A capping inversion is an elevated
inversion layerthat caps a convective boundary layer.
The "boundary layer" is the part of the atmosphere which is closest to the ground. Normally, the sun heats the ground, which in turn heats the air just above it.
Thermals form when this warm air rises into the cold air (warm air is less dense than cold air), a process known as convection. A "convective" layer such as this has the potential for cloud formation, since condensationoccurs as the warm air rises and cools.
inversion layeris when the normal temperature (warm air below, cold air above) profile is reversed, creating a stable configuration of dense, cold air sitting below lighter, warm air.
An "elevated" inversion layer is thus a region of warm air above a region of cold air, but higher in the atmosphere (generally not touching the surface).
A "capping inversion" occurs when there is a boundary layer with a normal temperature profile (warm air rising into cooler air) and the layer above that is an inversion layer (cooler air below warm air). Cloud formation from the lower layer is "capped" by the inversion layer. If the capping inversion layer or "cap" is too strong (too close to the surface), it will prevent thunderstorms from developing. A strong cap can result in
However, if the air at the surface is unstable enough, strong updrafts can be forced through the capping inversion. This selective process of only allowing the strongest updrafts to form
thunderstorms often results in outbreaks of severe weather.
Convective available potential energy
* [http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=capping-inversion1 Capping Inversion] - AMS Glossary of Meteorology
* [http://education.arm.gov/nsdl/Library/glossary.shtml#Capping_inversion Capping Inversion] - National Science Digital Library
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