Sequent Computer Systems
Sequent Computer Systems, or Sequent, was a computer company that designed and manufactured
multiprocessing computer systems. They were among the pioneers in high-performance symmetric multiprocessing(SMP) open systems, innovating in both hardware (e.g. cachemanagement and interrupthandling) and software (e.g. read-copy-update).
Through a close partnership with
Oracle Corporationthat included the introduction of hardware and software optimizationsFact|date=July 2007, Sequent became a dominant high-end UNIX platform in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Later, after several corporate missteps, they returned to their roots, producing a next-generation high-end platform for UNIX and Windows NTbased on a non-uniform memory accessarchitecture, NUMA-Q.
As hardware prices fell in the late 1990s, and
Intelshifted their server focus to the Itaniumprocessor family, Sequent found their market shrinking.Fact|date=July 2007 After IBMbegan working with Sequent on Project Montereyin October 1998, IBM became interested in Sequent's technology, [http://news.com.com/Sequent+was+overmatched,+CEO+says/2100-1001_3-228478.html Sequent was overmatched, CEO says] , a July 1999 article from CNET Networks] and by July 1999 Sequent agreed to be acquired by them. [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE2DB113CF930A25754C0A96F958260 Sequent Computer Systems To Be Acquired by I.B.M.] , a July 13, 1999 article from " The New York Times"] At the time, Sequent's CEO said its technology would "find its way through IBM's entire product field" and IBM announced it would "both sell Sequent machines, and fold Sequent's technology...into its own servers", but by May 2002 a decline in sales of the models acquired from Sequent, among other reasons, led to the retirement of Sequent-heritage products. [ [http://www.bizjournals.com/portland/stories/2002/05/20/daily45.html IBM lays off 250 in Beaverton] , a May 2002 article from " Portland Business Journal", one of the American City Business Journals]
Vestiges of Sequent's innovations live on in the form of data clustering software from
PolyServe, various projects within OSDL, IBM contributions to the Linux kernel, and claims in the SCO v. IBMlawsuit.Fact|date=July 2007
Originally named Sequel, [ [http://www.netlib.org/papers/advarch Advanced Architecture Computers] and [http://www.netlib.org/papers/advarch-post Part Two] ,Argonne National Labs, Technical Report No. 57, Jack J. Dongarra and Iain S. Duff] Sequent formed in 1983 when a group of seventeen engineers and executives left
Intelafter the failed iAPX 432 "mainframe on a chip" project was cancelled; they were joined by one non- Intelemployee. They started Sequent to develop a line of SMP computers, then considered one of the up-and-coming fields in computer design.Fact|date=July 2007 Several engineers from AT&T Bell Labswere hired, bringing systems hardware and programming expertise.Fact|date=July 2007
Sequent's first computer systems were the Balance 8000 and Balance 21000 released in 1984. The Balance 21000 included up to 20 8 MHz
National Semiconductor NS32016processors (in multiples of 2), each with a small cache connected to a common memory to form a shared memorysystem. The systems ran a modified version of BSD 4.2 Unixthe company called DYNIX, for DYNamic unIX. The machines were designed to compete with the DEC VAX 11/780, with all of their inexpensive processors available to run any process. In addition the system included a series of libraries that could be used by programmers to develop applications that could use more than one processor at a time. The Balance systems were originally intended to be sold to OEMs as computing engines, but that market could not be developed. When the commercial market discovered their reliability and cost advantages, the company re-thought its marketing strategy. The Balance line sold well for three years to banks, the government, other commercial enterprises, and universities interested in parallel computing.
The amazing thing about the timing of the appearance of the Balance 8000, a bus-oriented multiprocessor, was that it came out at a time when most people were trying to drum up interest in acquiring personal workstations like SUNs and SGI Irises which were already competing against the VAX. The Balance offered no graphics, but it gave the first glimmer of what more tightly coupled CPUs could do before the advent of clusters or networks of workstations.
