Infobox Music genre
name =Psychedelic rock
Garage rock, folk rock, blues, and occasionally rāga
cultural_origins =Mid 1960s, Britain and
Electric guitar(usually with guitar effects such as fuzz, phaser, flanger, reverb etc.) - Bass guitar- Drums - Electronic organ- Sitar- Moog synthesizer- Theremin- studio sound effects (e.g. recordings played backwards)
popularity =Peaked in the late 1960s
Progressive rock- hard rock- heavy metal - art rock- space rock- stoner rock- krautrock- zeuhl- new age - punk rock- proto punk- jam bands - dub reggae
Acid rock- neo-psychedelia
Psychedelic pop- psychedelic soul- psychedelic folk
Psychedelic rock is a style of
rock musicthat attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. [ [http://www.britannica.com/psychedelic/textonly/psychedelic.html Head Sounds] ] It emerged during the mid 1960s among garage and folk rockbands in Britain and the United States. Psychedelic rock is a bridge from early blues-based rock to progressive rockand heavy metal, but it also drew on non-Western sources such as Indian music's rāgas and sitars.
The musical style typically features electric guitars, 12 strings being preferred for their 'jangle'; elaborate studio effects - backwards taping, panning (sound placement in the stereo field), phasing, long delay loops and extreme reverb; exotic instrumentation, with a particular fondness for the
sitarand tabla; A strong keyboard presence, especially Hammond, Farfisa and Vox Organs, the Rhodes electric piano, Harpsichords and the Mellotron (an early tape-driven 'sampler'); a strong emphasis on extended instrumental solos; modal melodies and surreal, esoterically inspired or whimsical lyrics.
While the first contemporary musicians to be influenced by psychedelic drugs were in the jazz and folk scenes, the first use of the term "
psychedelic" in popular music was by the "acid-folk" group The Holy Modal Rounders in 1964, with the song "Hesitation Blues."Fact|date=July 2008 The first use of the term "psychedelic rock" was on the 13th Floor Elevators' business card , designed by John Cleveland, and circulated in December 1965. The term was first used in print in the Austin Statesman in an article about the band titled "Unique Elevators shine with Psychedelic Rock" , dated 10th February 1966.
British rockembarked on a frenetic race of ideas that spread back to the U.S. with the British Invasion. The folk musicscene also experimented with outside influences. In the tradition of Jazzand bluesmany musicians began to take drugs, and include drug references in their songs. Beat Generationwriters like William Burroughs, Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsbergand especially the new exponents of consciousness expansion such as Timothy Leary, Alan Wattsand Aldous Huxleyprofoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation. In late 1965, The Beatlesunveiled their brand of psychedelia on the Rubber Soulalbum, which featured John Lennon's first paean to universal love ("The Word") and a sitar-laden tale of attempted hippy hedonism("Norwegian Wood", written by John Lennon). The British rock act The Yardbirdsrecorded the single " Happenings Ten Years Time Ago" in 1966, another track frequently cited as the first psychedelic song, this one due to its frantic evocation of drug-induced paranoia.Fact|date=July 2008
Psychedelia began in the
United States' folk scene with New York City's Holy Modal Roundersintroducing the term in 1964.Fact|date=July 2008 A similar band called Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions from San Francisco were influenced by The Byrdsand the Beatlesto switch from acoustic music to electric music in 1965. Renaming themselves the Warlocks, they fell in with Ken Kesey's LSD-fueled Merry Prankstersin November 1965, and changed their name to the Grateful Deadthe following month.Fact|date=July 2008 The Dead played to light shows at the Pranksters' " Acid Tests", with pulsing images being projected over the group in what became a widespread practice.
Their sound soon became identified as "
acid rock", which they played at the first "Trips Festival" in January 1966, along with Big Brother and the Holding Company. The festival, held at the Longshoremen's Hall, was attended by some 10,000 people. For most of the attendees, it was their first encounter with both acid-rock and LSD. Another band called The Ethix, which originally played R&B, started to experiment with electronics, tape transformations and wild improvisations, and as their music transformed, The Ethix transformed into Fifty Foot Hose.
Throughout 1966, the San Francisco music scene flourished, as the Fillmore, the
Avalon Ballroom, and The Matrix began booking local rock bands on a nightly basis. The emerging " San Francisco Sound" made local stars of numerous bands, including the Charlatans, Moby Grape, Big Brother and the Holding Company, Fifty Foot Hose, Quicksilver Messenger Service, Country Joe and the Fish, The Great Society, and the folk-rockers Jefferson Airplane, whose debut album was recorded during the winter of 1965/66 and released in August 1966. " Jefferson Airplane Takes Off" was the first album to come out of San Francisco during this era and sold well enough to bring the city's music scene to the attention of the record industry.
