorius and Eumenes1 · Tiberius Gracchus & Gaius Gracchus and Agis & Cleomenes1 · Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus1 · Themistocles and Camillus
Translators and editors1 Comparison extant · 2 Four unpaired Lives
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Arthur Hugh Clough — 1860 Arthur Hugh Clough (* 1. Januar 1819 in Liverpool; † 13. November 1861 in Florenz) war ein britischer Dichter. Inhaltsverzeichnis … Deutsch Wikipedia
Arthur Hugh Clough — (Liverpool, 1er janvier 1819 Florence, 13 novembre 1861) est un poète anglais de l époque victorienne, d une modernité de ton inhabituelle pour l époque. Il est également le frère de Anne Jemima Clough (1820 1892), une suffragette de la première… … Wikipédia en Français
Clough, Arthur Hugh — ▪ British poet born Jan. 1, 1819, Liverpool died Nov. 13, 1861, Florence poet whose work reflects the perplexity and religious doubt of mid 19th century England. He was a friend of Matthew Arnold (Arnold, Matthew) and the subject of Arnold s… … Universalium
Clough, Arthur Hugh — (1819 1861) The son of a prosperous Liverpool cotton merchant, he spent some of his early years in South Carolina. He was educated at Rugby School under Thomas Arnold and at Balliol College, Oxford. In 1842 he was elected to a fellowship at… … British and Irish poets
CLOUGH, ARTHUR HUGH — a lyric poet, born at Liverpool; son of a cotton merchant; educated at Rugby under Dr. Arnold, whom he held in the highest regard; was at Oxford, as a Fellow of Oriel, at the time of the Tractarian movement, which he arrayed himself against,… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Clough, Arthur Hugh — (1819 1861) Poet, s. of a cotton merchant in Liverpool, he spent his childhood in America, but was sent back to England for his education, which he received at Rugby and Oxf. While at the Univ., where he was tutor and Fellow of Oriel, he fell… … Short biographical dictionary of English literature
Arthur Clough — Arthur Hugh Clough Arthur Hugh Clough (Liverpool, 1er janvier 1819 Florence, 13 novembre 1861) est un poète anglais de l époque victorienne, d une modernité de ton inhabituelle pour l époque. Il est également le frère de Anne Jemima Clough (1820… … Wikipédia en Français
Clough (disambiguation) — Clough Clough can refer to the following: Contents 1 Places 2 People 2.1 First / middle name … Wikipedia
Clough — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Arthur Hugh Clough (1819–1861), englischer Schriftsteller Brian Clough (1935–2004), englischer Fußballspieler und trainer David Marston Clough (1846–1924), US amerikanischer Politiker Ian Clough… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Clough — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie des personnes (réelles ou fictives) partageant un même patronyme. Clough est un patronyme anglosaxon porté notamment par : Brian Clough (1935 2004), footballeur puis entraîneur de football… … Wikipédia en Français