Their next series was the
Intel 80386-based Symmetry, released in 1987. Various models supported between 2 and 30 processors, using a new copy-back cache and a wider 64-bitmemory bus. 1991's Symmetry 2000 models added SCSIdrives, and were offered in versions with from one to six Intel 80486processors. The next year they added the VMEbusbased Symmetry 2000/x50 with faster CPUs.
The late 1980s and early 1990s saw big changes on the software side for Sequent. DYNIX was replaced by DYNIX/ptx, which was based on a merger of AT&T's version of UNIX and BSD 4.2. And this was during a period when Sequent's high-end systems became particularly successful due to a close working relationship with Oracle, specifically their high-end database servers. In 1993 they added the Symmetry 2000/x90 along with their ptx/Cluster software, which added various high availability features and introduced custom support for
Oracle Parallel Server.
In 1994 Sequent introduced the Symmetry 5000 series models SE20, SE60 and SE90, which used 66 MHz
PentiumCPUs in systems from 2 to 30 processors. The next year they expanded that with the SE30/70/100 lineup using 100 MHz Pentiums, and then in 1996 with the SE40/80/120 with 166 MHz Pentiums. With the addition of a VGA card and the Winserver NT software, the 5000 series could also run Windows NT.
Recognizing the increase in competition for SMP systems after having been early adopters of the architecture, and the increasing integration of SMP technology into microprocessors, Sequent sought its next source of differentiation. They began investing in the development of a system based on a cache-coherent non-uniform memory architecture (ccNUMA) and leveraging
Scalable Coherent Interconnect. NUMA distributes memory among the processors, avoiding the bottleneck that occurs with a single monolithic memory. Using NUMA would allow their multiprocessor machines to generally outperform SMP systems, at least when the tasks can be executed close to their memory — as is the case for servers, where tasks typically do not share large amounts of data.
In 1996 they released the first of a new series of machines based on this new architecture. Known internally as STiNG, an
abbreviationfor "Sequent: The Next Generation (with Intel inside)", it was productized as NUMA-Q and was the last of the systems released before the company was purchased by IBM for over $800 million. IBM then started Project Montereywith Santa Cruz Operation, intending to produce a NUMA-capable standardized Unixrunning on IA-32, IA-64and POWER and PowerPCplatforms. This project later fell through as both IBM and SCO turned to the Linuxmarket, but is the basis for "the new SCO"'s SCO v. IBMLinux lawsuit.
IBM purchase and disappearance
With their future product strategy in tatters, it appeared Sequent had little future standing alone, and was soon purchased by IBM in 1999. In 2002, after
Sun Microsystemsbegan a public discussion of IBM's silence on their NUMA-based x430 system, IBM had a reduction-in-force, and announced that it had no further plans to market the x430 and would eventually drop support for the over 10,000 systems that Sequent and IBM had deployed.
According to a
May 30, 2002 article in the " Wall Street Journal" (WSJ) entitled "Sequent Deal Serves Hard Lesson for IBM"::When IBM bought Sequent, ...it [Sequent] lacked the size and resources to compete with Sun and Hewlett-Packard Co. in the Unix server market....:In 1999, IBM had problems of its own with an aged and high-priced line of servers, particularly for its version of Unix known as AIX. It also faced huge losses in personal computers and declining sales in its cash-cow mainframe line. Robert Stephenson, who headed the server group at IBM, saw acquiring Sequent as the best route to make IBM competitive in the market for large Unix servers where Sun was gobbling up market share.
When Stephenson retired shortly after IBM completed its acquisition of Sequent, responsibility for servers fell on
Samuel J. Palmisano. The "WSJ" article noted that Palmisano wanted to "simplify IBM's multipronged server strategy"; it also quoted Scott Gibson, one of three executives (along with Casey Powell and Larry Wade) who led Sequent when it was founded. Gibson told the "WSJ" the acquisition was doomed because "the guy who sponsored the acquisition retired."