Jefferson Airplane gained greater fame the following year with two of the earliest psychedelic hit singles: "White Rabbit" and "Somebody to Love". Both these songs had originated with the band
The Great Society, whose singer Grace Slick, left to join Jefferson Airplane, taking the two compositions with her.Fact|date=July 2008
While the Grateful Dead were the acknowledged leaders of the San Francisco music scene in the 1960s by both local concert-goers and rival bands, their records did not sell as well as those of their Bay Area peers. As a result, the Grateful Dead didn't begin to attain national popularity until around 1969-1970, when their constant touring gained them a cult following.Fact|date=July 2008
San Franciscoreceives much of the credit for jump-starting the psychedelic music scene, many other American cities contributed significantly to the new genre. Los Angeles boasted dozens of important psychedelic bands, including the Byrds, Iron Butterfly, Love, Spirit, the United States of America, and the Doors, among others. New York City produced its share of psychedelic bands such as the Blues Magoos, the Blues Project, Bermuda Triangle Band, Electric Prunes, Lothar and the Hand People. and the Third Bardo. The Detroit area gave rise to psychedelic bands the Amboy Dukes, Funkadelicand the SRC. Texas (particularly Austin) is often cited for its contributions to psychedelic music, being home to the groundbreaking 13th Floor Elevators, as well as Bubble Puppy, Shiva's Headband, Golden Dawn, the Zakary Thaks, Red Krayola, and many others. Chicago produced the H. P. Lovecraft.
The Byrds went psychedelic in March 1966 with "
Eight Miles High", a song with odd vocal harmonies and an extended guitar solo that guitarist Roger McGuinnstates was inspired by Ragaand John Coltrane. Brute Force (musician)is another psychedelic rocker who is still very active today. His "King of Fuh" is considered a psychedelic masterpiece.
In 1965, members of
Rick And The Ravensand The Psychedelic Rangerscame together with Jim Morrisonto form The Doors. They made a demo tape for Columbia Recordsin September of that year, which contained glimpses of their later acid-rock sound. When nobody at Columbia wanted to produce the band, they were signed by Elektra Records, who released their debut album in January 1967. It contained their first hit single, " Light My Fire." Clocking in at over 7 minutes, it became one of the first rock singles to break the mold of the three-minute pop song, although the version usually played on AM radiowas a much-shorter version.
The Beach Boys, with their squeaky-clean image, seemed unlikely as psychedelic types. Their music, however, grew more psychedelic and experimental, perhaps due in part to writer/producer/arranger Brian Wilson's increased drug usage and burgeoning mental illness. In 1966, responding to the Beatles' innovations, they produced their album " Pet Sounds" and later that year had a massive hit with the psychedelic single " Good Vibrations". Wilson's magnum opus "SMiLE" (which was never finished, and was remade by Wilson with a new band in 2004) also shows this growing experimentation.
The psychedelic influence was also felt in some mainstream R&B music, where record labels such as
Motowndabbled for a while with psychedelic soul, producing such hits as " Ball of Confusion (That's What the World Is Today)" and "Psychedelic Shack" (by The Temptations), "Reflections" (by Diana Ross & the Supremes), and the 11-minute-long "Time Has Come Today" by The Chambers Brothers. Sly and the Family Stone, a racially integrated group whose roots were in soul and R&B, created music influenced by psychedelic rock. This is especially evident on their breakthrough second album, Dance to the Music.
Psychedelic rock in Britain, in common with its American counterpart had its roots in the
Folk rockgenre. In much the same way that The Great Societyand the original Jefferson Airplanewere electrified folk bands, the same was true of early psychedelic bands in the Britain such as Fairport Convention. The major difference between psychedelic rock in the Britain and its American counterpart is the role it played in a media revolution that changed the face of musical broadcasting, the music business and to a lesser degree, music publications nationwide.
Prior to the launch of
BBC Radio 1on 30 September 1967, BBC radio consisted of a single station ("except for Radio Scotland") and had just two pop shows, Saturday Club and Easy Beat. [Pirate Radio. http://www.ministryofrock.co.uk/PirateRadio.html] These shows were ultra conservative and almost ("if not completely") ignored the 'Progressive' groups both from America ( Jefferson Airplane, Country Joe and the Fish, Doors, Byrdsetc) and those in England like Hawkwind, The Move, The Yardbirds, and The Animals. Radio Luxembourg("which reached the South of England") was a little more progressive but still largely ignored the 'new' music scene.
The only real exposure that these groups could get was live performances in a handful of small clubs mostly in London with a few in other major cities. The advent of Pirate Radio and in particular a pirate disc jockey,
John Peelchanged all that. Suddenly these progressive bands were able to reach a mass audience and at their peak the pirates were boasting greater audiences than the BBC. Adding to the impact and impression of a cultural revolution was the emergence of alternative weekly publications like IT (" International Times") and OZ magazinewhich featured psychedelic and progressive music together with the counter culture lifestyle. Soon psychedelic rock clubs like the UFO club in Tottenham Court Road, Middle Earth club in Covent Garden, the Roundhousein Chalk Farm, the Country Club (Swiss Cottage) and the Art Lab ("also in Covent Garden") were drawing capacity audience with psychedelic rock and ground-breaking liquid light shows.
Psychedelic rock audiences were also a major break with tradition. Wearing long hair and wild shirts from shops like Mr Fish,
Granny Takes a Tripand old military uniforms from Carnaby Street(" Soho") and Kings Road ("Chelsea") boutiques, they were in stark contrast to the slick, tailored " Teddyboys" or the drab, conventional dress of most teenagers prior to that. [The Look. Adventures in Pop & Rock Fashion. Paul Gorman. ISBN 1-86074-302-1]
The August 1966 album by The Beatles "Revolver" shows a psychedelic influence with songs like "
Tomorrow Never Knows" and "Yellow Submarine" and marked the beginning of the demise of their harmless pop 'mop-tops' image. The Yardbirdsreleased "Roger the Engineer" in the same year. Jeff Beck's experimentation with fuzz-tone, feedbackand distortion along with his trademark note-bending style set a high standard for future psychedelic experimenters; Jimmy Pagedeveloped the technique of scraping a violin or cello bow across the strings to produce surreal sounds during The Yardbirds' live performances of the time. Hearing "Still I'm Sad" made Daevid Allendecide to form his first rock band. [cite book | last = Allen | first = Daevid | authorlink = Daevid Allen | year = 1994 | isbn = 1-8994-7500-1 | title = Gong Dreaming: soft machine 66-69 | publisher = GAS Books | pages = p.51 ] Donovans transformation to 'electric' music ("like Dylan before him"), had a 1966 hit with "Sunshine Superman," one of the very first overtly psychedelic pop records. Pink Floydhad been developing experimental rock with " light shows" since 1965 in the underground culturescene, and in 1966 the Soft Machineformed. From a blues rockbackground, the British supergroup Cream debuted in December. The Jimi Hendrix Experiencewith Noel Reddingand Mitch Mitchellbrought Jimi Hendrixfame in Britain, and later in his American homeland.
Pink Floyd's "Arnold Layne" in March 1967 only hinted at their live sound; the Beatles' ground-breaking album "
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" was recorded on nearly all of the same dates as Pink Floyd's first album " The Piper at the Gates of Dawn". Cream showed their psychedelic sounds the same year in " Disraeli Gears". In the folk scene itself blues, drugs, jazz and eastern influences had featured since 1964 in the work of Davy Grahamand Bert Jansch, and in 1967 the Incredible String Band's " The 5000 Spirits or the Layers of the Onion" developed this into full blown psychedelia. Other artists joining the psychedelic revolution included Eric Burdon(previously of The Animals), and The Small Faces. The Who's "Sell Out" had two early psychedelic tracks, " I Can See for Miles" and "Armenia City in the Sky", but the album concept was out of tune with the times, and it was their later album "Tommy" that established them in the scene. The Rolling Stoneshad drug references and psychedelic hints in their 1966 singles " 19th Nervous Breakdown" and " Paint It, Black", then the fully psychedelic " Their Satanic Majesties Request" ("In Another Land") suffered from the problems the group was having at the time, but has been considered a classic. In 1968 " Jumpin' Jack Flash" and " Beggars Banquet" re-established them, but their disastrous concert at Altamont in 1969 ended the dream on a downer.
The Beatlesreleases that the band embraced a colourful new frontier. " Strawberry Fields Forever" was the first song recorded intended for an album about nostalgia and childhood in 1966. Brian Epstein hastily released the first two songs recorded which would have ended up on the " Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" album. It was released as a double-A sided single along with " Penny Lane" on February 13, 1967 in the UK and on February 17, 1967 in the U.S. " Strawberry Fields Forever" induced a "magic carpet" of sound, with its unusual chord progression, a kaleidoscope of instruments and effects, and an unusual edit of two completely separate versions (the latter of which had to be slowed down to fit.) topped off with a false ending.
The album "
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" (partially influenced by their studio neighbours Pink Floyd --then recording The Piper at the Gates of Dawn-- and vice versa) was a veritable encyclopedia of psychedelia (among other elements), as well as an explosion of creativity that would set the standard for rock albums decades later. From the title track to " Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" to " Within You Without You" to " A Day in the Life", the album showcased a wildly colourful palette, with unpredictable changes in rhythm, texture, melody, and tone colour that few groups could equal.
The single "
All You Need Is Love", debuted for a worldwide audience on the "Our World" television special, restated the message of "The Word", but with a " Sgt. Pepper" style arrangement. Yet after the death of Brian Epsteinand the unpopular television movie "Magical Mystery Tour" (with an uneven soundtrack album accompanying it) the band returned to a more raw style in 1968, albeit a more earthy and complex version than had been heard before " Rubber Soul".
Around the same time The Beatles were recording Sgt. Pepper, another British group, The
Bee Gees, were recording their first international album. Upon returning to England from Australia, they wrote and recorded their debut LP, " Bee Gees' 1st", which contained such psychedelic songs such as "Every Christian Lion Hearted Man Will Show You", "New York Mining Disaster 1941" and "Turn Of The Century". The Bee Gees continued throughout the remainder of the 60s in the psychedelic/baroque rock style with albums such as "Horizontal", "Idea" and the classic double album "Odessa". After a 16 month break-up and reunion, The Bee Gees reinvented their sound in a more R&B/Soul style. Many rock critics consider the 1960s era Bee Gees as their classic period.
1968 produced further innovative UK releases, ranging from the sublime to the ridiculous.
Tomorrowrecorded one of the most eccentric offerings of the season. The Small Facesreleased one of rock's first concept albums, "Ogden's Nut Gone Flake" (at least on side two), with its tale of Happiness Stan's search for the missing half of the moon. "Itchycoo Park" was the first song to use "flanging" - the effect discovered by British recording engineer George Chkiantz in 1967. "Odessey and Oracle" by The Zombies, which was recorded at Abbey Road immediately after "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" and "The Piper at the Gates of Dawn", was the first album to seriously feature the Mellotron, an innovation brought about because they couldn't afford to pay for session musicians. Meanwhile The Moody Blueswent off "In Search of the Lost Chord". As Psychedelia had become more mainstream, many of the phenomenon's originators were spending more and more time on extensive tours, and further influencing the development of new groups all over the globe.