An alternative view of IBM's actions, born out of the beliefWho|date=July 2007 that corporations maintain consistent strategies over the short and medium term despite executive changes, is that IBM acquired Sequent not to nurture it but simply to keep it out of Sun's clutches. Through its acquisition of what became the Enterprise 10000 server line from Cray, Sun had done so much financial damage to IBM's server market share, that IBM was very reluctant to see this disaster repeated.Fact|date=July 2007 Even if it generated zero revenue for IBM, the net present value of Sequent from IBM's viewpoint was higher inside IBM than inside Sun. ["Monday Morning Update". 'IT Jungle' (19th March 2001)]
Detailed model descriptions
The following is a more detailed description [Sequent Computer Systems (1991). "Symmetry Multiprocessor Architecture Overview". Company publication number 1003-50113-01] of the first two generations of Symmetry products, released between 1987 and 1990.
The Symmetry 80386-based platform
* Symmetry S3: The S3 was the low-end platform based on commodity PC components running a fully-compatible version of DYNIX 3. It featured a single 33 MHz
Intel 80386processor, up to 40 megabytes of RAM, up to 1.8 gigabytes of SCSI-based disk storage, and up to 32 direct-connected serial ports.
* Symmetry S16: The S16 was the entry-level multiprocessing model, which ran DYNIX/ptx. It featured up to six 20 MHz Intel 80386 processors, each with a 128
kilobyte cache. It also supported up to 80 MB of RAM, up to 2.5 GB of SCSI-based disk storage, and up to 80 direct-connected serial ports.
* Symmetry S27: the S27 ran either DYNIX/ptx or DYNIX 3. It featured up to ten 20 MHz Intel 80386 processors, each with a 128 KB cache. It also supported up to 128 MB of RAM, up to 12.5 GB of disk storage, and up to 144 direct-connected serial ports.
* Symmetry S81: the S81 ran either DYNIX/ptx or DYNIX 3. It featured up to 30 20 MHz Intel 80386 processors, each with a 128 KB cache. It also supported up to 384 MB of RAM, up to 84.8 GB of disk storage, and up to 256 direct-connected serial ports.
Symmetry 2000 platforms
* Symmetry 2000/40: The S2000/40 was the low-end platform based on commodity PC components running a fully-compatible version of DYNIX/ptx. It featured a single 33 MHz
Intel 80486processor, up to 64 megabytes of RAM, up to 2.4 gigabytes of SCSI-based disk storage, and up to 32 direct-connected serial ports.
* Symmetry 2000/200: The S2000/200 was the entry-level multiprocessing model, which ran DYNIX/ptx. It featured up to six 25 MHz Intel 80486 processors, each with a 512
kilobyte cache. It also supported up to 128 MB of RAM, up to 2.5 GB of SCSI-based disk storage, and up to 80 direct-connected serial ports.
* Symmetry 2000/400: the S2000/400 ran either DYNIX/ptx or DYNIX 3. It featured up to ten 25 MHz Intel 80486 processors, each with a 512 KB cache. It also supported up to 128 MB of RAM, up to 14.0 GB of disk storage, and up to 144 direct-connected serial ports.
* Symmetry 2000/700: the S2000/700 ran either DYNIX/ptx or DYNIX 3. It featured up to 30 25 MHz Intel 80486 processors, each with a 512 KB cache. It also supported up to 384 MB of RAM, up to 85.4 GB of disk storage, and up to 256 direct-connected serial ports.
* [http://www.sun.com/smi/Press/sunflash/2002-02/sunflash.20020215.2.html Project Blue-Away] , a
Sun Microsystemsproject announced in February 2002 targeting NUMA-Q customers
* [http://www.bizjournals.com/portland/stories/2002/01/21/daily33.html IBM lays off 200 Portland employees] , a January 2002 article, also from "Portland Business Journal"
* [http://www.wweek.com/html/business092299.html Out of Sequence] , a September 1999 article from "
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