Australiaand New Zealandhave long been overlooked in the history of popular music, especially in relation to psychedelic rock and pop, although it was a fertile region for recordings in this genre. One of the main reasons for the relative obscurity of Australian psychedelia was that few bands from the region had any significant commercial success outside their home countries; the most notable exception was The Easybeats, who scored an international hit in late 1966 with their classic single "Friday On My Mind" (which was in fact recorded in the UK).Fact|date=January 2008Another limiting factor was that some of the best Australasian psychedelic records were pressed in tiny quantities (sometimes as few as 250 copies) and very few ever gained significant overseas distribution (if any). As a result, releases from these countries were for many years known only to a small coterie of international music fans and, not surprisingly, their rarity means that they now command high prices on the collector's market. However, since the advent of the CD and the re-release of many of these important recordings, the original psychedelic rock of the 1960s from Australia and New Zealand has gradually gained wider recognition, culminating in the inclusion of a number of seminal tracks on the second volume of the famous " Nuggets" series, originated by US musician Lenny Kaye.
Local musicians and producers were heavily influenced by innovations in British and American psychedelic music, although, for several reasons, British music had a somewhat stronger influence. One major factor was that the
EMIcompany had long enjoyed the dominant market position in both countries. Another influence was that many Australasian bands like The Easybeatsand The Twilightsincluded members who were recent immigrants from the UK. Also, it was common for many groups to receive regular "care packages" from relatives and friends in Britain, containing singles, albums, the latest Carnaby Streetfashions and even off-air tape recordings of British and European radio broadcasts. As a result, considering the distance and travel times involved, local Australian and New Zealand bands were kept remarkably up to date with the latest trends. The Bee Gees(then living in Australia) are known to have recorded cover versions of Beatles songs like "Rain" and "Paperback Writer" within days of the singles being released in the UK.
Several Australian groups traveled to the UK during this fertile period -- The Easybeats went to London in late 1966, and around the same time Australia's other leading pop band
The Twilightswon the inaugural Hoadleys National Battle of the Sounds competition, enabling them to also travel to the UK. As they were signed to EMI, The Twilights were able to record at the legendary Abbey Road during the period of the making of "Sgt Peppers". On returning to Australia in early 1967, they wowed audiences in Melbourne by performing complete live renditions of the entire "Sgt Peppers" album, weeks before it was even released in the UK.
Although the standard of recording studios in Australia and New Zealand lagged several years behind those in the UK and the USA, local producers and engineers like
Pat Aultonkept in close touch with the latest overseas trends and worked hard to fashion equivalent sounds for local acts, despite many technical challenges (including the fact that Australia did not get its first commercial 8-track studio until 1969). Local producers and musicians created a significant body of psychedelic recordings, and notable albums and singles recorded by Australian/New Zealand acts in the late 1960s include:
*"Friday On My Mind", "Land of Make Believe", "Heaven and Hell", "Pretty Girl", "Peculiar Hole In The Sky" (
*"Early In The Morning" (
The Purple Hearts)
* "The Loved One", "Everlovin' Man", "Magic Box" (
The Loved Ones)
* "Living In A Child's Dream", "Elevator Driver" (
The Masters Apprentices)
*"What's Wrong With The Way I Live", "Cathy Come Home", "9:50", "Comin' On Down", "Once upon A Twilight" LP (
*"Tripping Down Memory Lane" (
The Pineapple Express)
*"The Happy Prince" (
The La De Das)
*"The Real Thing", "Part Three: Into Paper Walls" (
*"Lady Sunshine", "Evolution" LP (
The invention of psychedelic music in the US quickly spread and was followed all over the world. The first continental Europe band was
Group 1850, of The Netherlands, formed in 1964, first album in 1968. The Brazilian psychedelic rock group Os Mutantesformed in 1966, and although little known outside Brazil at the time, their recordings have since accrued a substantial international cult following.
In the late 1960s a wave of Mexican rock heavily influenced by psychedelic and funk rock emerged in several northern border Mexican states, in particular in Tijuana, Baja California. Among the most recognized bands from this "Chicano Wave" (Onda Chicana in Spanish), there is one in particular that was recognized by their originality. The band
Love Armyderived from the Tijuana Five and was formed by Alberto Isiordia (aka El Pajaro), Salvador Martinez, Jaime Valle, Fernando Vahaux, Ernesto Hernandez, Mario Rojas and Enrique Sida.
From 1967 to 1973, between the ending of the government of President Frei Montalva and the government of President Allende, a cultural movement was born from a few Chilean bands that emerged playing a unique fusion of folkloric music with heavy psychedelic influences. The 1967 release of Los Mac's album "Kaleidoscope men" inspired many bands such as
Los Jaivasand Los Blops, the latter going on to collaborate with the iconic Chilean singer-songwriter Victor Jaraon his 1971 album "El derecho de vivir en paz."
Meanwhile in the Argentinian capital Buenos Aires, a burgeoning psychedelic scene gave birth to three of the most important bands in Argentine Rock:
Los Gatos, Manaland perhaps most importantly Almendra. Almendra was fronted by Luis Alberto Spinettawho penned most of the band's songs on their two albums released in 1969 and 1970, drawing on a number of influences including Blues, Jazz and Folk. Spinetta's first solo release in 1971 "Spinettalandia y Sus Amigos - La Búsqueda de la Estrella" is also notable for its strong psychedelic influences. Spinetta has since gone on to enjoy a long and successful career in Argentina.
A thriving psychedelic music scene in
Cambodiawas pioneered by Sinn Sisamouthand Ros Sereysothea. In 1972, from Canada, Frank Marino's Mahogany Rush, named for Marino's experience while doing LSD [ [http://www.mahoganyrush.com/history.htm Frank Marino & Mahogany Rush -Band History ] ] , offered the album "Maxoom" in the psychedelic genre. The title song Maxoom is another early psychedelic song. The band followed this release with Child of the Novelty in 1974. The cover art is an artists representation of Marino's description of an acid trip.
Many of the bands that pioneered psychedelic rock had moved on to explore other styles of music by the end of the 1960s. The increasingly hostile political environment and the embrace of
amphetamines, heroinand cocaineby the underground led to a turn toward harsher music. At the same time, Bob Dylanreleased "John Wesley Harding" and the Bandreleased "Music from Big Pink", both albums that followed a roots-oriented approach. Many bands in England and America followed suit. Eric Claptoncites " Music from Big Pink" as a contributory factor in quitting Cream, for example. [cite book | last = Frame | first = Pete | authorlink = Pete Frame | title = Rock Family Trees | publisher = Omnibus Press | date = 1980 | pages = Vol.1 p.5 | isbn = 0-86001-414-2] The Grateful Deadalso went back to basics and had major successes with " Workingman's Dead" and "American Beauty" in 1970, then continued to develop their live music and produce a long string of records over the next twenty-five years. Miles Davisreleased " In A Silent Way" and " Bitches Brew" in 1969. These two releases brought Jazz-Rock Fusion to the attention of the Flower-Power generation, electrifying Jazz in the same way that Dylan had electrified Folk music several years earlier. Musical styles within the Psychedelic camp diverged between wild progressive experimentation and back-to-roots fundamentalism, but with an all-round increase in sophistication. Fairport Conventionreleased "What We Did On Our Holidays" in January and Dr. Strangely Strangefollowed suit with "Kip of the Serenes" later in the year. British Folk-Rock artists eschewed the Country-Rock styles of their American counterparts in favour of traditional British folk tunes and tended to be lyrically less political and more prone to flights of magical fantasy. This whimsical branch of Psychedelia bore much equally strange fruit over the next decade, including releases by Alan Stivell, Comus, Fotheringay, Gentle Giant, Gryphon, Jethro Tull, Mellow Candle, Nick Drake, Pentangle, Roy Harper, Sandy Denny, The Incredible String Bandand Trees. The Bonzo Dog Doo Dah Bandhas to be mentioned somewhere round here along with Syd Barrett's two solo albums. Woodstock Music and Art Fair(Woodstock Festival) took place in August 1969 and became one of the most celebrated events in Rock music history. Not wanting to be left out of the fun, The Second Isle of Wight Festivalwas held for UK fans. Bob Dylan, The Who, The Band, Joe Cocker, Free, Richie Havens, The Moody Blues, The Nice, Tom Paxton, Pentangle and Pretty Things played.
The positive atmosphere was sadly not to last long; News of the
Sharon Tateand Leno and Rosemary LaBiancamurders committed by Charles Mansonand his "family" of followers, claiming to have been inspired by Beatles' Songs, such as Helter Skelter, darkened the horizon. At the end of the year, a free concert was held at the Altamont Speedwayin California. The concert, which was headlined by The Rolling Stones, was marred by crowd violence. The event became notorious for the now-famous "Gimme Shelter" incident because of the fatal stabbing of black teenager Meredith Hunterin front of the stage by Hells Angel security guards after he allegedly pulled out a revolver during the Stones' performance. Flower Power officially died at Altamont. Shortly afterwards, The Beatles announced that they had split up. John Lennon, George Harrisonand the others continued with solo careers.
The Flower Power era had inspired many new bands to experiment with sound in ways that went beyond the fashion of the times. Despite these set-backs, the psychedelic soup continued to bubble away.
Bubble Puppy's album "A Gathering of Promises" demonstrates the degree of sophistication that Psychedelic Pop had reached by the end of the '60s.
German band Can instantiated the development of
Krautrockwith the release of their "Monster Movie" album. Along with European experimentalists Amon Düül II, Ash Ra Tempel, Guru Guru, Harmonia, Neu!and Xhol Caravanthey incorporated avant-garde composition techniques, improvisation and experimental rhythms into their music. Neu!'s 'Motorik' beat was an influential precursor to the drum-machine grooves of the '80s. Can's adoption of World Music influences and particularly North African rhythms lent releases such as "Tago Mago", "Ege Bamyasi", and "Future Days" a particularly unique sound.
Other artists like
David Vorhausand Delia Derbyshirepursued the potential of new soundscapes made possible by the development of electronic musical instruments, as the Silver Appleshad done before them, in their album of experimental electronica "An Electric Storm" - released under the moniker of White Noise. During the '70s, pure synthesiser music would be further developed by artists like Tangerine Dreamand Tim Blake.
Os Mutanteswere drawn into the "Tropicália" movement, while Santana adopted electrified Latin rhythms to form the basis of their music on "Abraxas" and "Caravanserai".
In March 1970, the new super-group
Crosby Stills Nash and Youngreleased "Deja Vu". CSNY was formed from members of The Byrds, Buffalo Springfield, and The Holliesand went on to become one of the biggest selling artists of this era. In May four students at Kent State University in Ohio were killed by National Guardsmen at a demonstration to protest against The USA's invasion of Cambodia, the subject was covered by Neil Youngin his song "Ohio". He split Crosby Stills and Nashto pursue a solo career and release many albums over the next couple of decades. Many of the original Psychedelic bands like The Beach Boys, Moby Grape, Quicksilver Messenger Service, Spirit, Strawberry Alarm Clock, The Nazzand Vanilla Fudgewere still producing albums in the early '70s. Todd Rundgrenleft Nazz and released numerous solo albums such as: "A Wizard, A True Star"; "Faithful"; and "Initiation", earning himself a dedicated cult following.
Whereas American psychedelia was informed by radical politics and the experience of war in Vietnam, British Psychedelia expressed much more of a whimsical domesticity, a fascination with childhood as a lost age of innocence and a hankering after the pastoral idyll. Lyrical ideas were inspired by a healthy dose of fantasy from the likes of Tolkien, Lewis Carrol and the Wind in the Willows, and further modulated by the free availability of magic mushrooms. As the '70s progressed,
Glam Rock, Heavy metal, Progressive rock, Folkand Jazz rockstyles took over the fashionable focus, but many artists still held to Hippy ideals, producing some of their finest work in this era.
The third Isle of Wight festival took place over 5 days in August 1970. Jimi Hendrix, Joan Baez, The Doors, The Who, Procol Harum, Tony Joe White and Redbone were the main headliners.
Hawkwindplayed for free outside the gates in protest against ticket prices and to promote their eponymous first album. Festivals became regular fixtures during the British summers of the '70s. The first Glastonbury Festival was held in 1971 on a little farm in Somerset. Hawkwind became champions of the Free Festival movement, playing at Windsor Free Festival and subsequently regularly headlined Stonehenge Free Festival. They released numerous albums: "Doremi Fasol Latido"; "In Search of Space"; "Space Ritual"; "Warrior On The Edge Of Time"; "In The Hall Of The Mountain Grill"; "Astounding Sounds Amazing Music"; and "Quark Strangeness and Charm" and were a major influence in the development of Space Rockand Heavy metalalong with High Tide and Blue Cheer. This period of Hawkwind's long history is also notable for the particular contribution of Robert Calvertas vocalist and lyricist.
Jimi Hendrix died in London in September, shortly after recording "Band of Gypsies" and Janis Joplin Died of heroin overdose in October 1970. The two were closely followed by Jim Morrison, who died in Paris in July 1971. The Sex, Drugs and Rock'n'Roll lifestyle had started to take its toll.
Alongside the progressive stream,
space rockbands such as Hawkwind, Arthur Brown's Kingdom Come and Gong maintained a more explicitly psychedelic course into the 1970s. 1971 saw the release of "Camembert Electrique" by Gong, who combined World Music with Jazz Rock and an absurdist storyline to produce the "Radio Gnome" trilogy: "Flying Teapot"; "Angel's Egg"; and "You". Gong were loosely aligned with a musical collective based in the 'Home Counties' of England that became known as the Canterbury Scene. The music of Arthur Brown, Arzachel, Caravan, Egg, Hatfield & the North, Kevin Ayers, Khan, Matching Mole, National Health, Robert Wyatt, Soft Machineand Steve Hillageis unified to some degree by its experimentation with odd time-signatures, jazz structures and it's rather homely, dadaist lyrical concepts.
Many of the musicians and bands that continued to embrace psychedelia went on to create
progressive rockin the 1970s, which maintained the love of unusual sounds and extended solos but added jazz and classical influences to the mix. For example, progressive rock group Yes sprang out of three British psychedelic bands: Syn (featuring Chris Squire), Tomorrow (featuring Steve Howe) and Mabel Greer's Toy Shop ( Jon Anderson). Also, psychedelic rock strongly influenced early heavy metal bands such as Black Sabbath. Psychedelic rock, with its distorted guitar sound and adventurous compositions can be seen as an important bridge between heavy metal and earlier blues oriented rock.
Pink Floydreleased their epic album, " The Dark Side of the Moon" which would later be called by Rolling Stone Magazine as "the Ultimate concept album". "The Dark Side of the Moon" would spend a record breaking 14 years in the music charts.
Psychedelia resurfaced in the work of other Progressive Rock acts like
Curved Air, King Crimson, Manfred Mann's Earth Band, Pink Floyd, Procol Harum, Quiet Sun, Supersisterand The Enid. The Moody Bluescontinued to develop their symphonic themes over the course of several albums: "A Question Of Balance"; "Every Good Boy Deserves Favour"; "On The Threshold of a Dream"; "Seventh Sojourn"; and "To Our Children's Children". Traffic also produced several classics of the genre during this time including "John Barleycorn Must Die" and "Shoot Out at the Fantasy Factory". Brian Enoreleased "Here Come the Warm Jets" in February 1974, followed by "Taking Tiger Mountain By Strategy" in November. Albums released by 801, Phil Manzanera, Roy Woodand Wizzardalso display strong Psychedelic tendencies.
In February 1974
Jefferson Airplanechange their name to Jefferson Starshipfor legal reasons. Albums released before the mid '70s name change include: "Volunteers", "B.A.R.K." and "Sunfighter". The Grateful Deadtook 1975 off from touring. The pressure of the ever-expanding organization required to produce albums and deal with the logistics of touring was getting out of hand. The "Wall of Sound" PA that dominated live shows was stretching their resources beyond endurable limits and forcing them to play bigger and bigger halls. Notable albums from this period include: "Europe '72"; "Blues For Allah"; and "Terrapin Station".
The Sex Pistols released their first single, "Anarchy in the UK" in November 1976. A Bad year for Psychedelia, this "Wizards & Elves" stuff definitely isn't fashionable any more. Only
Hawkwindappeared to survive the onslaught of punk with any real dignity, being an influence on early punk rock itself. Some punk and hardcore bands were influenced by psychedelic rock, such as The Dead Kennedys. Their notorious song, Holiday in Cambodia, has flanging on the lead guitar riff and a psychedelic guitar solo. Punk bands who drew on psychedelic rock either did so as parody or out of a genuine affection for the music and an interest in experimentation, which would continue in post-punk. Though Paisley Undergroundartists like The Three O'Clockwere rooted in 1960's psychedelia, they played it with an approach and energy that was taken directly from punk. This was evidenced in playing it at punk tempos and a fascination with punk rock's roots in psychedelia and garage rock. Psychedelic rock also influenced garage punkof the 1980's onwards.
Star Wars was released in the following year, reshaping the face of high-budget cinema forever. Roland released the first programmable drum machine, the CR-88 and the DR55 in the following year.
Gryphonreleased their last album "Treason" and were then dropped by EMI to make way for the Sex Pistols.
Sandy Denny died aged 31 of a cerebral haemorrhage, after falling down a flight of stairs on 21st April 1978.
Psychedelia gained a new lease of life by merging with Festival Punk in the UK, giving birth to Space Punk bands such as Here & Now and
Nik Turner's Sphynx, who had taken their lead from bands like the Pink Fairiesand Hawkwind. Daevid Allen and Gilli Smyth hooked up with Here & Now to make the Planet Gongalbum "Live Floating Anarchy '77".
Pink Floydreleased "The Wall". The most famous song off of that album, "Another Brick in the Wall, Part Two," is still played by the mainstream media to a large extent. John Lennondied in December 1980 after being shot outside his home in New York City.
In the mid 1980s a Los Angeles-based movement named the
Paisley Undergroundacknowledged a debt to the Byrds, incorporating psychedelia into a folksy, jangle popsound. The Bangleswere arguably the most successful band to emerge from this movement; amongst others involved were Green on Red, The Three O'Clock, The Dream Syndicate, Milwaukee's Plasticland, The Secret Syde, The Innand Lord John. Although not directly involved in the movement, Australian band The Church (who formed in 1980) were also heavily influenced by psychedelia and their early recordings, had much in common with their Paisely Underground contemporaries.
In counterpoint to the Paisley Underground were a number of British post-New Wave bands, including
The Soft Boysand the solo albums of their singer Robyn Hitchcock, and The Teardrop Explodesand its vocalist Julian Cope. Hitchcock was heavily influenced by Syd Barrettand John Lennon. In the mid 1980s, The Shamenbegan with a self-consciously psychedelic curriculum influenced by Barrett and Love, before reorienting themselves towards rave. Other British dabblers in psychedelia included Nick Nicely, XTCand Martin Newellwith The Cleaners from Venus, The Barracudas, Mood Six, The Prisoners, Echo and the Bunnymen, Doctor and the Medics, the Cardiacsand The Brotherhood of Lizards.
XTCmade a number of recordings in the late 1980s which both parodied and affectionately imitated the sound and form of late Sixties psychedelic rock. Released under the pseudonym The Dukes of Stratosphearand produced by former Abbey Road engineer John Leckie, the EP " 25 O'Clock" (1985) and the LP " Psonic Psunspot" (1987) employ all of the classic songwriting and production features of the style. XTC leader Andy Partridge has claimed that he always wanted to play in a psychedelic band.
In the mid-eighties and early nineties
The Flaming Lips(and later, Mercury Rev) played psychedelic guitar rock, but by the late nineties both bands had largely abandoned an electric guitar-effects driven sound, instead incorporating orchestral and electronica influences into their music. Phish, a jam bandactive from the early 1980s, played psychedelic rock with a strong jazzinfluence, utilizing elaborate modal melodies and complex rhythmic accompaniment.
In Australia in the 1980s, bands such as The Tripps,
Prince Vlad & the Gargoyle Impalers, and most notably Tyrnaround and The Moffs, explored and reinvigorated the psychedelic genre. Japan has had a rich history of psychedelic music, dating back to the 1960s. Starting with the " Group Sounds" movement, which mainly included psychedelic-garage acts, such as The Mopsand most notably The Jacks. The 1970s introduced the element of sonic experimentation and noise manipulation into the realm of Japanese psychedelic rock, with groups like Les Rallizes Denudes, Fushitsusha, Kousokuya, and the Faust inspired Magical Power Mako emerging from the Japanese underground. The 1980s brought with it Japan's first record label dedicated to folk, noise, experimental, and most prominently, psychedelic music -- PSF Records. Rising from the Japanese noise underground, Acid Mothers Templemix the subtle resonance of Blue Cheer, the Grateful Dead's psychedelic sound, the thought-provoking melodies of French folk, and concrete bursts of noise that run through music of Boredoms.
Beginning in the late 1980s, travelers, musicians, and artists from around the world formed a new form of psychedelic music in the Indian state of
Goa. Initially called Goa trance, this psychedelic music was the result of mixing the 1960s influences with industrial musicand electronica. Popular hard rock artists also made several psychedelic songs, including REM and Prince, who released several Psychedelic-styled records including Around the World in a Day.
1990s and 2000s
The influential 1980s
Space Rockband Spacemen 3created a unique psychedelic drone sound that was influenced by many of the dark primitive psychedelic/garage bands of the 1960s and 1970s, such as The Stooges, MC5, The Velvet Underground, Red Krayola, and The 13th Floor Elevators. Spacemen 3's live shows would often consist of them jamming out on one chord for over forty-five minutes. Primal Screamhave psychedelic themes throughout much of their earlier music.
British bands Anomie and
My Bloody Valentineplay British garage psychedelia, citing Pink Floydand Hawkwindas musical influences. Kula Shaker, under the leadership of Crispian Mills, created much Indian-influenced psychedelic music, such as the singles "Tattva" and "Govinda," both sung in Sanskrit, and the albums "K", "Peasants, Pigs and Astronauts" and "Strangefolk". Ozric Tentacles, Sun Dial, The Bevis Frond, The Magic Mushroom Bandand the Welsh Gorky's Zygotic Mynciplayed psychedelic music in a tradition that went back to the 1960s via acts such as Steve Hillage, Arthur Brown, Ash Ra Tempel, Bubble Puppy, Dr. Strangely Strange, Gong and their assorted side projects, Guru Guru, Harmonia, Hawkwind, Here & Now, High Tide, Holger Czukay, King Crimson, Manfred Mann's Earth Band, Neu!, Pink Floyd, Roy Harper, The Enid, Tim Blakeand Todd Rundgrenwho all continued to tour and/or release albums in the '90s.
Jerry Garcia died in 1995. The Other Ones carried on as The Dead.
Some electronic or electronic-influenced music termed "ambient" or "trance" such as
Aphex Twinor Orbital, had it been written between 1966 and 1990, would have fallen within the category of psychedelia. Later Psychedelic tranceartists such as Hallucinogen and Shponglehave continued the psychedelic music tradition within a dance-oriented context.
During the '90s there was a resurgence of interest in experimental rock with psychedelic influences. A new generation of artists including
The Apples in Stereo, of Montreal, Neutral Milk Hotel, Animal Collective, the Burnside Shattered, Beulah, Elf Power, Grandaddy, Modest Mouse, The Essex Green, The Gerbils, The Ladybug Transistor, You Scream He Laughs, and The Olivia Tremor Control. Many of these bands worked together to form the Elephant 6 musical collective, which is headquartered in Athens, Georgia; Oasis' fourth and seventh studio albums " Standing on the Shoulder of Giants" and " Dig Out Your Soul", respectively, are noted for their heavy psychedelic influences; The Coral, of Arrowe Hill, Technological Sun, The Flaming Lipsand Mercury Revare also heavily influenced by psychedelic rock. Pink Floydcontinued on strong in the 90s, the music becoming more melody driven as opposed to the elaborate eccentricity of their earlier albums. " A Momentary Lapse of Reason" and " The Division Bell" were major commercial successes. Stoner rockacts like Kyuss, Nebula and their successors also perform explicitly psychedelicmusic. Bands such as The Smashing Pumpkinsand Tool fused psychedelic rock sounds with heavy metal, becoming highly successful alternative rockacts in the 1990s. Popular 90's rock band Stone Temple Pilotsalso included heavy influences from psychedelic rock in their third album, " Tiny Music... Songs from the Vatican Gift Shop". Porcupine Tree, Spock's Beardand Umphrey's McGeehave incorporated progressive rock with psychedelia and brought the genre up-to-date with an eclectic fusion of more modern musical styles.
In recent years, many inventive artists from the Perth-scene in Western Australia, notably the
Sleepy Jackson, The Panda Band, The Silentsand The Panicshave experimented with lush, neo-psychedelic harmonies and avant-garde instrumentation.
grungeband Screaming Treesis noted for its unique fusion of grunge (a genre the band itself had a part in pioneering) and psychedelic rock. The psychedelic influence is especially evident on their later albums, namely Sweet Oblivion. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, a new psychedelic scene flourished in the Silverlake area of Los Angeles. Another band in the scene was Beachwood Sparks. Beachwood Sparks' influences were the Byrds, Buffalo Springfield, and Gram Parsonsand his Flying Burrito Brothersgroup. Spinning off from the Beachwood Sparksis a band called the Tyde. Producer and musician Rob Campanellaplayed guitar in the jangly Byrds-influenced pop group the Quarter After.
A new British psychedelic scene also re-emerged amongst the London
electronicamovement in the late 1990s, giving birth to bands like desert rockers MJ13, where the British interpretation of the Kyussinflux showed more psychedelic sensibilities than the American Stoner rocksound was originally attributed to.
Cedric Bixler-Zavalaand Omar Rodriguez-Lopezformed the psychedelic/progressive rock band The Mars Volta. The Mars Volta are notable for fusing psychedelic music with Jazz fusion, Punk rockand Latin American Music. They are also known for obscurely based concept albums and lyrics written in both English and Spanish.
The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test"
List of psychedelic rock artists
Liquid light shows
* [http://members.tripod.com/lysergia_2/LamaReviews/lamaMain.htm Lysergia] reviews, inverviews, and psychedelic history and information
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